jaava (dweep)

merabaabu parvat jvaalaamukhi

jaava dweep Indonesia ka sabse adhik janasankhya wala dweep hai. praacheen kaal mein iska naam yav dweep tha aur iska varnan Bhaarat ke granthon mein bahut aata hai. yahaan lagbhag 2000 varsh tak hindu sabhyata ka prabhutv raha. ab bhi yahaan hinduon ki bastiyaan kai sthaanon par pai jaati hain. visheshakar poorv jaava mein majaapahit saamraajya ke vanshaj teingar log rahate hain jo ab bhi hindu hain.

sumeroo parvat aur bromo parvat poorv jaava mein

yahaan ki aur poore Indonesia ki rajdhani Jakarta (sanskrut: jayakart) hai. borobudur aur pramabanan mandir yahaan sthit hain.

anukram

parichay

jaava Indonesia ganaraajya mein dweep hai, jo malaaya dveepashrunkhala mein bruhattam tatha sarvaprasiddh hai. iska kshetrafal 1,32,174 varg meal hai. iske uttar mein jaava samudra, dakshin mein hind mahaasaagar aur poorvan mein baali tatha pashchim mein sumaatra dweep hain, jo kramash: baali tatha sunda jaladamaroomadhyon dvaara jaava se alag ho gaye hain. jaava ki poorv se pashchim lanbaai 960 kimi. tatha uttar se dakshin adhiktam chaudaai 200 kimi. hai.

jaava ka nirmaan adhikaanshat: truteeyakayugeen chattaanon dvaara tatha anshat: naveenanatar chattaanon dvaara hua hai. keval teen sthaanon par praacheenatar chattaanein upalabdh hoti hain jo sambhavat: kriteshas yug ki hain. jaava ke bhoogarbh evam dharaatal par plaaioseen (Pliocene) tathar madhya truteeyak yugeen jvaalaamukhi udgaaron ka adhik prabhaav pada hain. plaaioseen kaal mein jaava Asia ke mahaadveepeeya kshetr se juda hua tha, jiske kaaran yahaaain mahaadveepeeya jeev jantuon ka praadurbhaav hua. sundaalaind ke jalamagn hone ke kaaran yeh dweep mein parivrtit ho gaya. tadanantar sthaaneeya dharaataleeya sov, samudratal mein parivartan, pravaaleeya nirmaan, jvaalaamukhi udgaaron tatha sanrakshan kaaryo ke falasvaroop jaava ko vartamaan uchchaavachav (relief) praapt hua hai.

jaava ke lagbhag madhya mein poorv-pashchim faili shreniyaaain ise uttari tatha dakshini do bhaagon mein baaaintati hain. ye shreniyaaain pashchim mein vishesh dakshinaabhimukh ho gayi hain, jisse dakshinvarti samudramukhi dhaal adhik khadi aur beehad ho gayi hai. khadi dhaal tatha hind mahaasaagareeya shaktishaali tarangon evam dhaaraaon ke thapedon ke kaaran dakshin mein koi surakshit bandargaah naheen ban paaya hai, na hi koi bada maidaani bhaag hi milta hai. uttar mein dhaal kam hai, at: maidaani bhaag adhik vistrut hai, jismein kaaainp ka jamaav hai. poorvan mein pahaadi shreniyon ke madhya mein chhoti chhoti ghaatiyaaain sthit hain. uttari samudratat par jahaajaraani ke liye anek sthaanon par praakrutik suvidhaaeain praapt hain. jaava mein 100 se bhi adhik jvaalaamukhi parvat hain, jinmein se 13 jaagrat hain. yahaaain 20 se bhi adhik parvat-shikharon ki ooainchaai 8,000 foot se adhik hai, jinmein semeroo (12,060') sarvochch hai. dweep mein bhookamp aate hain lekin bahut hi virl. hind mahaasaagar mein girnevaali nadiyaaain chhoti aur teevragaami hain. parantu uttar mein pravaahit honevaali nadiyaaain apekshaakrut adhik lambi, dheemi gativaali parivaahaneeya hain. solo (536 kimi.), braantaas ya kerdaari (318 kimi.) aur jeelivang (80 kimi.) pramukh nadiyaaain hain.

