jad (vanaspati)

aam ke vruksh ka jad
Wurzeln am Berghäuser Altrhein, Speyerer Auwald.JPG

paudhe ka vah bhaag jo jameen ke andar mulaankur se viksit hokar pravesh karta hai tatha prakaash ke vipreet jaata hai, jad ya mool (root) kahalaata hai.

anukram

parichay

mool ya jad uchch koti paadapon (farn tatha beejavaale paudhe) ka bhoomigat bhaag hai, jismein na to pattiyaaain rahati hain aur na janan ang, kintu ismein ek sheersh vardhamaan (apical growing) sira rahata hai. yeh avashoshan ang, vaataap (aerating) ang, khaadya bhandaar aur sahaare ka kaarya karta hai. adhikaansh paudhon mein jad beejapatraadhar (hypocoty) ke nimn chhor ke roop mein utpann hoti hai. bahuvarshi (perennial) shjade tane ke sadrush ootakatantr pradarshit karti hai tatha inka rainbh (stele) avichhinn rahata hai. bahuvarshi jado ke prakedha (procambium) valayak (strand) ke vikaas, antashcharm (endodermis) ki suvyakt motaai aur vardhan sire ke vibhjyotak (meristem) ke surakshaatmak aavaran ke roop mein antar hota hai. adhipaadap (epiphytes) ki jade poornat: agraabhisaari (aerisl) hoti hai, kintu apasthaanik (adventitious) jade paudhon ke anya bhaagon par utpann hoti hai. nimn koti paadapon mein jadon ka adhikaansh kaarya prakand karte hai.

sanrachana

shareer (anatomy) ki drushti mein mool ke teen bhaag hai: adhichrm (epidermis), valkut (cortex) tatha ranbh. in teenon bhaagon mein sheersh vibhjyotak dvaara nai koshikaaeain judti hain. vibhjyotak ki baahya satah mool-gop (root cap) banaati hai. jab mool mruda mein balapoorvak pravesh karta hai, tab mool-gop aaghaat se usaki raksha karta hai. mool ki sampoorn motaai mein sheersh vibhjyotak vyaapt rahata hai, at: nai koshikaaeain deergheekaran ke baad vyavasthit koshikaaon ki tarah panktiyon mein viksit hoti hain. koshikaaon ka vibhaajan, deergheekaran tatha paripkvan vardhamaan prakram hai, jo mool ke oordhvaadhar staravinyaas mein mool gop, sheersh vibhjyotak, deergheekaran kshetr tatha paripkvan kshetr mein mool gop, shirsh vibhjyotak, deergheekaran kshetr tatha paripkvan kshetr mein hota hai. adhichrm, valkut aur ranbh kshetr mein ootakon ke antar ki uttarottar avasthaaeain suspasht rahati hain. deergheekaran kshetr ke theek oopar adhichrm koshikaaeain lambi belanaakaar udvardh (0utgrowth) utpann karti hain, jinhein moolarom (root hair) shkahate hain. ye rom mool ka avashoshan kshetr badha dete hain.

adhichrm ke theek neeche ootakon ka jo kshetr rahata hai, use valkut kehte hain. is kshetr ka adhikaansh mrudootak (parenchyma) ka dhana hota hai. ismein tantu bikhri hui koshikaaon ke roop mein rahate hain. ranbha ya avichhinn belan bhi valkut mein ho sakta hai. koshikaaon ke beech mein suspasht avakaash hota hain.

ranbh praathamik daaroo (xylem) dalayak tatha praathamik floem (phloem) ka bana hota hai. daaroo valayak trijyaat: chauras hote hain aur mool ki ek hi paridhi mein ye aur floem ekaantar hote hain jad mein praaya: majja naheen hoti, kintu dviteejapatri paudhon ki jadon ki apeksha ekabeejapatri paudhon ki jadon mein praaya: milti hain. ranbh ki satah par paarshveeya jade vibhjyotaki (mesistematis) koshikaaon se nikalkar valkut se baahar nikalne ka maarg balapoorvak banaati hain. motaai mein suspasht vruddhi karne waali jade, praathamik daaroo ke theek baahar praanaalit belan ke roop mein tatha praathamik floem ke andar, sanvahani (vadcular) edha (cambioum) viksit karti hai. edha ki baahrua satah se dviteeyak floem tatha aantarik satah se dviteeyak daaroo viksit hota hai. jab jadon ki atyadhik motaai valkut ko videern kar deti hai, tab valkut ki aantarik satah pariranbh (pericycle) ya dviteeyak flaaem mein kaark (cork) banti hai. jo jad pehle banti hai aur seedhe tane se vruddhi karti, vah praathamik jad kahalaati hai. praathamik jad ki shaakhaaeain dviteeyak tatha dviteeyak ki shaakhaaeain truteeyak jade kahalaati hain.

prakaar

jadon ko unke ugane ke sthaan ke anusaar mrudaamool (soilt root), vaayav (aeril) mool tatha jalamool kehte hain. jo jade tane par niklati hain, unhein apasthanik kehte hain, jaise bargad ke jad. jo jadein doosare paudhon se poshan praapt karti hain, unhein parajeevi (parasitic) jadein kehte hain.

mool ke prakaar usaki aakruti aur shaakhanavidhi par nirbhar karte hain. jab keindreeya aksh bina vibhkt gaavadum roop mein gahra bhoomigat hota hai, tab usase moosala jad (tap root) banti hai. is prakaar ki jad kabhi kabhi chhoti hoti hai aur khaadya padaartho se bhari rahane ke kaaran fooli rahati hai, jaise gaajar ki shankvaakaar (fusiform) tatha shalajam ki kunbheeroop (napiform) mool. ek beejapatri paudhon mein praathamik aksh sheegra hi nasht ho jaata hai aur usaka sthaan dviteeyak aksh le leta hai. jab avarohi aksh bahut chhota hota hai. aur chhote chhote patale tatha samaan tantuon (moniliform) mool kehte hain. jab tantuk (fibrii) maate tatha rasadaar hote hain, to aisa mool poolikit (fasciculate) kahalaata hai. in moolon ke atirikt granthil (palmately tubercular) mool bhi hote hein.

sandarbh granth

  • Charles maikanan: treej ov India,
  • taaraapuravaala : world book insaaiklopeediya