jagadeesh chandr Basu

jagadeesh chandr Basu

prayogashaala mein Basu
janm 30 November 1858
memanasinh, poorvi Bengal (ab Bangladesh), british Bhaarat
mrutyu girideeh, Bengal presideinsi, british Bhaarat
aavaas avibhaajit Bhaarat
raashtreeyata british bhaarateeya
kshetr bhautiki, jeevabhautiki, jeevavijnyaaan, vanaspativijnyaaan, puraatatv, baangla saahitya, baangla vijnyaaanakathaaeain
sansthaan presideinsi kaalej, Kolkata
shiksha Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya
kraaist mahaavidyaalaya, Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya
London vishvavidyaalaya
dauktari salaahakaar John strat (Lord rele) Nobel prize medal.svg
prasiddhi milimeetar tarangein
radio
kreskograaf

dau॰ (sar) jagadeesh chandr Basu (bangaali: জaaগaaদaaীaaশ চaaনaa্aaদaa্aaর বaaসaaু jaugodeesh chaundro boshu) (30 November, 185823 November, 1937) Bhaarat ke prasiddh vaigyaanik the jinhein bhautiki, jeevavijnyaaan, vanaspativijnyaaan tatha puraatatv ka gahra gyaan tha.[1] ve pehle vaigyaanik the jinhonne radio aur sookshm tarangon ki prakaashiki par kaarya kiya. vanaspati vigyaan mein unhonein kai mahattvapoorn khojein ki. saath hi ve Bhaarat ke pehle vaigyaanik shodhakartta the.[2] ve Bhaarat ke pehle vaigyaanik the jinhonne ek amareekan peteint praapt kiya. unhein radio vigyaan ka pita maana jaata hai.[3] ve vijnyaaanakathaaeain bhi likhte the aur unhein bangaali vijnyaaanakatha-saahitya ka pita bhi maana jaata hai.

british Bhaarat ke Bengal praant mein janme Basu ne sent jaiviyr mahaavidyaalaya, Calcutta se snaatak ki upaadhi praapt ki. ye fir London vishvavidyaalaya mein chikitsa ki shiksha lene gaye, lekin svaasthya ki samasyaaon ke chalte inhein yeh shiksha beech mein hi chhod kar Bhaarat vaapis aana pada. inhonne fir presideinsi mahaavidyaalaya mein bhautiki ke praadhyaapak ka pad sambhaala aur jaatigt bhedabhaav ka saamana karte hue bhi bahut se mahattvapoorn vaigyaanik prayog kiye. inhonne betaar ke sanket bhejane mein asaadhaaran pragati ki aur sabse pehle radio sandeshon ko pakadne ke liye ardhachaalakon ka prayog karna shuru kiya. lekin apni khojon se vyaavasaayik laabh uthaane ki jagah inhonne inhein saarvajanik roop se prakaashit kar diya taaki anya shodhakartta inapar aage kaam kar sakein. iske baad inhonne vanaspati jeevavidya mein anek khojein ki. inhonne ek yantr kreskograaf ka aavishkaar kiya aur isse vibhinn uttejakon ke prati paudhon ki pratikriya ka adhyayan kiya. is tarah se inhonne siddh kiya ki vanaspatiyon aur pashuon ke ootakon mein kaafi samaanata hai. ye peteint prakriya ke bahut viruddh the aur mitron ke kehne par hi inhonne ek peteint ke liye aavedan kiya. haal ke varshon mein aadhunik vigyaan ko mile inke yogadaanon ko fir maanyata di ja rahi hai.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

