jahaajaraani ka itihaas

nadiyon aur samudron mein naavon aur jahaajon se yaatra tatha vyaapaar ka praarambh likhit itihaas se poorv ho gaya tha. praaya: saadhaaran jahaaj aise banaae jaate the ki aavashyakta padne par unase yuddh ka kaam bhi liya ja sake, kyonki jaladasyuon ka bhaya baraabar bana rahata tha aur inse jahaaj ki raksha ki kshamata aavashyak thi. ye jahaaj daaaindon ya paalon athva donon se chalaae jaate the aur vaanchhit disha mein le jaane ke liye inmein kisi na kisi prakaar ke patavaar ki bhi vyavastha hoti thi. sthalamaarg se jalamaarg saral aur sasta hota hai, isaliye bahut badi ya bhaari vastuon ko bahut door ke sthaanon mein pahuainchaane ke liye aaj bhi naavon athva jahaajon ka upayog hota hai. praacheen kaal mein sabhyata ka udbhav naugamya nadiyon ya samudrataton par hi vishesh roop se hua aur ye hi ve sthaan the jahaaain vividh sanskrutiyon ki, jaatiyon ke sammiln se, paravarti pragati ka beejaaropan hua.

anukram

praak aitihaasik kaal

kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki Bhaarat aur shattel arab ki khaadi tatha faraat (Euphrates) nadi par base praacheen khald (Chaldea) desh ke beech isa se 3,000 varsh poorv jahaajon se aavaagaman hota tha. Bhaarat ke praacheenatam granth rigved mein jahaaj aur samudrayaatra ke anek ullekh hai (rik 1. 25. 7, 1. 48. 3, 1. 56. 2, 7. 88. 3-4 ityaadi). pratham mandal (1*116*3) ki ek katha mein 100 daaaindonvaale jahaaj dvaara samudra mein gire kuchh logon ki praanaraksha ka varnan hai. in ullekhon se gyaat hota hai ki rigved kaal, arthaat lagbhag 2,00-1,500 varsh isa poorv, mein yathesht bade jahaaj bante the aur bhaaratavaasi samudra dvaara door deshon ki yaatra karte the. vaalmeekeeya raamaayan ke ayodhyaakaand mein jahaajon par chadhkar jalayuddh karne ka ullekh milta hai tatha mahaabhaarat ke dron parv mein aise vanikon ka ullekh hai, jinka jahaaj toot gaya tha aur jinhonne ek dweep mein pahuainchakar raksha pai thi. manusanhita mein jahaaj ke yaatriyon se sambandhit niyamon ka varnan hai. yaajnyaavalkya sahita, maarkandeya tatha anya puraanon mein bhi anek sthalon par jahaajon tatha samudrayaatra sambandhit kathaaeain aur vaartaaeain hain. dharmagranthon ke atirikt anek sanskrut kaavya, naatak aadi bhi praacheen Bhaarat ke arnavapoton ki gauravagaathaaon se bhare pade hain. bhaaratavaasi jahaajon par chadhkar jalayuddh karte the, yeh gyaat vaidik saahitya mein tugr rishi ke upaakhyaan se, raamaayan mein kaivarton ki katha se tatha lokasaahitya mein raghu ki digvijya se spasht ho jaati hai. paali saahitya ke jaatakon evam praakrut mein likhit jain puraanon mein bhi jahaajon aur samudrayaatra ke vivran paae jaate hain. prasiddh vidvaan taamas William rees devids ke mataanusaar "praacheen kaal mein Bhaarat ka baabul aur sambhavat: misr, finishiya aur arab deshon ke saath samudra dvaara vaanijya sambandh tha. in deshon ke vyaapaari praaya: Varanasi ya chanpa se jahaaj par savaar hote the. iska ullekh praaya: milta hai."

