jaati

jaati vyakti ke samaaj, jismein janm hua ho, ko kehte hain. braahman, kshatriya, vaishya , lohaar, teli, kurmi. dhobi aadi kuchh uttarabhaarateeya hindu jaatiyaaain hain. vaidik samaaj ko shram vibhaajan ke nimitt chaar varnon mein vibhkt kiya gaya tha. ye chaar varn hain : braahman ,kshatriya ,vaishya evam shoodr. kintu kaalaantar mein isse laakhon jaatiyaaain ban gayeen. jaati ke aadhaar par kisi prakaar ka bhedabhaav ya pakshapaat karna jaativaad kahalaata hai.

anukram

parichay

bhaarateeya samaaj jaateeya saamaajik ikaaiyon se gathit aur vibhkt hai. shramavibhaajanagat aanuvanshik samooh bhaarateeya gram ki krushikeindrit vyavastha ki visheshata rahi hai. yahaaain ki saamaajik vyavastha mein shramavibhaajan sambandhi vishesheekaran jeevan ke sabhi angon mein anusyoot hai aur aarthik kaaryon ka taana baana inheen aanuvanshik samoohon se banta hai. yeh jaateeya samooh ek or to apne aantarik sangathan se sanchaalit tatha niyamit hai aur doosari or utpaadan sevaaon ke aadaan pradaan aur vastuon ke vinimay dvaara paraspar sambaddh hain. samaan panmaraagat pesha ya peshe, samaan dhaarmik vishvaas, prateek saamaajik aur dhaarmik prathaaeain evam vyavahaar, khaanapaan ke niyam, jaateeya anushaasan aur sajaateeya vivaah in jaateeya samoohon ki aantarik ekta ko sthir tatha drudh karte hain. iske atirikt poore samaaj ki drushti mein pratyek jaati ka sopaanavat‌ saamaajik sangathan mein ek vishisht sthaan tatha maryaada hai jo is sarvamaanya dhaarmik vishvaas se pusht hai ki pratyek manushya ki jaati tatha jaatigt dhandhe daivi vidhaan se nirdisht hain aur vyaapak srushti ke anya niyamon ki bhaaainti prakrut tatha atal hain

ek gaaainv mein sthit parivaaron ka aisa samooh vaastav mein apni badi jaateeya ikaai ka ang hota hai jiska sangathan tatha kriyaatmak sambandhon ki drushti se ek seemit kshetr hota hai, jiski paridhi saamaanyat: 20-25 meal hoti hai. us kshetr mein jaativishesh ki ek vishisht aarthik tatha saamaajik maryaada hoti hai jo uske sadasyon ko, jo janmana hote hain, parampara se praapt hoti hai. yeh jaateeya maryaada jeevan paryant bani rahati hai aur jaateeya dhandha chhodkar doosra dhandha apnaane se tatha aamdani ke utaar chadhaav se usapar koi prabhaav naheen padta. yeh maryaada jaateeya-pesha, aarthik sthiti, dhaarmik sanskaar, saanskrutik parishkaar aur raajaneetik satta se nirdhaarit hoti hai aur nirdhaarakon mein parivartan aane se ismein parivartan bhi sambhav hai. kintu ek jaati swayam anek upajaatiyon tatha samoohon mein vibhkt rahati hai. is vibhaajan ka aadhaar bahudha ek hi peshe ke andar vishesheekaran ke bhed prabhed hote hain. kintu bhaugolik sthaanaantaran ne bhi ek hi paramparaagat dhandha karanevaali ekaadhik jaatiyon ko saath saath rahane ka avsar diya hai. kabhi kabhi jab kisi jaati ka ek ang apne paramparaagat peshe ke sthaan par doosra pesha apna leta hai to kaalakram mein vah ek pruthak‌ jaati ban jaata hai. uchch hindu jaatiyon mein gotreeya vibhaajan bhi vidyamaan hain. gotron ki upaayogita maatr itni hi hai ki ve kisi jaati ke bahivivaahi samooh banaate hain. aur ek gotr ke vyakti ek hi poorvaj ke vanshaj samajhe jaate hain. yeh upajaatiyaaain bhi apne mein svatantr tatha pruthak‌ antavivaahi ikaaiyaaain hoti hain aur kabhi kabhi to bruhattar jaati se unka sambandh naam maatr ka hota hai (de. gotreeya tatha anyagotreeya). in upajaatiyon mein bhi ooainch neech ka ek maryaadaakram rahata hai. upajaatiyaaain bhi anek shaakhaaon mein vibhkt rahati hai aur inmein bhi uchchata tatha nimnata ka ek kram hota hai jo vishesh roop se vivaah sambandhon mein vyakt hota hai. vivaah mein ooainchi panktivaale neechi panktivaalon ki ladki le sakte hain kintu apni ladki unhein naheen dete.

'jaati' shabd ki vyutpatti

shabdavyutpatti ki drushti se jaati shabd sanskrut ki 'jani' (jan) dhaatu mein 'ktin‌' pratyaya lagkar bana hai. nyaayasootr ke anusaar 'samaanaprasaavaatmikaajaati' arthaat‌ jaati samaan janmavaale logon ko mila kar banti hai. 'nyaayasiddhaantamuktaavali' ke anusaar jaati ki paribhaasha is prakaar hai - nityatve sati anekasamavetatvamjaativrttya' arthaat‌ jaati use kehte haun jo nitya hai aur apni tarah ki samast vastuon mein samavaaya sambandh se vidyamaan hai. vyaakaran shaastr ke anusaar jaati ki paribhaasha hai - 'aakruti grahan jaatilinganaanchanasarvan bhaak‌ sakrudaakhyaatanirgaahya gotranch charanai: sah'. arthaat‌ jaati vah hai jo aakruti ke dvaara pahachaani jaae, sab lingon ke saath na badal jaae aur ek baar ke batalo se hi jaan li jaae. in paribhaashaaon aur shabdavyutpatti se spasht hai ki 'jaati' shabd ka prayog praacheen samay mein vibhinn maanavajaatiyon ke liye naheen hota tha. vaastav me jaati manushyon ke antarvivaahi samooh ya samoohon ka yog hai jiska ek saamaanya naam hota hai, jiski sadasyata arjit na hokar janmana praapt hoti hai, jiske sadasya samaan ya milte julate Patrick dhandhe ya dhandha karte hain aur jiski vibhinn shaakhaaeain samaaj ke anya samoohon ki apeksha ek doosare se adhik niktata ka anubhav karti hain.