Basu ka janm 30 November 1858 ko Bengal (ab Bangladesh) mein dhaaka jile ke fareedapur ke memanasinh mein hua tha. unke pita Bhagwan chandr Basu brahm samaaj ke neta the aur fareedapur, bardhamaan evam anya jagahon par up-maijistret ya sahaayak commissioner the.[4][5] inka parivaar raareekhaal gaanv, bikramapur se aaya tha, jo aajkal Bangladesh ke munsheeganj jile mein hai.[6] gyaarah varsh ki aayu tak inhone gaanv ke hi ek vidyaalaya mein shiksha grahan ki. Basu ki shiksha ek baangla vidyaalaya mein praarambh hui. unke pita maanate the ki angreji seekhane se pehle apni maatrubhaasha achhe se aani chaahiye. vikramapur mein 1915 mein ek sammelan ko sambodhit karte hue Basu ne kaha- "us samay par bachchon ko angreji vidyaalayon mein bhejana haisiyat ki nishaani maana jaata tha. main jis baangla vidyaalaya mein bheja gaya vahaaain par mere daayeen taraf mere pita ke muslim parichaarak ka beta baitha karta tha aur meri baain or ek machhuaare ka beta. ye hi mere khel ke saathi bhi the. unki pakshiyon, jaanvaron aur jalajeevon ki kahaaniyon ko main kaan laga kar sunata tha. shaayad inheen kahaaniyon ne mere mastishk mein prakruti ki sanrachana par anusandhaan karne ki gahari ruchi jagaai."[k][5] vidyaalayi shiksha ke baad ve Calcutta aa gaye aur seint Xavier school mein pravesh liya. jagadeesh chandra Bose ki jeev vigyaan mein bahut ruchi thi aur 22 varsh ki aayu mein chikitsa vigyaan ki padhaai karne ke liye London chale gaye. magar svaasth kharaab rahane ki vajah se inhone chikitsak (Doctor) banane ka vichaar tyaagakar Cambridge ke kraaist mahaavidyaalaya chale gaye aur vahaaain bhautiki ke ek vikhyaat pro॰ father laafont ne Bose ko bhautikshaastr ke adhyayan ke liye prerit kiya.

varsh 1885 mein ye svadesh laute tatha bhautiki ke sahaayak praadhyaapak ke roop mein presideinsi college mein padhaane lage. yahaan vah 1915 tak rahe. us samay bhaarateeya shikshakon ko angrej shikshakon ki tulana mein ek tihaai vetan diya jaata tha. iska jagadeesh chandra Bose ne virodh kiya aur bina vetan ke teen varshon tak kaam karte rahe, jiski vajah se unki stithi kharaab ho gayi aur un par kaafi karja ho gaya tha. is karj ko chukaane ke liye unhein apni pushtaini jameen bhi bechani padi. chauthe varsh jagadeesh chandra Bose ki jeet hui aur unhein poora vetan diya gaya. Bose ek achhe shikshak bhi the, jo kaksha mein padhaane ke liye bade paimaane par vaigyaanik pradarshanon ka upayog karte the. Bose ke hi kuchh chhaatr jaise satendr naath Bose aage chalakar prasiddh bhautikshaastri bane.

redio ki khoj

Kolkata vishvavidyaalaya mein anya vaigyaaniko ke saath jagadeesh chandr Basu

british saiddhaantik bhautik vigyaani James klark Maxwell ne ganiteeya roop se vividh tarang dairdhya ki vidyut chumbakeeya tarangon ke astitv ki bhavishyavaani ki thi, par unki bhavishyavaani ke satyaapan se pehle 1879 mein nidhan unka ho gaya. british bhautikvid olivr lodge Maxwell tarangon ke astitv ka pradarshan 1887-88 mein taaron ke saath unhein preshit karke kiya. jarman bhautikshaastri henarik hartj ne 1888 mein mukt antariksh mein vidyut chumbakeeya tarangon ke astitv ko prayog karke dikhaaya. iske baad, lodge ne hartj ka kaam jaari rakha aur June 1894 mein ek smaraneeya vyaakhyaan diya (hartj ki mrutyu ke baad) aur use pustak ke roop mein prakaashit kiya. lodge ke kaam ne Bhaarat ke Bose sahit vibhinn deshon ke vaigyaaniko ka dhyaan aakarshit kiya.

Bose ke maaikrovev anusandhaan ka pehli ullekhaneeya pahaloo yeh tha ki unhonne tarang dairdhya ko mileemeetar star par la diya (lagbhag 5 mimi tarang dairdhya). ve prakaash ke gunon ke adhyayan ke liye lambi tarang dairdhya ki prakaash tarangon ke nuksaan ko samajh gaye.