yeh ni:sandeh hai ki praacheen kaal mein finishiya nivaasi bade saahasi samudragaami the. inhonne bhoomadhyasaagar ke tatavarti anek sthaanon par pattan aur upanivesh sthaapit kar rakhe the aur Asia ke vibhinn deshon se maal ikattha kar ve samast Europeeya deshon mein pahuainchaate the. yeh vyaapaar hi is jaati ki samruddhi ka mukhya kaaran tha. isa poorv saataveen ya chhathi shataabdi tak Bhaarat se misr, khald tatha dajala (Tigris) nadi se hote hue baabul (Babylon) tak samudratateeya bhaagon dvaara vyaapaar ka niyamit kram baindh gaya tha. pichhle kaal mein grees nivaasiyon ka bhi bhoomadhyasaagareeya vyaapaar mein haath ho gaya tha, kintu rom saamraajya ke sthaapit hone par jab nirantar yuddh tatha jaladasyuon ke atyaachaaron se shaanti mili tabhi Europeeya samudreeya vyaapaar poorn utkarsh par pahuainch saka.

aitihaasik kaal

isa poorv chaturth shataabdi mein Bhaarat abhiyaan se lautate samay sinkadar mahaan ke senaapati niaarkas (Nearchus) ne apni sena ko samudramaarg se svadesh bhejane ke liye bhaarateeya jahaajon ka beda ekatrit kiya tha. isa poorv dviteeya shataabdi mein nirmit saanchi stoop ke poorv tatha pashchimi dvaaron par anya moortiyon ke madhya jahaajon ki pratikrutiyaaain bhi hain. isa ki dviteeya shataabdi ke itihaasakaar airiain (Arrian) ka kehna hai ki Punjab desh ki ek jaati tees daaaindvaale jahaaj banaakar unhein kiraae par chalaaya karti thi. inhonne pattanon ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. greek doot megaasthineej ke anusaar mauryayug mein ek vishesh jaati ke log raajya ki dekharekh mein jahaaj banaane ka kaarya karte the. straibo (Strabo, E. poo. 64 - 24 E.) ka kehna hai ki ye jahaaj vyaapaariyon ko kiraae par diye jaate the. kautilya ne apne arthashaastr mein (kaal 321-296 E. poo.) raajya ke ek svatantr vibhaag ki charcha ki hai, jiske oopar nadi aur samudrayaatra vishyak sab prabandhon ka bhaar rahata tha. pattanon ki vyavastha, kar ki tatha vanikon aur yaatriyon se bhaade ki vasooli, niyamon ka paalan karaana ityaadi is vibhaag ke kartavya the. Bhaarat ke samudratateeya pradeshon mein sthit anek pattanon se samudra dvaara aavaagaman tatha vyaapaar hota tha.

Mumbai se 25 meal door saalaset dweep par avasthit tatha isa ki dviteeya shataabdi mein nirmit, kanheri ke girimandir mein utkeern ek chitr mein bhagn jahaaj aur vyaakul yaatreegan praarthana karte dikhaae gaye hain. ajanta ki dviteeya guha mein jahaaj sambandhi chitr ankit hain. inmein se ek mein vijay ki sinhalayaatra dikhaai hai. chitron ke adhikaansh jahaajon mein lambe lambe mastool aur anek paal hain. itihaasakaar Vincent smith ka mat hai ki dviteeya aur truteeya shataabdi k Andhra raajaaon ki mudraaon mein jahaajon ki pratilipiyon se anumaan hota hai ki inka saamraajya samudra paar ke deshon mein bhi tha. pallav raajaaon ke sikkon mein bhi jahaaj ke chitr milte hain. isa ke 400 varsh pashchaat cheeni yaatri faahiyaan (faashiin, Fa-Hsien) ne taamralipti se ek jahaaj par chadhkar svadesh ki yaatra ki thi. taamralipti, poorv bang ke chatagaaainv tatha Bhaarat ke anya pattanon se vanikon aur yaatriyon ki samudrayaatraaon ke ullekh milte hain. praacheen Bhaarat mein jahaajon ki nirmaan pranaali ke siddhaanton aur niyamon ka gyaan bhoj ke "yuktiklpataru" naamak granth se mil sakta hai.