itihaas

praacheen kaal mein jaava niktavarti kshetron ki tarah hi hindu raajaaon ke adheen tha. hindu raajaaon ne hi yahaaain bauddh dharm ka prachaar kiya. yahaaain bahut se hindu evam bauddh mandir tatha unke avashesh vidyamaan hain. maigelaang ke nikat 'borobudur' mandir sansaar ka bruhattam bauddh mandir hai. 14veen-15veen sadi mein yahaaain muslim sanskruti faili aur yahaaain musalmaanon ka raajaneetik aadhiptya hua. tadanantar purtagaali, dach evam angrej vyaapaari aae kintu 1619 E. se dachon ne raajya ne raajya praarambh kiya. 27 disanbarat 1949 mein Indonesia ganaraajya ki sthaapana hui, jismein jaava pramukh dweep hai.

jalavaayu

jaava ka jalavaayu bhoomadhyarekheeya hai, kintu chaturdik sthiti samudron tatha mausimi havaaon ka vyaapak prabhaav padta hai. yahaaain do ritueain hoti hain, April se October tak shushk ritu tatha November se March tak varsha ritu rahati hai, jismein praat:kaal ko chhodkar nirantar varsha hoti rahati hai. vaarshik varsha 80-85 hoti hai. din me maidaanon tatha ghaatiyon ka ausat taap 290 se 34 sein. tatha raatri mein 230 se 270 sein. rahata hai.

jaava mein samudri tatha paalatoo jaanvaron ko milaakar 100 se bhi adhik prakaar ke jaanavar praapya hain. gainda, baagh, teinduaa, billi, bail, suar tatha kutte, langoor, hiran aadi vanya tatha bhains, bail, ghode, bakari aur bhedein aadi paalatoo jaanavar pramukh hain. yahaaain lagbhag 300 prakaar ke pakshi, vividh jeev tatha machhaliyaaain milti hain.

taap ke saath vanaspati ka ghanisht sambandh hai. samudratateeya pradesh mein daladali jhaadiyaaain, bheetari bhaagon mein naariyl, taad, tatha lambi ghaasein aur parvateeya dhaalon par ooainchaai ke anusaar parvateeya vanaspati milti hai. saagaun, mahogani, cheed, ok, chestanat aadi vrukshon se lakdi milti hai.

nivaasi

jaava sansaar ke ghane aabaad kshetron mein se ek hai aur yahaaain ka janabaahulya raashtreeya samasya ho gaya hai. Indonesia ke kul kshetrafal ka 7% kshetr hote hue bhi kul janasankhya ke lagbhag 65% log yahaaain basate hain. samast janasankhya mein jaava jaativaale 75% (madhya evam uttari kshetr); sundaani 15% (pashchimi kshetr); aur maduraai raktavaale 10 % (poorvi kshetr) hain. yadyapi adhikaansh nivaasi muslim hain, tathaapi unke puraane hindu aur bauddh sanskaar aur sanskruti unke reetirivaaj, naamakaran bhaasha evam saahitya par chhaae hue hain.

utpaadan

jaava krushipradhaan kshetr hai. rabar, ganna, chai, kahava tatha koko vyaapaarik fasalein hain, jo pehle bade baagaanon mein kintu ab chhote kheton mein bhi ugaai jaati hain. sansaar ka kul 90% sinkona paida hota hai. naariyl ki jata, tel, taad ka tel (Palm oil) aur patuaa bhi niryaat hote hain. dhaan sarvapramukh upaj aur nivaasiyon ka aahaar hai. sinchaai ki sahaayata se iski do fasalein ugaai jaati hai. tanbaakoo, makai, matar, soyaabeen (Soyabean) aur kasaava (Cassaya) anya fasalein hain. khanijon mein koyala aur tel ka utpaadan hota hai. jaava ke log lagbhag 30 prakaar ki dastakaari ke liye prasiddh hain. bade udyog adhik naheen hain. Jakarta, suraabaaya aur semaraang mein jahaaj bante aur marammat hote hain. kapde, kaagaj, diyaasalaai, kaanch aur raasaayanik padaartho ke bhi kuchh kaarkhaane hain.