1893 mein, nikola tesla ne pehle saarvajanik radio sanchaar ka pradarshan kiya. ek saal baad, Kolkata mein November 1894 ke ek (ya 1895) saarvajanik pradarshan dauraan, Bose ne ek mileemeetar range maaikrovev tarang ka upayog baarood doori par prajvalit karne aur ghanti bajaane mein kiya. lieutenant Governor sar William maikeinji ne Calcutta taaun hall mein Bose ka pradarshan dekha. Bose ne ek bangaali nibandh, 'adrushya aalok' mein likha tha, "adrushya prakaash aasaani se int ki deevaaron, bhavanon aadi ke bheetar se ja sakti hai, isliye taar ki bina prakaash ke maadhyam se sandesh sanchaarit ho sakta hai." roos mein popov ne aisa hi ek prayog kiya.

Bose k "double apavartak kristal dvaara bijli ki kirnon ke dhruveekaran par" pehla vaigyaanik lekh, lodge lekh ke ek saal ke bheetar, May 1895 mein Bengal ki eshiyaatik society ko bheja gaya tha. unka doosra lekh October 1895 mein London ki royal society ko laard rele dvaara bheja gaya. December 1895 mein, London patrika ilektreeshiyn (36 Vol) ne Bose ka lekh "ek nae ilektro-polereeskop par" prakaashit kiya. us samay angreji bolne waali duniya mein lodge dvaara gadhe gaye shabd 'kohirr' k prayog hartj ke tarang riseevar ya ditektar ke liye kiya jaata tha. ilektreeshiyn ne tatkaal Bose ke 'kohirr' par tippani ki. (December 1895). angreji patrika (18 January 1896) ilektreeshiyn se uddhrut tippani hai:

"yadi professor Bose apne kohirr ko behatareen banaane mein aur peteint safal hote hain, ham sheegra hi ek bangaali vaigyaanik ke preseedeinsi college prayogashaala mein akele shodh ke kaaran nau-parivhan ki tat prakaash vyavastha mein nai kraanti dekheinge."

Bose "apne kohirr" ko behtar karne ki yojana banaai lekin yeh peteint ke baare mein kabhi naheen socha.

radio development mein sthaan

jagadeesh chandr Basu dvaara viksit 60 geegaahartj maaikrovev upakaran

Bose ne apne prayog us samay kiye the jab radio ek sampark maadhyam ke taur par viksit ho raha tha. radio maaikrovev optiks par Bose ne jo kaam kiya tha vo radio kamyunikeshan se juda hua naheen tha, lekin unke dvaara kiye hue sudhaar evam unke dvaara is vishay mein likhe hue tathyon ne doosare radio aavishkaarakon ko zaroor prabhaavit kiya tha. us daur mein 1894 ke ant mein gugaliyelmo maarakoni ek radio system par kaam kar rahe the jo wireless teleegraafi ke liye vishith roop dijaain kiya ja raha tha. 1896 ke aarambh tak yeh pranaali fijiks dvaara bataaye gaye range se zyaada duri mein radio signals traansmit kar rahi thi.

jagadeeshachandr Bose pehle vaigyaanik the jinhonne radio tarange ditekt karne ke liye semeekandaktar jankshan ka istemaal kya tha aur is paddhati mein kai maaikrovev kanponeints ki khoj ki thi. iske baad agale 50 saal tak mileemeetar lambaai ki ilektromaignetik tarango par koi shodh kaarya naheen hua tha. 1897 mein Bose ne London ke royal insteetooshan mein apne mileemeetar tarango par kiye hue shodh ki varnana di thi. unhonne apne shodh mein vevagaaids , haurn aintena , daai -ilektrik leins ,alag alag polaaraaijr aur semeekandaktar jinki freekveinsi 60 GHz tak thi -- unka istemaal kiya tha. yeh saare upakaran aaj bhi Kolkata ke Bose instityoot mein maujood hain. ek 1.3 mm malteebeem riseevar jo ki erijona ke NRAO 12 meter teliskop mein hain , aachaarya Bose 1897 mein likhe hue research pepar ke siddhaanto par banaaya gaya hain.

sar neville mott ko 1977 mein saulid state electronics mein kiye apne shodhakaarya ke liye Nobel puraskaar mila tha. unhonne yeh kaha tha ki aachaarya jagadeesh chandr Bose apne samay se 60 saal aage the. asal mein Bose ne hi P - type aur N - type semeekandaktar ke astitv ka poorvaanumaan kiya tha.

