jaateeya samooh

jaateeya samooh manushyon ka ek aisa samooh hota hai jiske sadasya kisi vaastavik ya kalpit saanjhi vansh-parampara ke maadhyam se apne aap ko ek nasl ke vanshaj maanate hain.[1][2] yeh saanjhi viraasat vanshakram, itihaas, rakt-sambandh, dharm, bhaasha, saanjhe kshetr, raashtreeyata ya bhautik roop-rang (yaani logon ki shakl-soorat) par aadhaarit ho sakti hai. ek jaateeya samooh ke sadasya apne ek jaateeya samooh se sambandhit hone se avagat hote hain; iske alaava jaateeya pehchaan doosaron dvaara us samooh ki vishishtata ke roop mein pahachaane jaane se bhi chihnit hoti hai.[3][4]

"chaileinjej of mesharing ain ethanik world: science, politiks, end reeeliti" naamak staitistiks Canada aur the United states sensas bureau (April 1-3, 1992) dvaara aayojit ek sammelan ke anusaar, "jaateeyata maanav jeevan mein ek aadhaarbhoot upaadaan hai: yeh maanav anubhav ka ek antarnihit tathya hai."[5] yadyapi, maanavavijnyaaani fredarik baarth aur erik vulf jaise kai saamaajik vaigyaanik jaateeya pehchaan ko saarvabhaumik naheen maanate hain. ve jaateeyata ko maanav samooh mein antarnihit ek mahatvapoorn gun maanane ke bajaae, ise ek vishisht prakaar ki antar-samooh paarasparik kriya ka utpaad maanate hain.[6]

jo prakriyaaen is prakaar ke pehchaan ke udbhav ka kaaran banti hain, unhein prajaativrutt kehte hain. ek jaateeya samooh ke sadasya, samagr roop se, samay ke saath saanskrutik nirantarata ka daava karte hain. yadyapi, itihaasakaaron aur saanskrutik maanavavijnyaaaniyon ne pralekhit kiya hai ki aksar kai moolya, prathaaen aur niyam, jinmein ateet ke saath nirantarata nihit hoti hai, apekshaakrut haaliya aavishkaar hain.[7][8]

Thomas hillaind eriksan ke anusaar, jaateeyata ke adhyayan par abhi tak do bhinn tark haavi the. ek, "aadimvaad" aur "karanavaad" ke beech hai. aadimvaadi drushti mein, sahabhaagi, jaateeya sambandhon ko sanyukt roop mein, baahya roop se pradatt, jo aakraamak bhi ho sakta hai, ek saamaajik bandhan ke roop mein grahan karta hai.[9] doosari or karanavaadi drushtikon ke anusaar, jaateeyata mukhyat: ek raajaneetik rananeeti ka ek tadarth tatv hai, jise hit samoohon ke liye dhan, shakti ya ohade mein vruddhi jaise doosare darje ke lakshyon ko praapt karne ke liye sansaadhan ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai.[10][11] yeh bahas raajaneeti vigyaan mein abhi bhi ek mahatvapoorn sandarbh ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, yadyapi adhiktar vidvaanon ke drushtikon donon dhruvon ke beech hi rahate hain.[12]

doosari bahas "rachanaavaad" aur "taatvikvaad" ke beech hai. rachanaavaadi raashtreeya aur jaateeya pahachaanon ko aksar haaliya aitihaasik balon ke roop mein dekhte hain, tab bhi jab pahachaanon ko puraatan ke roop mein prastut kiya jaata hai.[13][14] taatvikvaadi is tarah ke parichay ko saamaajik kaarravaai ke parinaam ke bajaay, saamaajik kartaaon ko paribhaashit karne vaale sattaamoolak shreniyon ke roop mein dekhte hain.[15][16]

eriksen ke anusaar, in vaad-vivaadon ko darakinaar kar diya gaya, visheshakar maanav vigyaan mein un vidvaanon ke prayaason dvaara, jo vibhinn jaateeya samoohon aur raashtron ke sadasyon dvaara sv-netrutv ke badhte raajaneetikran roopon ka javaab dene ke liye kiye gaye. yeh sanyukt raajya America aur Canada jaise deshon mein faile bahusanskrutivaad par aadhaarit vaad-vivaadon ke pariprekshya mein hai, jismein bade paimaane par kai aapravaasi aabaadiyaan, vibhinn sanskrutiyon se aur upaniveshavaad ke pashchaat se kairebiya aur dakshin Asia mein hain.