praacheen kaal mein nauvahan suvyavasthit vyaapaar tha. jahaaj ke svaami, maal bhejanevaale vanik aur yaatriyon ke sambandh mein spasht niyam nirdhaarit the. praaya: vanikon ke apne jahaaj hote the, kintu vanik poora jahaaj, ya usapar maal laadne yogya sthaan, kiraae par bhi lete the. kuchh yaatraaon ke liye kai vanik ekatrit ho sangh bhi sthaapit kar lete the. vanik prasiddh pattanon mein apne gumaashte bhi rakhate the. in pattanon ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak upaaya kiye jaate the. jahaaj hajaaron meal lambi yaatraaeain karte the. isa se 500 varsh poorv bhi fineeshiyn naavik misr ke pattanon se chalakar Africa ke pashchim samudratat tak jaate the. roman kaal mein rom aur Bhaarat ke beech misr hote bahut bada vyaapaar hota tha. iska pramaan isa ki pratham shataabdi mein likhit granth "periplas ov di erithreeyan si" (Periplus of the Erythrean Sea) mein milta hai.

250 tan bhaar tak ke aur kuchh isse bhi bade jahaaj bante the. jab yuddhopayogi jahaaj banane lage to lambe, sainkare, daaaindon se chalne aur saralata se idhar-udhar ghoomanevaale jahaaj banaae gaye. maal dhonevaale, ya vyaapaari jahaaj chaude, gahre aur paal se yaatra karanevaale hote the. inki chaal mand hoti thi aur inko ghumaane mein der lagti thi. in jahaajon mein daaaindon ka upayog sahaayataakaari hota tha. saadhaaranat: jahaaj bhoomi se adhik door naheen jaate the aur mausam kharaab hone par paas ke kisi pattan ki sharan lete the. suraksha ke liye jahaajon ko pattanon aur anya rakshit sthaanon mein maheenon ruk jaana padta tha. Bhaarat ki yaatra mein monsoon se badi sahaayata milti thi aur yeh praaya: bina beech mein ruke sampann ho jaati thi. nau-chaalan-vigyaan praarambhik avastha mein tha. aadhunik sahaayata yantr to door, dishaaon ko bataanevaale saadhaaran chunbakeeya diksoochak tak naheen the. isaliye bhoomi se bahush: sampark banaae rakhana aavashyak hota tha aur lambi mahaasaagareeya yaatraaeain avyaavahaarik theen.

fir bhi, saahasi manushyon ne agyaat saagaron mein hajaaron meelon ki yaatraaeain keen. bhaaratavaasiyon ne apne desh se ati door, kitne hi samudron ko laaainghakar svarnadveep (sumaatra), yavadveep (jaava), hind cheen ityaadi mein upanivesh tatha raajya sthaapit kiye aur bhaarateeya sanskruti failaai. sabse aashcharyajanak baat to prashaant mahaasaagar sthit sahasron dveepon mein manushyon ka basana hai. ye alp viksit sabhyataavaale manushya avashya Asia, Australia ya amareeka mahaadeshon se hi in chhote-chhote dveepon mein pahuainche honge. inmein se anek ki doori in mahaadeshon athva anya dveepon se 1,000 meal se bhi adhik hai aur yeh mahaanaagar achaanak uthanevaale bhayankar toofaanon ke liye prasiddh hai. ye yaatraaeain bedon dongon mein hi poori ki gayi hongi.

madhya yug

14veen aur 15veen shataabdi mein jahaaj ke shilp ne Europe mein bahut unnati ki. nauchaalan vidya mein bhi bada pragati hui. diksoochak ka prayog 12veen shataabdi mein aarambh ho gaya tha. guniya yantr (Cross staff) tatha aistroleb vedhayantr se akshaansh ki ganana sambhav ho gayi. is pragati ne mahaasamudr ki yaatraaon ko saahas diya. san 1469 mein John kaivat naamak angrej naavik uttari amareeka ke tat par utara tatha san 1492 mein purtagaali vaasko-di gaama uttamaasha antareep hote hue Bhaarat mein kaaleekat ke bandargaah par pahuainch gaya. ye yaatraaeain aise samudron ki theen jinke koi maanachitr aadi us samay tak naheen bane the. nauchaalan vigyaan ka gyaan praarambhik tha, jiske kaaran deshaantar rekha ki ganana mein 600 meal tak ki bhool ho sakti thi. is avastha mein maingalain (Magellan) ne san 1519-22 mein jahaaj dvaara pruthvi ki parikrama poori ki. in yaatraaon ne tatha upanivesheeya aur daason ke vyaapaar ne bade jahaajon ke nirmaan ko pragati di.