jaatiyon ki sankhya

Bhaarat mein jaatiyon aur upajaatiyon ki nishchit sankhya bataana kathin hai. shreedhar ketakar ke anusaar keval braahmanon ki 800 se adhik antarvivaahi jaatiyaaain hain. aur bloomafeeld ka mat hai ki braahmanon mein hi do hajaar se adhik bhed hain. san‌ 1901 ki janaganana ke anusaar, jo jaatignana ki drushti se adhik shuddh maani jaati hai, Bhaarat mein unki sankhya 2378 hai. dau॰ ji. S. ghuriye ki prasthaapana hai ki pratyek bhaashaakshetr mein lagbhag do sau jaatiyaaain hoti hain, jinhein yadi antarvivaahi samoohon mein vibhkt kiya jaae to yeh sankhya lagbhag 3,000 ho jaati hai.

jaati ki visheshataaeain

jaati ki paribhaasha asambhav maanate hue anek vidvaanon ne usaki visheshataaon ka ullekh karna uttam samjha hai. dau॰ ji. S dhuriye ke anusaar jaati ki drushti se hindu samaaj ki chhah vishetaaeain hain -

(1) jaateeya samoohon dvaara samaaj ka khandon mein vibhaajan,

(2) jaateeya samoohon ke beech ooainch neech ka praaya: nishchit taaratamya,

(3) khaanapaan aur saamaajik vyavahaar sambandhi pratibandh

(4) naagrik jeevan tatha dharm ke vishay mein vibhinn samoohon ki anarhataaeain tatha visheshaadhikaar,

(5) peshe ke chunaav mein poorn svatantrata ka abhaav aur

(6) vivaah apni jaati ke andar karne ka niyam.

jaati ek svaayatt ikaai

paramparaagat roop mein jaatiyaaain svaayatt saamaajik ikaaiyaaain hain jinke apne aachaar tatha niyam hain aur jo anivaaryat: bruhattar samaaj ki aachaarasanhita ke adheen naheen hain. is roop mein sab jaatiyon ki naitikta aur saamaajik jeevan na to paraspar ekaras hai aur na poornat: samanvit. fir bhi, bhaarateeya jaatiprak samaaj ka samanvit tatha sugathit saamudaayik jeevan hai, jismein vividhtaaon tatha vibhinnataaon ko saamaajik maanyata praapt hai. braahman, kshatriya tatha kuchh vaishya jaatiyon ko chhodkar praaya: pratyek jaati ki niyamit tatha aachaaron ka ullanghan karne par unhein dandit karti hai. kshatriya tatha braahman jaatiyaaain bhi jaateeya janamat ke dabaav se aur yadaakada jaateeya bandhuon ki tadarth panchaayat dvaara ullanghanakartaaon ko anushaasit aur dandit karti hain. uchch jaateeyon ka yeh anushaasan raajyatantr dvaara bhi hota raha hai.

jaatiyon mein ooainch neech ka bhed

jaatiyaaain ek doosare ki tulana mein ooainchi ya neechi hain. ek or sabse oopar dhaarmik roop se pavitra athva sarvochch maani jaanevaali braahman jaatiyaaain hain aur doosari or sabse neeche antyaj shreni ki apavitr aur achhoot kahi jaanevaali jaatiyaaain hain. inke beech anya sabhi jaatiyaaain hain jo saamaajik maryaada ki drushti se uchch, madhyam aur nimn shreni mein rakhi ja sakti hain. hindu dharmashaastron ne poore samaaj ko braahman, kshatriya, vaishya aur shoodr in chaar varno mein vibhkt kiya hai. jaatiyon ki saamaajik maryaada ka anumaan karne mein isse suvidha hoti hai. kintu anek jaatiyon ki varnagat sthiti anishchit hai. uttar Bhaarat mein jaat, goojar, aheer aadi kshatriya hone ka daava karte hain aur kaayasth jaati ke varn ke vishay mein anek dhaaranaaeain hain.

khaanapaan aur vyavahaar sambandhi pratibandh

ek pankti mein baithakar kiske saath bhojan kiya ja sakta hai aur kiske haath ka chhuaa hua ya banaaya hua kaun sa bhojan tatha jal aadi sveekaarya ya asveekaarya hai, iske anek jaateeya niyam hain jo bhinn bhinn jaatiyon aur kshetron mein bhinn bhinn hain. is drushti se braahman ko kendra mein rakhakar uttar Bhaarat mein jaatiyon ko paaainch samoohon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai. ek samooh mein braahman jaatiyaaain hai jinmein swayam ek jaati doosari jaati ka kachcha bhojan sveekaar naheen karti aur na ek pankti mein baithakar bhojan kar sakti hai. braahmanon ko kuchh jaatiyaaain itni nimn maani jaati hain ki uchchajaateeya braahmanon se unki kabhi kabhi saamaajik doori bahut kuchh utani hi hoti hai. jitni uchch braahman jaati aur kisi shoodr jaati ke beech hoti hai. doosare samooh mein ve jaatiyaaain aati hain jinke haath ka paka bhojan braahman sveekaar kar sakta hai. teesare samooh ki jaatiyon se braahman keval jal grahan kar sakta hai. chauthe samooh ki jaatiyaaain yadyapi achhoot naheen, tathaapi braahman unke haath ka jal grahan naheen kar sakta. paaainchave samooh mein ve sab jaatiyaaain hain jipke chhoone maatr se braahman tatha anya shuddh jaatiyaaain ashuddh ho jaati hain aur ashuddhi door kare ke liye vastron evam shareer ko dhone tatha anya shuddhikriyaaon ko aavashyakta hoti hai. hindu samaaj mein bhojan sambandhi ek jaateeya aachaar yeh he ki kachcha bhojan apni jaati ke haath ka hi sveekaarya hota hai. doosari parampara yeh hai ki braahman ke haath ka bhi kachcha bhojan grahan kiya jaata hai. teesari parampara yeh hai ki apne se sabhi ooainchi jaatiyon ke haath ka kachcha bhojan sveekaar kiya jaata hai. sabhi jaatiyaaain pehli parampara mein hain aur anya jaatiyaaain saamaanyat: baad ke niyamon ka anusaran karti hain. ek achhoot jaati doosari achhoot jaati ke haath se na to kachcha aur na pakka bhojan sveekaar karti hai, yadyapi shuddh jaatiyon ke haath ka donon prakaar ka bhojan unhein sveekaarya hai. poorvi tatha dakshini Bengal, Gujarat tatha samast dakshini Bhaarat mein kachche tatha pakke bhojan ka yeh bhed naheen hai. Gujarat tatha dakshini Bhaarat mein braahman kisi abraahman jaati ke haath se na to bhojan aur na jal hi grahan karta hai. uttar Bhaarat mein asprushya jaatiyon se chhoo jaane par chhoot lagti hai kintu dakshin mein achhoot vyakti ki chhaaya aur uske nikat jaane se hi chhoot lag jaati hai. braahman ko tamilaad mein shaanaan jaati ke vyakti dvaara 24 pag se, maalaabaar mein tiyaaain se 36 pag aur puliyaaain se 96 pag ki doori se chhoot lag jaati hai. Maharashtra mein asprushya ki chhaaya se uchchajaateeya vyakti ashuddh ho jaata hai. Kerala mein Nair jaisi susanskrut jaati ke chhoone se nanboodri braahman ashuddh ho jaata hai. tamilaad mein puraad bannaan naam ki ek jaati ke darshan maatr se chhoot lag jaati hai.