vanaspati par anusandhaan

baayofijiks (Biophysics ) ke kshetr mein unka sabse bada yogadaan yeh tha ki unhonne apan dikhaaya ki paudho mein uttejana ka sanchaar vaidyutik (ilektrikl ) maadhyam se hota hain na ki kemikl maadhyam se. baad mein in daavon ko vaigyaanik proyogo ke maadhyam se sach saabit kiya gaya tha. aachaarya Bose ne sabse pehle maaikrovev ke vanaspati ke tishyoo par hone vaale asar ka adhyayan kiya tha. unhonne paudhon par badalate hue mausam se hone vaale asar ka adhyayan kiya tha. iske saath saath unhonne raasaayanik inhibitrs (inhibitors ) ka paudhon par asar aur badalate hue taapamaan se hone vaale paudhon par asar ka bhi adhyayan kiya tha. alag alag paristhitiyon mein sel membren poteinshiyl ke badlaav ka vishleshan karke ve is nateeje par pahunche ki paudhe samvedansheel hote hain ve " dard mahasoos kar sakte hain , sneh anubhav kar sakte hain ityaadi " .

metal fateeg aur koshikaao ki pratikriya ka adhyayan

Bose ne alag alag dhaatu aur paudhon ke tishyoo par fateeg rispaans ka tulanaatmak adhyayan kiya tha. unhonne alag alag dhaatuo ko ilektrikl , maikenikl, raasaayanik aur tharmal tareeko ke mishran se uttejit kiya tha aur koshikaao aur dhaatu ki pratikriya ke samaanataaon ko not kiya tha. Bose ke prayogo ne simulated (nakali) koshikaao aur dhaatu mein chakreeya(cyclical ) fateeg pratikriya dikhaai thi. iske saath hi jeevit koshikaao aur dhaatuo mein alag alag tarah ke uttejanaaon (stimuli ) ke liye vishesh chakreeya (cyclical )fateeg aur rikvari rispaans ka bhi adhyayan kiya tha.

aachaarya Bose ne badalate hue ilektrikl stimuli ke saath paudhon badalate hue ilektrikl pratikriya ka ek graaf banaaya , aur yeh bhi dikhaaya ki jab paudhon ko jhar ya enesthetik (chatanaashoonya karanevaali aushadhi ) di jaati hain tab unki pratikriya kaam hone lagti hain aur aage chalakar shunya ho jaati hain. lekin yeh pratikriya jink (zinc ) dhaatu ne naheen dikhaai jab use oksaalik esid ke saath treet kiya gaya.

night ki upaadhi

1902 mein nirmit jagadeesh chandr Basu ka ghar (aachaarya bhavan) ab sangrahaalaya mein parivrtit kar diya gaya hai.

1917 mein jagadeesh chandra Bose ko "night" (Knight) ki upaadhi pradaan ki gayi tatha sheegra hi bhautik tatha jeev vigyaan ke liye royal society London ke failo chun liye gaye. Bose ne apna poora shodhakaarya bina kisi achhe (mahage) upakaran aur prayogashaala ke kiya tha isaliye jagadeesh chandra Bose ek achhi prayogashaala banaane ki soch rahe the. "Bose Institute" (Bose vigyaan mandir) isi soch ka parinaam hai joki vigyaan mein shodhakaarya ke liye raashtra ka ek prasiddh kendra hai.

sandarbh

  1. A versatile genius, Frontlin e 21 (24), 2004.
  2. Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Satyendranath Bose, 2002 reprint, p. 5, National Book Trust, ISBN 81-237-0492-5
  3. A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), p. 557-560.
  4. Mahanti, Subodh. "Acharya Jagadis Chandra Bose". Biographies of Scientists. Vigyan Prasar, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. http://www.vigyanprasar.gov.in/scientists/JCBOSE.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.
  5. a aa Mukherji, Visvapriya, Jagadish Chandra Bose, second edition, 1994, pp. 3-10, Builders of Modern India series, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, ISBN 81-230-0047-2
  6. Murshed, Md Mahbub. "Bose, (Sir) Jagadish Chandra". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/B_0584.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-12.

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