anukram

jaateeyata ki paribhaasha

angreji ke shabd "ethanisiti" aur "ethanik group", greek shabd ethenos se vyutpann hue hain, jise saamaanya roop se "raashtra" ya aam taur par ek vishisht sanskruti ka anukaran karne vaale ek hi prajaati ke logon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai. "ethanik" shabd aur uske sambandhit roopon ka istemaal angreji mein 14veen shataabdi se 19veen shataabdi ke madhya "pegn/heethan" ke arth ke roop mein kiya gaya. theei. tonakin, M. maikadonaald aur M. chaipamen, histari end ethanisiti (London 1989), pru. 11–17 (J, hachinsan aur A. di. smith (san), oksaford reedars: ethanisiti (oksaford 1996), pru. 18–24 mein uddhrut)</ref>

haalaanki, "jaateeya" samooh ke aadhunik upayog, audyogik raajyon ka adheenasth samoohon ke saath vibhinn prakaar ki muthabhedon ko darshaata hai, jaise ki aapravaasiyta aur upanivesh vishay; "jaateeya samooh" ko "raashtra" ke virodh mein un logon ko sandarbhit karne ke uddeshya se khada kiya gaya, jinki alag saanskrutik pehchaan hoti hai aur jo pravaas ya vijay ke maadhyam se, kisi videshi raajya ke adheen ho gaye hain. is shabd ka aadhunik upayog apekshaakrut naya hai-1851[17] - 1935 mein[18] pehli baar jaateeya samooh shabd ka upayog kiya gaya aur 1972 mein Oxford english dikshanari mein iska pravesh hua.[19][20]

Oxford english dikshanari ki aadhunik upayog sambandhi paribhaasha is prakaar hai:

a[djective]

...
2.a. Pertaining to race; peculiar to a race or nation; ethnological. Also, pertaining to or having common racial, cultural, religious, or linguistic characteristics, esp. designating a racial or other group within a larger system; hence (U.S. colloq.), foreign, exotic.
b ethnic minority (group), a group of people differentiated from the rest of the community by racial origins or cultural background, and usu. claiming or enjoying official recognition of their group identity. Also attrib.

n[oun]

...
3 A member of an ethnic group or minority. orig. U.S.
—aOxford English Dictionary "ethnic, a. and n."[21]

great Britain aur sanyukt raajya America ki saadhaaran bhaasha mein angreji shabd "ethanik" ke upayog ke vishay mein likhte hue, vaulaman yeh tippani karte hain ki

'ethanik' shabd keval kam sateekata aur ek halke moolya bhaar se, Britain mein aam taur par 'jaati' ka hi sanket deta hai. iske theek vipreet uttari America mein "race" ka matlab saamaanyat: rang hota hai aur 'ethanik' gair angreji bhaashi deshon se aae apekshaakrut haaliya aapravaasiyon ke vanshaj hote hain. 'ethanik' ko Britain mein ek sanjnyaa naheen maana jaata hai. vaastav mein vahaan koi 'ethaniks' shabd naheen hai; vahaan keval 'ethanik rileshans' hain.[22]

is prakaar vartamaan bolachaal ki bhaasha mein, aaj bhi "ethanik" aur "ethanisiti" shabd ke chaaron or videshi logon, alpasankhyak muddon aur jaateeya sambandhon ka ek ghera bana hua hai.

haalaanki, saamaajik vigyaan ke daayare mein, iska upayog saamaanyeekrut roop se un sabhi maanav samoohon ke liye kiya jaata hai jo spashtataya swayam ko saanskrutik roop se vishisht maanate hain aur doosaron dvaara bhi maane jaate hain.[23] "ethanik group" shabd ko saamaajik vigyaan mein laane vaale pratham vyaktiyon mein jarman samaajashaastri maiks vebar bhi shaamil hain, jo ise is roop mein paribhaashit karte hain:

[ve] maanav samooh jo apne samaan udbhav ki aatmanishth dhaarana ko ek jaisi shaareerik banaavat ya rivaajon ya donon ke kaaran ya upaniveshan aur pravaas ki yaadon ke kaaran maanate hai; yeh dhaarana samooh gathan ke liye mahatvapoorn honi chaahiye; iske alaava isse koi fark naheen padta ki ek vishyaashrit rakt-sambandh maujood hai ya naheen.[24]

jaateeyata ka sankalpanaatmak itihaas

vebar ka kehna hai ki jaateeya samooh kyunstalish the (krutrim, arthaat ek saamaajik nirmaan), kyonki ve saajha gemaainashaaft (samudaaya) mein aatmanishth dhaarana par aadhaarit the. doosare, saajha gemaainashaaft mein is vishvaas ne samooh ka nirmaan naheen kiya, apitu samooh ne vishvaas ko banaaya. teesare, samooh gathan, shakti aur rutabe par ekaadhikaar karne ki hod ka nateeja tha. yeh us samay ki prachalit prakrutivaadi dhaarana ke vipreet tha, jiske anusaar samaaj-saanskrutik aur logon ki vyavahaarik bhinnataaen, vanshaagat lakshanon aur sarvanishth vanshon se vyutpann pravruttiyon se utpann hoti hain, jise us samay "race" kehte the.[25]