jaatiyon ki anarhataaeain tatha visheshaadhikaar

bhaarateeya jaativyavastha mein kuchh jaatiyaaain uchch, pavitra, shuddh aur suvidhaapraapt hain aur kuchh nikrusht, ashuddh, asprushya aur asuvidhaapraapt hain. braahman pavitra aur poojya hain aur unhein anek dhaarmik, saamaajik tatha nagaarik visheshaadhikaar praapt hain. inke vipreet asprushya jaatiyaaain hain. dhaarmik drushti se ye jaatiyaaain shaastron ke pathanapaathan tatha shravan ke adhikaar se vanchit hain. inka upanayan sanskaar naheen hota. braahman inke dhaarmik krutyon mein paurohitya naheen karta. devaalayon mein inka pravesh nishiddh hai. ye ashuddh aur ashuddhikaarak hain. aarthik aur vyaavasaayik kshetr mein gande aur nikrusht samajhe jaanevaale kaarya inke supurd hain jinse aay praaya: atyalp hoti hai. inki bastiyaaain gaaainv se kuchh hatkar hoti hain. ye anek saamaajik aur naagrik anarhataaon ke bhaageedaar hain. naai aur dhobi ki shaareerik sevaaeain inhein upalabdh naheen hain. ye saarvajanik taalaabon, dharmashaalaaon aur shikshaasansthaaon ka upayog naheen kar sakte. antyajon ki dasha uttar ki apeksha dakshin Bhaarat mein adhikheen hai. 18 veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh tak Maharashtra mein mahaar jaati ke logon ko din mein das baje ke baad aur 4 baje ke pehle hi gaaainv aur nagar mein ghusne ki aajnyaa thi. us samay bhi unhein gale mein haaaindi aur peechhe jhaadoo baaaindhakar chalana hota tha. dakshin Bhaarat mein poorvi aur pashchimi ghaat ke shaanaan aur idva kuchh kaal poorv tak dutalla makaan naheen banava sakte the. ve joota, chhaata aur sone ke aabhooshanon ka upayog naheen kar sakte the. 19 veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh tak tiyaaain aur anya achhoot jaati ki naariyaaain shareer ka oordhv bhaag dhakakar naheen chal sakti theen. naai, kumhaar, teli jaisi jaatiyaaain bhi vaidik sanskaaron aur shaastreeya gyaan ke adhikaar se vanchit rahi hain. iske vipreet braahmanon aur kshatriyon ko anek visheshaadhikaar praapt the. manusmruti ke anusaar braahman mrutyudand se mukt hai. hindu raajaaon ke shaasanakaal mein braahmanon ko dand tatha karasanbandhi anek riyaayatein praapt theen. dhaarmik karmakaandon mein paurohitya ka ekamaatr adhikaar braahman ko hai. kshatriya bhi vishesh sammaan ke adhikaari hain. shaasan karna unka adhikaar hai. chhuaachhoot ka daayara bahut vyaapak hai. achhoot jaatiyaaain bhi ek doosare se chhoot maanati hain. maalaabaar mein puliyn jaati ke kisi vyakti ko yadi koi parahiya chhoo le to puliyn paaainch baar snaan karke aur apni ek aainguli ke rakt nikaal dene ke baad shuddhilaabh karta hai. shri E. tharstan ke anusaar yadi naayaadi jaati ka vyakti ek sau haath ki doori par aa jaae to sabhi apavitr ho jaate haun. unheen ke anusaar yadi braahman kisi parahiya athva holiya ke ghar ya muhalle mein bhi chala jaae to usase unka ghar aur basti apavitr ho jaati hai.

jaati aur pesha

pratyek jaati ka ek ya adhik paramparaagat dhandha hai. kuchh vibhinn jaatiyon ke samaan paramparaagat dhandhe bhi hain. aar. vi. Russel (R.V. Russel) ne madhyabhaarat ke baare mein bataaya hai ki vahaaain krushakon ki 40, bunakaron ki 11 aur machhuon ki saat bhinn bhinn jaatiyaaain hain. krushi, vyaapaar aur sainik vrutti aadi kuchh aise peshe hain jo praaya: sabhi jaatiyon ke liye khule rahe hain. achhoot ismein apavaad hain, yadyapi krushi anek achhoot jaatiyaaain bhi karti hain. aaj isa ki 20 veen shataabdi ke madhya tak adhikaansh jaatiyon ke adhiktar log apne paramparaagat peshon mein lage hain. chamada kamaana, joote banaana, vishta ki safaai aadi kuchh aise gande tatha nikrusht samajhe jaanevaale kaarya hain. jinhein karne ki anumati anya uchch jaatiyaaain apne sadasyon ko naheen deteen. iske vipreet bunaai ka dhandha anek chhoti jaatiyon ne apna liya hai. jajamaani vyavastha se sambandhit naai, dhobi, badhi, lohaar, aadi ke kuchh aise dhandhe hain jinpar sambandhit jaatiyaaain apna adhikaar maanati hain. paurohitya par braahman jaatiyon ka ekaadhikaar hai. yagya karaana, adhyayan adhyaapan aur daan dakshina lena braahmanon ka jaateeya karm tatha vrutti hai. kshatriyon ka paramparaagat kaarya shaasan aur sainik vrutti hai.