roman saamraajya ke patan ke pashchaat Europeeya raashtron mein Italy ke nagar raajya jenoaa, pisa aur visheshakar venis ka samudreeya vyaapaar aur yaataayaat par prabhutv ho gaya tha. yeh prabhutv mukhyat: poorvi deshon se vyaapaar par aadhaarit tha. is prabhutv ko todne aur poorvi vyaapaar hathiyaane ke uddeshya se prerit ho Portugal aur Spain raajyon ne bade jahaaj banaae aur mahaasaagareeya lambi yaatraaeain kar Bhaarat tak pahuainchane ki cheshtaaeain keen. san 1581 mein jab Portugal aur Spain ke raajya ek ho gaye, Spain ki baraabari karanevaali anya saagareeya shakti naheen rah gayi. fir bhi vishv ka bahut bada vyaapaar dach jahaajon dvaara hota tha. uttari samudra ke matsya vyaapaar mein dach 15veen shataabdi mein hi pramukh ho gaye the. 17veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein inke 1,500 se lekar 2,000 jahaaj tak samudra parivhan mein lage hue the. bhoomadhyasaagareeya vyaapaar ke bahut se bhaag par bhi dach poton ka adhikaar ho gaya. is shataabdi mein teen daarun yuddhon ke falasvaroop angrejon ki samudra par pramukhata sthaapit hui, kintu san 1775 tak, aidaim smith ke kathanaanusaar, jahaajon dvaara parivhan vyaapaar ka sabse adhik bhaag dach haathon mein tha. 18veen shataabdi upanivesh-sthaapan ka kaal tha. upaniveshon ki aavashyakataaon aur badhte hue vyaapaar ne angreji jahaajaraani ne badi unnati ki. London naavik beeme ki sabse badi mandi ho gaya, jisse sab prakaar ki jahaaji khabarein niyamit roop se ekatrit hone lageen. san 1731 mein shashthak (Sextant) tatha san 1735 mein kaalamaapi (Chronometer) ka aavishkaar hone se nauchaalan adhik vishvasaneeya ho gaya tatha anek saahasik saamudrik abhiyaanon ke falasvaroop samudrataton, havaaon aur jaladhaaraaon sambandhi soochanaaeain ekatrit hui. pehle se kaheen adhik sankhya mein tatha vishvasaneeya, saagareeya maanachitr tatha naavik nirdesh taiyaar hue. poorvokt kaaranon se angreji nauvahan se nirantar vruddhi hoti rahi tath san 1814 tak british saamraajya ke jahaajon ka rajistard tan bhaar 26,16,000 ho gaya. is samay 1,000 tan ya iske adhik bhaaravaale sabse bade jahaaj East India company ke the.