gaaainv mein vibhinn jaateeya samooh seva ki ek aisi vyavastha mein gathit hain jismein adhikaansh jaatiyaaain doosare ki paramparaagat roodhiyon par aadhaarit aarthik, dhaarmik aur saanskrutik jeevan ke liye upayogi, nishchit tatha vishisht seva deti hain1 ise kuchh vidvaanon ne jajamaani vyavastha kaha hai. jajamaani vyavastha ka vistaar aarthik jeevan ke saath saath saanskrutik aur dhaarmik jeevan mein bhi hai aur anek sevak jaatiyaaain apne saanskrutik aur dhaarmik jeevan mein bhi hai aur anek sevak jaatiyaaain apne jajamaanon se aarthik seva ke atirikt saamaajik utsavon aur dhaarmik sanskaaron ke aadhaar par bhi sambaddh ho gayi. braahman tatha anek sevak jaatiyon ka sambandh to apne jajamaanon keval dhaarmik tatha saanskrutik jeevan se hai. bhaat, nat aadi aur braahmanon ki anek jaatiyon ki ganana is shreni mein ki ja sakti hai.

sajaateeya vivaah

sajaateeya vivaah jaatipratha ki reedh maana jaata hai. vaastav mein bahudha ek jaati mein bhi anek antarvivaahi samooh hote hain jo ek prakaar se swayam jaatiyaaain hain aur jinki pruthak‌ jaateeya panchaayatein, anushaasan aur prathaaeain hain. inhein upajaatiyon ka naam bhi diya jaata hai. sajaateeya athva antarvivaah ke kuchh apavaad bhi hain. Punjab ke kuchh pahaadi kshetron mein uchch jaati ka vyakti chhoti jaati ki stri se vivaah kar sakta hai. maalaabaar mein nanboodri braahman maatrusthaaneeya Nair naari se vaivaahik sambandh karta hai.

utpatti

Bhaarat mein jaati praagaitihaasik kaal se milti hai. iski utpatti ke kaaran aur kaal ke vishay mein anek mat hain jo sab anumaan par aadhaarit hain. anek vidvaanon ka mat hai ki shvetavarnan vijeta aaryo or shyaamavarn vijit anaaryo ke sangharsh se aarya or das do jaatiyon ka udaya hua aur kaalakram mein varnasaankarya, dharm, vyavasaaya, shramavibhaajan, sanskruti, pravaas tatha bhaugelik paarthakya se hajaaron jaatiyaaain utpann huin. doosra prabal mat hai ki jaati ka udaya anaarya samaaj mein aaryo ke aagaman se pehle ho chuka tha aur aaryo ke aagaman ne usamein apna yogadaan kiya. is mat ke samarthakon ka kehna hai ki 'maaya', 'jeevatatvavaad' 'abhinishedh' (taiboo) aur jaadoo aadi ki bhaavanaaon se prabhaavit vibhinn samooh jab ek doosare ke sampark mein aae to ve apne vishvaas, sanskruti, prajaapati, dhaarmik karmakaand aadi ke kaaran ek doosare se pruthak‌ bane rahe. kyonki anek jaateeya samoohon ka vishvaas tha ki khaadya padaartho tatha vyavasaayik upakaranon par parakeeya prabhaav anishtakaari hota hai. at: chhuaachhoot aur antarvivaah (sajaateeya vivaah) sanyukt samaaj ke ang bane. sanyog se jaati ko karmavaad ka aadhaar bhi mil gaya. vyavasaaya, kshetreeyata, varnasaankarya aadi anek tatvon ne use prabhaavit, parivrtit aur drudh kiya. aaryo ke aagaman ne is naya roop diya aur jaatipratha aaryo mein bhi pravisht hui. vaidik saahitya ke aadhaar par yeh nishkarsh niklata hai ki praarambh mein bhaarateeya aaryo mein teen varg the jo samast sansaar ke aaryo ki visheshata thi aur jo jaatiyon se moolat: bhinn the.