bhaarateeya jahaaj

san 1344 mein ibn batoota naamak prasiddh yaatri malaabaar se maaladveep hote hue chatagaaainv gaye the aur vahaaain se jahaaj par chadhkar cheen gaye the. us samay chatagaaainv aur uske dakshin mein deshi shilpiyon ke jahaaj-nirmaan ke bahut se kaarkhaane the. in kaarkhaanon mein se kuchh ne san 1775 tak apne shilp ki prasiddhi akshunn rakhi thi. iske kuchh varsh poorv yahaaain nirmit tatha bhaarateeya naavikon dvaara parichaalit bakalaind naamak ek jahaaj ne uttamaasha antareep hote hue Scotland ki tveed nadi par yaatra ki thi. angrej naavik is jahaaj ki banaavat aur kaaryakshamata dekhkar aashcharyachakit ho gaye the. Bhaarat mein vyaapaar ke liye sthaapit East India company ne san 1613 mein bhaarateeya nausena, Indian maireen, ki sthaapana ki, jisne purtagaaliyon aur dachon ke saath anek yuddh kiye. is sena ke liye jahaaj soorat mein san 1735 tak bante the. isi varsh Mumbai mein godi baade (dock yard) ki sthaapana hui aur jahaaj ismein banane lage. san 1775 tak yeh baada vishv ke kisi bhi anya godi baade ki baraabar kar sakta tha aur yeh baat sarvamaanya thi ki Mumbai mein saagaun ki lakdi ke bane jahaaj Europe mein bane jahaajon se shreshth hote the. angreji nausena ke liye yadi koi jahaaj United kingdam ke baahar banaana aavashyak hota tha to vah Mumbai mein hi banaaya jaata tha. san 1915 mein chatagaaainv ke ek vyaapaari ka bhaaratanirmit, "ameena khaatum" naamak ek bade jahaaj ka saagar-avataran hua. tatkaaleen gavarnameint ke angrej maireen saveinyar ke mataanusaar "yeh vilaayati jahaaj ki apeksha nirmaanakaushal mein kisi prakaar heen naheen tha. gathan aur sundarata bhi tadanuroop thi."

vaashp ka upayog

19veen shataabdi ke praanrabh mein jahaajon ko chalaane ke liye vaashpashakti ke upayog ki or dhyaan gaya. san 1802 mein pratham safal steemar ka upayog farth aur klaaid nahar par hua. shanai: shanai: steemaron ka prayog badhta gaya, par deergh kaal tak ye nadiyon mein, ya samudra mein, chhoti yaatraaon ke liye prayukt hote rahe. mahaasaagareeya yaatraaon mein vaashp ke injinon se keval paalon ke sahaayak ke roop mein kaam liya jaata tha. iska mukhya kaaran yeh tha ki vaashp ki sahaayata se chalne vaale jahaajon mein indhan ka kharch adhik hota tha. vaashp injin se daaaindon ka kaam karanevaale, takhte lage hue chakr (paddle wheel) ghumaae jaate the aur jahaaj vaise hi chalta tha jaisa aaj bhi nadiyon ke anek steemaron mein hota hai. san 1838 mein sarvapratham vaashpachaalit chaar angreji jahaajon ne andhamahaasaagar paarakar amareeka tak ki yaatra ki aur san 1840 se England aur uttari amareeka ke beech pratyek pakhavaare mein daak laane aur le jaane ka kaam lagbhag 1,150 tan bhaar ke chaar steemar karne lage.

abhi bhi jahaaj mukhyat: paalavaale hote the. amareeka ne aise jahaajon ki nirmaanakala mein bahut unnati ki. san 1843 mein "renabo" naamak klipr (Clipper) jaati ka paal se chalanevaala vishesh teevragaami jahaaj amareeka mein taiyaar kiya gaya. is kshetr mein deergh kaal tak amareeka sabse aage bana raha. san 1856 tab angrej vyaapaari apne vyaapaar ke liye Amreeki teevragaami klipr jahaaj khareedte rahe. kintu paalavaale jahaajon ke din poore ho chuke the1 dheere dheere paal ka sthaan vaashp injinon ne le liya aur pehle se kaheen adhik bade jahaaj banane lage. san 1858 mein deerghakaaya, vaashp ki sahaayata se aur ainthe hue dainon (screw propellers) se chalanevaale 18,914 tan ke "great istan" naamak jahaaj ne England se amareeka ki yaatra ki. is beech injinon ki banaavat mein sudhaar hua, jisse indhan ka kharch kam ho gaya aur lambi yaatraaon mein vaashp ka upayog vyaapaariyon ke liye sambhav ho gaya. svej nahar ban jaane par Bhaarat tatha anya dakshin Asiaee deshon ki yaatra ke beech ke sthaanon mein koyale ke sangrahaalaya sthaapit kiye gaye aur is nahar ke kaaran yaatra ki doori bhi kam ho gayi. vaashpachaalit jahaaj jaldi bhi pahuainchate the. in baaton ke kaaran dheere dheere paalavaale jahaajon ka sthaan injinvaale jahaajon ne le liya.

lakdi ke sthaan par loha

saath hi saath jahaaj-nirmaan mein lakdi ka sthaan lohe ne liya. lakdi ke saath lohe ka adhikaadhik prayog to bahut pehle se aarambh ho gaya tha, kintu san 1837 mein lohe ka sarvapratham angreji jahaaj taiyaar hua. iske pashchaat bhi lakdi aur loha ke mile khule jahaaj bante rahe, par san 1870 mein angreji jahaajon ke chh: mein se paaainch ansh lohe ke tatha teen chauthaai bhaag steem ke jahaajon ka tha. is varsh tak vishv ke sab jahaajon ke bhaar ka 16 prati shat steemar the. san 1890 tak yeh anupaat 56 prati shat ho gaya aur san 1900 tak 62 prati shat. yeh dhyaan mein rakhana chaahiye ki baraabar bhaaravaala steemar paalavaale jahaaj se tiguna ya chauguna maal dho sakta hai. paalavaale jahaajon mein kshati ki aanshaka adhik hoti hai. iske atirikt ve vaayu par aashrit hote hain tatha yaatra mein unka samay anishchit aur steemaron se adhik hota hai. steemaron ke prayog mein vishesh upayogi baat yeh hai ki nirdisht sthaan par unke pahuainchane ka samay lagbhag theek theek bataaya ja sakat hai. steemaron ki shreshthata isi se spasht hai ki yadyapi san 1850 se san 1900 ki ardhashataabdi mein inka kul bhaar dedh guna hi badha, par parivhanashakti saat guni badh gayi.

jahaajon se sabhyata ka vistaar

parivhanashakti mein vruddhi tatha nishchit samay par jahaajon ke pahuainch jaane ne mahatva ke parivrtanon ko janm diya. vyaapaar ki vruddhi ke saath saath pravaasiyon ki sankhya mein atyadhik vruddhi hui. udyogon mein bhi unnati hui, kyonki kaarkhaanon ke liye kachcha maal tatha bastiyon aur nagaron ke janapunjon ki aavashyakta ki vastuon ka nishchit samay par pahuainchana sambhav hua. adhik vyaapaar tatha yaatra ki suvidhaaon ke kaaran sab deshon mein jeevan ka star pehle se adhik ooaincha ho gaya aur sabhyata ka vistaar hua. steemaron ke vikaas ke saath jahaaj udyog ke sangathan mein bhi parivartan hue. steemaron ke aagaman ke poorv nishchit maargon par chalanevaale bade jahaajon ke svaami vishesh vyaapaaron mein lage dhani vanik hua karte the, kintu adhiktar jahaajon mein anek aadamiyon ka hissa hua karta tha. in maalikon mein se yogya aur anubhavi ko chunakar sab prabandh uske haath mein saun diya jaata tha. steemaron ka chalan hone par inka moolya adhik hone ke kaaran is paddhati ka sthaan sammilit pooainjeevaali companiyon ne le liya. ye companiyon ne le liya. ye kanpaniyaaain kuchh pattanon ke beech niyamit roop se yaatra karanevaale bade jahaaj, jo laainar (liner) kahalaate hain, chalaati hai. ye laainar nishchit samay mein nirdisht sthaan par pahuainch jaate hain tatha beech ke sthaanon par unke rukane ka samay bhi baindha rahata hai. in jahaajon ko niyamit reeti se chalne ke liye vistrut tatha vyayasaadhya sangathan aavashyak hota hai. isaliye laainaronvaali kanpaniyaaain kramash: badi vyaapaarik sansthaaeain ho gayi. alemeepon (tramps) ya saadhaaran jahaaj kisi baindhe hue kshetr mein kaam naheen karte. ve kuchh samay ke liye, ya ek nishchit yaatra ke liye, kiraae par kiraaedaar ke ichhaanusaar ek bandargaah se doosare ko maal ya yaatri pahuainchaate hain. iska maalik koi vyaapaari ya vyakti hota hai. bahut se aise jahaajon ka maalik koi company bhi ho sakti hai.