varn tatha jaati

hindu shaastron ke mat se jaati ka mool varno mein hai. rigved ke 10 vein mandal ke purushasookt ke anusaar brahma ke mukh se braahman, bhujaaon se raajanya (kshatriya), janghaaon se vaishya aur pairon se shoodr utpann hue. is prakaar maanav srushti ke praarambh se hi chaar varno ki utpatti maani gayi hai. manu aadi smrutikaaron ne pratyek varn ke vyakti ke saamaajik aur vyaktigat kaarya, jeevika, shiksha deeksha, sanskaar aur kartavya tatha adhikaar sambandhi niyamon ka vidhaan kiya hai. varnavyavastha mein purohit tatha adhyaapak varg braahman, shaasak tatha sainik varg raajanya ya kshatriya, utpaadak varg vaishya aur shilpi evam sevak varg shoodravarn hain. anek vidvaanon ka mat hai ki vaidik aarya samaaj mein teen aspasht varg the. vaastav mein us samay gauravarn aarya aur shyaamavarn das do hi varn the jinhein ek or to tvacha ka gaur aur shyaam rangabhed aur doosari or vijeta aur vijit ka sattaagat bhed aur saanskrutik bhinnatv ek doosare se pruthak‌ karta tha. daasavarn baad mein shoodravarn hua aur iske saath aaryo ke teenon vargo ne milkar chaaturvarnya ki srushti ki. jo janajaatiyaaain, aarya samaaj se door raheen unhein varnavyavastha mein sammilit naheen kiya gaya. varnon me antarvivaah ka nishedh naheen tha aur is nishedh ka na hona mool aarya samaaj ki parampara ke anukool tha. keval pratilom vivaah nishiddh the. hindu dharmashaastron ne jaatiyon ko naheen, varnon ko maanyata di hai, yadyapi swayam vedon aur smrutiyon mein anek jaatiyon ka ullekh hai jo vastut: ya to anaarya sabhya jaatiyaaain hain, ya sabhya samaaj ke sampark mein aae anaarya jan jaateeya samooh hain. jaatibhed ka mool (aarambh) aaryo mein naheen tha. at: jaati shaastrakaaron dvaara aapekshit rahi hai. aaryamool ki uchch jaatiyon mein jaateeya panchaayaton ki anupasthiti bhi mool aarya samaaj ki jaativiheen sthiti ki dyotak hai. parantu hindu samaaj mein jaatiyon ka maulik mahatva hai aur ye varno se bhinn hain. aise logon ki sankhya kam naheen hai jinka varnan anishchit aur vivaadaaspad hai, jabki sabhi ki jaati nishchit aur sandeh se pare hai. varno ka saamaajik maryaadaakram asandigdh aur nishchit hai, jabki jaatiyon ka ek seema tak nishchit hote hue bhi sandigdh aur vivaadaaspad rahata hai. saamaajik maryaada ki drushti se jaatiyaaain sthaaneeya tatha kshetreeya aur varnan saarvadeshik hain arthaat‌ jaatiyon mein sthaanabhed se maryaadaabhed ho jaata hai. varnavyavastha mein do varno ke beech vivaahasanbandh nishiddh naheen hai, keval pratilom vivaah nishiddh hai. jaativyavastha mein antarjaateeya vivaah sarvatha nishiddh hai. varn samaaj ki kriyaatmak vaastavik ikaaiyaaain naheen hain aur jaatittv jeevan ke praaya: sabhi angon mein samaavisht hai. jaati ke kaaran varno ki gatisheelata avaruddh hai aur vyakti ke liye varnaantar usi prakaar asambhav hai jis prakaar jaatyantar, kyonki vyakti moolat: jaati se sambaddh hai aur jaati ke saath hi usaka varnaantar ho sakta hai. varnavibhaajan mein kisi jaati ka sthaan usaki saamaajik pratishtha ka dyotak hai. antyaj ya achhoot jaatiyaaain yadyapi hindu samaaj k ang hain tathaapi varnavyavastha mein unka koi sthaan naheen hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein kshatriya tatha vaishya varnan ki maanya jaatiyaaain hain hi naheen. jin jaatiyon ne in varnon ke peshe apna liye hain unhein aaj bhi shoodr hi maana jaata hai, yadyapi ve sab kshatriya ya vaishya hone ka daava karti hain. Kerala ke raajavanshon tak ki yahi sthiti thi. hinduon ke karmavaad ne jaativyavastha ko dhaarmik aashray pradaan kiya aur yeh aashray jaati ko drudh tatha sthaayi banaane ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hai. jaati ke saath saamaanya hindu ka taadaatmya dharm ki upeksha aur avajnyaa kar sakta hai kintu jaateeya bandhanon, prathaaon aur aachaar vyavahaar ka ullanghan uske liye kathin hai. vaastav mein adhikaansh logon ki dhaarana mein dharm aur jaati ka bhed hai hi naheen.

prajaateeya tatv

Bhaarat upamahaadveep mein praagaitihaasik kaal se sansaar ki vibhinn prajaatiyon ka mishran hota raha aur yadyapi kuchh kshetron aur jaateeya samoohon mein ek ya doosari prajaati ke lakshan bahulata se parilkshit hain, tathaapi prajaateeya bhed aur jaati mein atoot sambandh sthaapit naheen kiya jaata. H. H. rijli ne Punjab, uttar pradesh aur Bihar ki kuchh jaatiyon ke naasikaamaapan se yeh nishkarsh nikaala ki aarya prajaati ka ansh jis jaati mein jitna adhik ya kam hai usaka mote taur par saamaajik sthaan utana hi ooaincha ya neecha hai. kintu daaktar ji. S. dhurae aur anya jaatividon ne maanavamitik naapon ke aadhaar par rijli ki prasthaapana ka khandan kiya hai. Bhaarat ke jaateeya samoohon mein prajaateeya mishran vyaapak hai aur yeh mishran vibhinn jaatiyon, upajaatiyon tatha kshetron mein bhinn bhinn hai1 sambhavat: Bhaarat ke praacheenatam nivaasi nigrito maanav jaati ke the. inke vanshaj praaya: amishrit avastha mein aaj bhi andamaan mein hain1 inke atirikt naata kad, kaala rang aur oon sareekhe baalavaali kaadar, irala aur paniyn jaisi dakshin Bhaarat ki vanya jaatiyon mein tatha uttarapoorv ki kuchh naaga janajaatiyon mein nigrito maanav jaati ka mishran parilkshit hai. nigrito ke pashchaat‌ Bhaarat mein sambhavat: nishaad (aastrik) maanav jaati ka padaarpan hua jiske shaareerik lakshanon mein deergh kapaal, pruthu naasika, majhola kad aur ghungharaale baal tatha chaakaleti shyaamal varn hai. nishaadon ka mishran samast Bhaarat mein aur visheshakar chhoti jaatiyon mein adhik hai. dakshin ki adhikaansh vanya jaatiyaaain aur kol santhaal, munda aur bheel moolat: isi vansh ki janajaatiyaaain hain. musahar, chamaar, paasi aadi jaatiyon mein bhi isi maanav jaati k ansh adhik parilkshit hota hai. deergh kapaal aur madhyam naasika tatha shyaam varnavaali Dravid jaati ka prabhaav dakshin Bhaarat par sabse adhik hai. kintu madhya aur samast uttar Bhaarat ki aabaadi mein bhi iska vyaapak mishran hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki Dravid jaati ka uttar Bhaarat mein nishaad, kiraat (mangol) aur aarya rakt se mishran hua tatha in logon ne aarya bhaashaaon ko grahan kar liya. gond, khond aur beinga janajaatiyaaain isi vansh ka hain. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki Bhaarat mein nigriton, nishaad (aastrik), Dravid kiraat (mangolaayad) aur aarya jaatiyon ka mishran hua hai. inke atirikt gol sir aur madhyam kad waali arminaayad maanav jaati ka mishran Dravid jaati se ya to Bhaarat mein aane par ya uske poorv hi hua. dakshin tatha madhya Bhaarat or Bengal mein is jaati ke lakshan spasht hain. prajaateeya mishran ki drushti se Bhaarat uttar-pashchim mein aarya, uttar-poorvan mein kiraat tatha nishaad aur dakshin mein Dravid tatha nishaad maanav jaatiyon ke lakshan adhik prabal hain.