nausena ke ladaakoo jahaajon ke atirikt saadhaaran vyaapaari jahaajon ne pichhle donon vishvayuddhon mein mahatva ke kaam kiye. saamaan pahuainchaane ka kaam to inhonne kiya hi, prahari ke kaarya, maargarakshan tatha anya nausainik sahaayataaon ke liye vyakti tatha jahaaj inheen se praapt hue. in yuddhon mein anek vyaapaari jahaaj nasht hue, kintu aavashyakataanusaar jahaajon ke nirmaan mein bhi ateev vruddhi hui. fal yeh hua ki pratyek yuddh ke pashchaat kul jahaajon ki parivhan shakti pehle se adhik ho rahi. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein

46,00,000 tan ke 700 se adhik jahaajon ke nasht ho jaane par bhi yuddh ke ant mein sanyukt raajya amareeka ke vyaapaari jahaajon ka beda anya sab deshon ke sanyukt vyaapaari bedon se bada tha. yuddh ke pashchaat san 1946 mein sanyukt raajya ka kul niryaat vyaapaar yuddhapoorv ke niryaat ka keval 14 prati shat tha, parantu yuddh ke pashchaat yeh 30 pratishat ho gaya. san 1947 mein sanyukt raajya, amareeka, ko chhod anya sab deshon ka niryaat yuddhapoorv ka 75 prati shat, san 1948 mein 25 prati shat tatha san 1949 mein lagbhag vahi ho gaya tha jo yuddhapoorv tha. June, san 1949 tak yuddhottar vyaapaar ke liye maalavaahak jahaajon ka bhaar san 1936 ke bhaar se 14,00,000 kul (gross) tan badhkar 5,60,000 kul tan jhrsanyukt raajya ke aarakshit (reserved) bede ko chhodkarat ho gaya tha. yuddhapoorv bane jahaajon ki tulana mein yuddhottar jahaaj saadhaaranataya adhik bade aur teevragaami nirmit hue.

bhaarateeya jahaaj udyog

videshi shaasan ke pashchaat Bhaarat ke jahaaj udyog ko bhaari dhakka laga. san 1860 se 1925 ke beech ke samay mein jahaajon ke nirmaan ke liye 102 companiyon ki rajistri hui, kintu videshi jahaaji companiyon ke kathin virodh aur angreji sarkaar ki neeti ke kaaran inmein se adhikaansh ka kaamkaaj band ho gaya. 20veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein bhaarateeya bede ke vikaas ke liye udyog aarambh hue aur san 1919 mein sindhiya steem nevigeshan company ke sthaapit hone se bhaarateeya jahaajaraani ka ek naya adhyaaya aarambh hua, kintu videshi sarkaar ki upeksha ke kaaran deergh kaal tak vishesh unnati na ho saki. doosare vishvayuddh ke aarambh mein kul 15,000 tan ke bhaarateeya jahaaj the1 san 1947 mein jab desh svatrantr hua inka bhaar 2,50,000 tan ho gaya tha. svaadheenana ke pashchaat desh ka vyaapaar badhaane tatha raksha ke liye bhi Bhaarat sarkaar ne nishchaya kiya ki Bhaarat ka tatavarti vyaapaar, arthaat prati varsh lagbhag 25 se 30 lakh tan maal dhone ka kaam, bhaarateeya jahaajon se hi ho tatha paaainch saat varsho se bhaarateeya jahaajon ki tan bhaar-kshamata 20 lakh tan kar di jaae. is kaaryakram ko poora karne ke liye san 1950 se poorvi jahaajaraani nigam (Eastern shipping Corporation) tatha san 1961 mein donon sammilit hokar bhaarateeya jahaajaraani nigam ho gaye. san 1963 ke madhya tak is nigam ke paas 2,01,869 tan bhaar ke 27 jahaaj the, jo tateeya vyaapaar ke sivaaya Australia, Japan, malaaya, poovi Africa, kaalaasaagar ke desh, Britain, amareeka aadi ko aate jaate the.

san 1952 mein vishaakhapattanam ka hindustaani ship yaard sarkaari kaarkhaana bana diya gaya or isne jahaaj-nirmaan kaarya mein yathesht pragati ki. Bhaarat sarkaar ne deshi jahaajaraani companiyon ko jahaaj khareedne ke liye pratham panchavarsheeya yojana mein 24 karod rupae aur doosari yojana mein 15 karod ka rin diya. yojana aayog ne truteeya panchavarsheeya ke antargat bhaarateeya jahaajon ka kul tan bhaar ke jahaaj tatavarti vyaapaar aur shesh deshaantar vyaapaar mein kaam aate the. tatavarti deshon ko tel dhone mein kul 24 sahasr tan bhaar ke teen deshi jahaaj lage hue the. videshon se tel laane ka kaarya 20,400 tan ka ek jahaaj kar raha tha. aasha hai, san 1964 ke ant tak is prakaar ke jahaajon mein 87 hajaar tan bhaar ki vruddhi ho jaaegi. December, 1963 tak bhaarateeya jahaajon ka kul bhaar 13 lakh tan ho gaya. chaturth panchavarsheeya yojana mein bhaarateeya jahaajon ka kul bhaar 35 lakh tan karne ka lakshya rakha gaya hai. bhaarateeya jahaaj ab nimnalikhit samudramaargo par chal rahe hain : Bhaarat-Europe-Britain, Bhaarat-roos, Bhaarat-paulaind, Bhaarat-dakshini amareeka, Bhaarat-uttari-amareeka, Bhaarat poorvi Africa, Bhaarat-laal saagar, Bhaarat Iran ki khaadi, Bhaarat-Australia, Bhaarat-Japan, Bhaarat-Singapore ityaadi. marcheint shiping aikt, naishanal shiping board tatha shiping development fund dvaara Bhaarat ki vartamaan sarkaar jahaajaraani udyog ki pragati ke liye yathesht cheshta kar rahi hai.

sarkaari sahaayata

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat pratyek desh vyaapaari jahaaji bedon par adhik dhyaan dene laga tatha unke kaaryo par pehle se adhik niyantran rakhane laga. pratham vishvayuddh ke poorvan vividh deshon ki sarkaarein apne jahaaji bedon ko prachur sahaayata nahi deti theen, kintu do vishvayuddhon mein raashtreeya suraksha ke liye vyaapaari jahaaji bedon ke mahatva ka anubhav hone par anek deshon ne inke vistaar tatha vikaas ka kaam haath mein liya aur vividh prakaar se inhein sahaayata dena aarambh kiya. jahaaji bedon ke svaamiyon ke samnmukh upasthit praavidhik tatha anya samasyaaon ke hal khojane ke liye anek samitiyon aur parishdon ki bhi sthaapana hui. vividh deshon ki sarkaaron ne samudra par suraksha, jahaajon par kaam karanevaale shramikon ke kalyaan, ek samaan samudra nauvahan niyam, jahaaj sanbandho kaagaj patron ke samanvaya tatha jalamaargo ki unnati ke liye aavashyak upaaya kiye.

sanyukt raashtra sangh (United Nations) ne bhi antar raajya naavik sanghon dvaara pravidhik ulajhanon ko sulajhaane ka kaam dviteeyaya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat, sankatakaaleen nauvahan ke nirdeshan hetu sthaapit "sanyukt nauvahan paraamarshadaayini samiti (The United Maritime Consultative Council) ko saunpa. sab deshon ki sarkaarein aur janta aarthik laabh aur suraksha ke liye vyaapaari jahaajon ke mahatva ko ab samajh gayi hain aur is kaaran unki sarvaangapeen unnati ke liye param utsuk hain."

baahari kadiyaaain