Bhaarat ke ahinduon mein jaatitv

Bhaarat mein jaati sarvavyaapi tatv hai. isaaiyon, musalmaanon, jainon aur sikhon mein bhi jaatiyaaain hain aur unamein bhi uchch, nimn tatha shuddh ashuddh jaatiyon ka bhed vidyamaan hai, fir bhi unamein jaati ka vaisa kathor roop aur sookshm bhed prabhed naheen hai jaisa hinduon mein hai. isa ki 12 veen shati mein dakshin mein veer shaiv sanpradaaya ka udaya jaati ke virodh mein hua tha. kintu kaalakram mein uske anuyaayion ki ek pruthak‌ jaati ban gayi jiske andar swayam anek jaatibhed hain. sikhon mein bhi jaateeya samooh bane hue hain aur yahi dasha kabeerapanthiyon ki hai. Gujarat ki musalim bohara jaati ki masjidon mein yadi anya musalmaan namaaj padhe to ve sthaan ko dhokar shuddh karte hain. Bihar raajya mein sarkaar ne 27 musalmaan jaatiyon ko pichhde vargo ki soochi mein rakha hai. Kerala ke vibhinn prakaar ke isaai vaastav mein jaateeya samooh ho gaye hain. musalmaanon aur sikkhon ki bhaaainti yahaaain ke isaaiyon mein achhoot samooh bhi hain jinke girjaaghar alag hain athva jinke liye saamaanya girjaagharon mein pruthak‌ sthaan nishchit kar diya gaya hai. kintu musalmaanon aur sikhon ke jaatibhed hinduon ke jaatibhed se adhik milte julate hain jiska kaaran yeh he ki hindu dharman ke anuyaayi jab jab islaam ya sikh dharm sveekaar karte hein to vahaaain bhi apne jaateeya samoohon ko bahut kuchh surakshit rakhate hain aur is prakaar sikhon ya musalmaanon ki ek pruthak‌ jaati ban jaati hai.

jaati ki gatisheelata

Bhaarat mein jaati chirkaaleen saamaajik sanstha hai. E. A. H. blant ke anusaar jaativyavastha itni parivrtanasheel hai iska koi bhi svaroopavarnan adhik dinon tak sahi naheen rahata. iska vikaas ab bhi jaari hai. nai jaatiyon tatha upajaatiyon ka praadurbhaav hota rahata hai aur puraani roodhiyon ka kshaya ho jaata hai. nae maanav samoohon ko grahan karne ki ismein vilkshan kshamata rahi hai. kabhi kabhi kisi kshetr ki koi sampoorn jaati ya usaka ek ang dhaarmik sanskaaron tatha saamaajik reetiyon mein ooainchi jaatiyon ki nakal karke aur shiksha tatha sampatti, satta aur jeevika aadi ki drushti se unnat hokar kaalakram mein apni maryaada ko ooaincha kar leti hai. itihaas mein anek aise bhi udaaharan hain jab chhoti ya shoodr jaatiyon ke samoohon ko raajya ki krupa se braahman tatha kshatriya sveekaar kar liya gaya. J. vilsan aur H. L. roj ke anusaar rajputana, singh aur Gujarat ke pokharaana ya pushkaran braahman aur uttar pradesh mein unnaav jile ke aamataada ke paathak aur mahaavar rajput isi prakriya se uchch jaateeya ho gaye. aisa dekha gaya hai ki jaatiyon ka uchch ya nimn sthaan dhaarmik anushthaan tatha saamaajik pratha, aarthik sthiti tatha satta dvaara sthir aur parivrtit hota hai. iske atirikt kuchh peshe gande tatha nikrusht aur kuchh shuddh tatha shreshth maane jaate hain. chamade ka kaam, mal mootr ki safaai kapadon ki dhulaai aadi gande peshe hain; baal kaatna, mitti aur dhaatu ke bartan banaana, tokari, soop aadi banaana, binaai, dhunaai aadi nimn kaarya hain; kheti, vyaapaar, pashupaalan, raaja ki naukri madhyam or vidyaadhyayan, adhyaapan, tatha shaasan shreshth kaarya hain. isi prakaar bhojan ke kuchh padaarth uttam aur kuchh nikrusht maane jaate hain. mrut pashu, vishthopajeevi shookar tatha maansaahaari geedad, kutte, billi aadi ka maans nikrusht khaadya maana jaata hai. shaakaahaar karna aur madiraatyaag uttam hai. dhaarmik sanskaar aur unki vidhiyon ka bhi bahut mahatva hai. striyon ka punarvivaah aur vidhvaavivaah uchch jaatiyon mein nishiddh aur nimn jaatiyon mein sveekrut hai. yeh nishedh dhaarmik tatha saanskrutik drushti se uttam maana jaata hai. at: jab koi jaati apni maryaada ko ooaincha karne ke liye prayatnasheel hoti hai to ooainchi jaatiyon ke dhaarmik sanskaaron ko apanaati hai aur nikrusht bhojan, madyapaan, striyon ke punarvivaah aur vidhvaavivaah par rok laga deti hai. yadyapi jaateeya gatisheelata hindu samaaj ke sabhi staron mein, ek hi star ke andar aur vibhinn staron ke beech vidyamaan hai tathaapi antyaj varg ki jaatiyon k oopar ke staron mein pahuainchana abhi tak asambhav hi bana hua hai. aisa bhi dekha gaya hai ki sanskaar, sampatti aur satta ki drushti se unnat hone par bhi kisi jaati ke uchch shreni sambandhi daave ko maanyata nahi mili. kuchh bhi ho aadhunik yug mein jaateeya gatisheelata anek dishaaon mein badh rahi hai. pashchaatya sanskruti ke prabhaav ne ek nai dhaara pravaahit ki hai. angreji bhaasha ke maadhyam se uchchashikshaapraapt ve log jo ooainche sarkaari padon par hain ya udyog tatha vyaapaar mein unnati kar gaye hain, apne Khan paan aur rahan sahan ko badal rahe hain aur jaateeya aachaar vyavahaar ka paalan naheen karte athva usaki upeksha karte hain. fir bhi, apni jaati se inka sambandh bana rahata hai aur inhein jaati se vishesh pratishtha tatha samaan bhi praapt hota hai. nagaron tatha audyogik keindron mein anek jaateeya bhedabhaav tatha bandhan - jaise khaanapaan ke pratibandh, peshe tatha vyavasaaya sambandhi rukaavatein - aur chhuaachhoot ki kathorata teevrata se samaapt ho rahi hai. parantu vivaah ab bhi apni jaati ke hi andar hota hai, yadyapi is disha mein bhi parivartan parilkshit hain. anek jaatiyon ki upajaatiyon mein vivaah sambandh sugam ho gaya hai aur visheshakar uchch jaatiyon mein antarjaateeya vivaahon ko sveekaar kiya jaane laga hai. kaanooni roop se nyaaya aur dand ka adhikaar jaati panchaayaton ke adheen na rahane se bhi unki shakti aur prabhaav badhaane ke liye prayatnasheel hain aur inke ye prayatn raajaneetik gatividhiyon mein abhivyakt hote hain svatantrataapraapti ke baad uttar pradesh mein 'ajagar' dal (aheer, jaat, goojar aur rajput) aur shoshit vargasangh ka sanghatan hua. Maharashtra mein shri bheemaraav anbedakar ke netrutv mein pehle dalit vargasangh aur baad mein Republican party bani aur dakshin Bhaarat mein pehle Justice party aur svatantrapraapti ke baad Dravid munnetr kadgam‌ ka sanghatan hua. desh ke lokataantrik nirvaachanon mein jaatittv pramukh ho jaata hai, sarkaari naukariyon aur suvidhaaon ki praapti mein bhi jaateeya pakshapaat pratilkshit hota hai. is prakaar raajaneeti mein jaati ka vishesh sthaan ho gaya hai. 20 veen shataabdi ke aarambh se hi bhaugolik drushti se bhi jaateeya sanghatan vyaapak hote ja rahe hain aur nae dhg se apne ko sangathit kar rahe hain.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan aur kaanoon ki drushti se chhuaachhoot ka vyavahaar dandaneeya aparaadh hai. samvidhaan ne anusoochit jaatiyon (dalit jaatiyon) aur janajaatiyon ke liye anek prakaar ke aarakshan ka vaidhaanik praavidhaan kiya hai, jiske antargat sansad tatha raajyon ke vidhaanamandalon mein aarakshit sthaan nishchit kiye gaye hain. isi prakaar keindreeya tatha raajya sarkaaron ki naukariyon mein bhi anusoochit jaatiyon aur janajaatiyon ke liye sthaan aarakshit hain. in jaatiyon ko yeh aarakshan antarim kaal ke liye diya gaya hai.

jaativyavastha ke gun dosh

bhaarateeya jaativyavastha praagaitihaasik kaal se ek drudh saamaajik aarthik sanstha ke roop mein vidyamaan hai. nissandeh is vyavastha mein vyakti ki svatantrata ati seemit hai aur vah jaativishesh, jaateeya shaakhaavishesh tatha parivaaravishesh ke sadasya ke roop mein jaana aur maana jaata hai. asamaanata iska doosra lakshan hai. is vyavastha mein vyaktigat yogyata tatha aakaankshaaon ka vishesh mahatva naheen hai. fir bhi, is vyavastha ne samaaj ko ek aisi vilkshan sthirta aur vyaktiyon ko aisi shaanti aur suraksha pradaan ki hai jo anyatr dikhaai naheen deti. jaatiyon ke aantarik sanghatan, jajamaani vyavastha aur paarivaarik daayitvon ke dvaara vyakti ko sabhi prakaar ki saamaajik suraksha milti rahi hai. ismein anaath bachchon ka paalan poshan, vidhvaaon, rogiyon apaahijon aur vruddhon ki dekharekh tatha aashray ki vyavastha hai. kintu jaati vyavastha ka aadhunik audyogik arthapranaali aur janataantrik svatantrata tatha samaajavaadi samaanata ke moolyon se mel naheen baithata aur lagta hai ki vah virodh buniyaadi hai. aarthik vikaas ke liye jis vyaavasaayik tatha bhaugolik gatisheelata ki aavashyakta hai, jaateeya bandhan usamein baadhak hai. ab yeh dekhanara hai ki vartamaan nirantar parivrtanasheel aur sankraanti yug mein jaati apna svaroop badalkar saamaajik sambandhon mein yugaanukool naya saamanjasya sthaapit karti hai ya nishprayojya aur avarodhak bankar samaapt ho jaati hai.

anya deshon mein jaatittv

jaativyavastha bhaarateeya samaaj ki visheshata hai. vah aisi sthir vastu maani gayi hai. jismein vyakti ki saamaajik maryaada janm se nishchit hokar aajeevan aparivrtaneeya rahati hai. aitihaasik abhilekhon se gyaat hota hai ki praacheen misran aur pashchimi rom saamraajya mein bhi is prakaar ki vyavastha thi jismein kaarya vibhaajan se utpann peshe aur pad vanshaanugat kar diye gaye the. isa ki 5veen shataabdi mein rom saamraajya ki vidhisanhita ke adheen sabhi dhandhe aur prashaasanik kaarya vanshaanugat the. vivaahasanbandh apni biraadari mein hi ho sakta tha. praacheen misr mein purohit, sainik, lekhak, charavaahe, suar paalanevaale aur vyaapaariyon ke pruthak‌ pruthak‌ varg the jinke peshe aur pad vanshaanugat the. koi kaareegar apna Patrick dhandha chhodkar doosra dhandha naheen kar sakta tha. usaka apne varg se sambandh atoot tha. suar paalne vaale achhoot maane jaate the aur unhein mandiron mein pravesh karne ki anumati naheen thi. vaivaahik drushti se unki antarvivaahi jaati thi. sainik, purohit aur lekhak evam adhyaapak uchchavarg mein the aur ek hi parivaar mein teenon prakaar ke vyakti ho sakte the. parantu anya vargo ke liye unke Patrick peshe nirdhaarit the. is prakaar misr aur praacheen rom mein vargo ke vibhaajan ka roop vaisa na tha jaisa Bhaarat mein milta hai. na to khaanapaan aur chhuaachhoot sambandhi pratibandh the aur na antavargeeya vivaahon par dhaarmik ya saamaajik rok thi. peshon ke sambandh mein bhi rom tatha misr donon deshon mein shaasan ki or se rok lagaai gayi thi.

Japan mein sainik saamantavaad (12veen shataabdi se 18veen shataabdi ke madhya tak) ke shaasanakaal mein abhijaat sainik samuraai varg ke atirikt krushak, kaareegar, vyaapaari aur dalit varg the. samuraai shaasan suvidhaasanpann varg tha, jiske liye vishesh kaanooni vyavastha aur adaalatein theen. dalit varg mein eta aur hinin do samooh the jo samaaj ke patit ang maane jaate the aur gande tatha heen samajhe jaanevaale kaarya unke sapurd the. vibhinn varg vivaah ki drushti se antarvivaahi samooh the aur do vargo ke vyaktiyon mein vivaah ke liye shaasan se vishesh aajnyaa lene ka aavashyakta hoti thi. cheen mein shaasakeeya padon ke liye abaadh pareeksha ka niyam tha jo sabhi vargo ke liye khuli thi. parantu naaiyon ka ek pruthak‌ aur patit varg maana jaata tha jisko na to shaasakeeya pareekshaaon mein bhaag lene ki anumati thi aur na koi anya varg ka vyakti inse vivaahasanbandh karta tha. anya vargo mein peshe saadhaaranat: vangaanugat the. parantu is sambandh mein aur antarvivaah ke sambandh mein bhi kathor saamaajik niyam naheen the. korniyon mein vibhinn varg sada apne varg mein hi vivaah karte hain. kintu madhyam varg ke vyakti das varg ki striyon se vivaah kar lete hain. kairolin mein daason ke atirikt uchch aur nimn do varg hain. nimn varg ka vyakti yadi uchch varg ke vyakti ko chhoo le to vah aparaadhi maana jaayaga jiska dand mrutyu hai. nimn varg ke log machhali ka shikaar tatha naavik ka kaarya naheen kar sakte. Africa mein lohaaron ka samooh praaya: shesh samaaj se pruthak‌ rakha jaata hai aur is varg ke log apni biraadari mein hi vivaah karte hain. barma mein paigoda ka daasavarg ek pruthak‌ aur antarvivaahi samooh hai aur unka pesha vanshaanugat hai. vahaaain ke raajaaon ke kaal mein chhah heen varg samajhe jaate the jo shesh samaaj se pruthak‌ rahate the. unase na to koi anya barmi vivaah tatha khaanapaan ka sambandh karta tha aur na unke peshon ko apanaata tha. in vargo mein the paigoda ke das, police ka kaam karanevaale tatha faaainsi denevaale log, kodhi, asaadhya rogon se peedit, viklaang, muradon ko dafan karanevaale log tatha raaja ke kheton mein kaam karanevaale das.

is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki praacheen kaal mein aur saamantavaadi vyavastha mein peshon aur padon ki vanshaanugat karne ko pravrutti praaya: sabhi deshon mein thi. inke atirikt anek deshon mein kuchh samooh aise bhi dikhaai dete hain jo shesh samaaj se pruthak‌ aur heen hain tatha anek naagrik aur dhaarmik suvidhaaon se vanchit hain. saamaajik maryaada ki drushti se vibhinn vargon ka shreneevibhaajan to sabhi deshon mein raha hai. bhaarateeya uchch vargo ki bhaaainti anyatr bhi uchch vargo ko praaya: saanpattik, naagrik aur dhaarmik visheshaadhikaar praapt rahe hain. chhuaachhoot aur antarvivaahon par nishedh ke kuchh udaaharan bhi jahaaain tahaaain milte hain. praacheen misr, madhyakaaleen rom aur saamanti Japan mein raajya ki or se antarvivaahon par pratibandh laga diye gaye the aur peshon ko vanshaanugat kar diya gaya tha. vanshaanugat peshe, biraadari mein hi vivaah ka niyam aur chhuaachhoot aadi bhaarateeya jaati ke pramukh tatvon mein hain. kintu Bhaarat ke baahar vartamaan samay mein ya puraane itihaas mein aise kisi samaaj ka astitv dikhaai naheen deta jo svat: udbhoot jaateeya vyavastha se parichlit ho aur jahaaain jaativyavastha samaaj ka svabhaav ban gayi ho.

sandarbh granth

  • E. A. H. enthovin : the traaibs aind kaasts ov‌ baanbe, Mumbai 1920;
  • E. tharstan : kaasts aind traaibs ov‌ southern India, Madras, 1909;
  • William kruk : the traaibs aind kaasts ov North western praavinsej aind avadh, gavarnameint press, Calcutta, 1896; *aar.bi. Russel : traaibs aind kaasts ov central praavinsej ov India, maikamiln, London, 1916;
  • H.A. roj : A glaasari ov the traaibs aind kaasts ov the Punjab aind North western praavinsej, Lahore, 1911; *H. H. rijle : traaibs aind kaasts ov Bengal - ithanograafik glaasari, Calcutta, 1891;
  • J. M. Bhattacharya : hindu kaasts aind sekts, Calcutta, 1896;
  • shreedhar ketakar : the history ov Caste in India, New York, 1909;
  • H. rijle : the peepul ov India, dviteeya san., Mumbai, 1915;
  • ji. S. dhuriye Caste, class aind okupeshan, chaturth san. paapular book dipo, Mumbai 1961;
  • E. A. H. blant : the Caste system ov naardarn India, London 1931;
  • M. N. shreenivaas : Caste in maadarn India aind adar ejej, Asia pablishing house, Mumbai 1962;
  • J. H. hatan : Caste in India, itas nechar, fankashans aind orijins, Cambridge, 1946;
  • narmadeshvaraprasaad upaadhyaaya : the mith ov the Caste system, Patna, 1957;
  • kshitimohan sen : 'bhaaratavarsh mein jaatibhed' Abhinav bhaarateeya granthamaala, Calcutta, 1940;
  • dau॰ mangaladev shaastri: bhaarateeya sanskruti - vaidik dhaara, samaajavijnyaaan parishd, Varanasi, 1955

inhein bhi dekhein

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