jaateeyata ke ek aur prabhaavashaali siddhaantapremi the fredrik baarth, jinke 1969 se "ethanik grups end baaundreej" ko 1980 aur 1990 ke dashakon mein saamaajik adhyayan mein is shabd ke upayog ke prasaar mein sahaayak ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai.[26] baarth, jaateeyata ki prakruti ke nirmaan par bal dene mein vebar se bhi aage nikal gaye. baarth ke liye, donon baahya aaropan aur aantarik aatm-pehchaan ke dvaara nirantar roop se vaarta aur punarvaata hi jaateeyata thi. baarth ki rai mein jaateeya samooh kram vichhedi saanskrutik ekaaki ya taarkik A prioris naheen hain, jisse log svaabhaavik roop se sambandhit hote hain. ve sanskrutiyon ke paribddh tatv aur jaateeyata ko aadimvaadi bandhan maanane waali maanavashaastreeya dhaaranaaon se door rahana aur use samoohon ke beech paarthakya prushth par dhyaan sankeindran ke saath pratisthaapit karna chaahate the. isliye, jaateeya pehchaan ki aapasi sanbaddhata par dhyaan keindrit karna hi "jaateeya samooh aur seemaaen" hai. baarth likhte hain: "[...] nirnayaatmak jaateeya bhed gatisheelata, sampark aur jaankaari ke abhaav par nirbhar naheen hai, lekin ismein apavarjan aur samaavesh ki saamaajik prakriyaaen shaamil hain jisse vyaktigat jeevan itihaas ke dauraan unki sahabhaagita aur sadasyata mein badlaav ke baavajood, asatat shreniyon ko barkaraar rakha jaata hai."

1978 mein, maanav vigyaani ronaald kohen ne daava kiya ki "saamaajik vaigyaaniko ke upayog mein "jaateeya samoohon" ki pehchaan, aksar deshi yathaarth se adhik, galat lebal ko pratibinbit karti hai:

... naamit jaateeya pehchaan jise ham aksar bina soche samajhe, saahitya mein diye gaye aadhaaron par apna lete hain, aksar manamaane dhang se, ya usase bhi badatar dhang se adhiropit kiye gaye hai.[26]

is tarah se, unhonne is sachchaai ki or ingit kiya ki ek jaateeya samooh ki pehchaan maanav vijnyaaaniyon jaise baahari logon dvaara kiye jaane par, us samooh ke aatm-pehchaan se bhinn ho sakti hai. unhonne yeh bhi bataaya ki upayog ke pehle ke dashakon mein, jaateeyata shabd ka prayog aksar saajha saanskrutik pranaaliyon aur saajha viraasat vaale chhote samoohon ke sandarbh mein "saanskrutik" ya "janajaateeya" jaise puraane shabdon ke sthaan par prayog kiye jaate hain, parantu us "jaateeyata" mein donon hi janajaateeya aur aadhunik samaajon mein samoohon ki pehchaan pranaaliyon mein samaanataaon ko varnit karne mein saksham hone ki atirikt khoobi thi. kohen ne yeh bhi sujhaaya ki "jaati" pehchaan sambandhi daave (jaise pehle ke "janajaateeya" pehchaan sambandhi daave) aksar upaniveshavaadi prathaaen hain aur upanivesheeya logon aur raashtra-raajyon ke beech ke sambandhon ka prabhaav hain.[26]

saamaajik vaigyaaniko ne isliye is baat par dhyaan keindrit kiya ki kaise, kab aur kyon jaateeya pehchaan ke vibhinn soochak khaas ban jaate hain. at:, maanav vigyaani joaan vinsent ne gaur kiya ki jaateeya seemaaen aksar asthir charitra ki hoti hain.[27] ronaald kohen ne nishkarsh nikaala ki jaateeyata "antarveshan aur ekaantik ki ek nirmaanaadheen dvibhaajaneekaran shrrunkhala hai".[26] ve joaan vinsent ke avlokan se sahamat hain ki (kohen ke vivran mein) "jaateeyata ... ko seema ke sandarbh mein, raajaneetik jutaav ke vishisht aavashyakataaon ke sambandh mein, sankuchit ya vistrut kiya ja sakta hai.[26] yahi kaaran ho sakta hai ki kyon vansh kabhi-kabhi jaateeyata ka ek soochak hai aur kabhi-kabhi naheen hai: jaateeyata ka kaun-sa visheshak pramukh hai aur is par nirbhar karta hai ki log jaateeya seemaaon ka oopar pravardhan kar rahe hain ya neeche aur ve unka oopar pravardhan ya neeche yeh aam taur par raajaneetik sthiti par nirbhar karta hai.

prajaati aur jaateeya shreniyaan

jaateeya vargeekaran ko doosaron dvaara lebaling ya aatm-pehchaan dvaara paribhaashit kiye jaane ki samasya se bachane ke liye, yeh upaaya sujhaaya gaya ki in avadhaaranaaon jaise "jaateeya shreniyaan", "jaateeya netavarkon" aur "jaateeya samudaayon" ya "prajaati" ko ek doosare se alag kiya jaae.[28]<ref[29]

  • ek "jaateeya shreni" ek aisi shreni hai jo un baahari logon ke dvaara sthaapit ki jaati hai, jo ki swayam us shreni ke sadasya naheen hote aur jiske sadasya aisi aabaadi hai jo baahari logon dvaara ek hi naam ya prateek, ek saajha saanskrutik tatv aur ek vishisht kshetr ke saath ek judaav ke aadhaar par ek doosare se alag karke shreneebaddh kiye jaate hain. lekin, jo sadasya jaateeya shreniyon ke liye jimmedaar maane jaate hain unhein swayam apne khud ke samaan, vishisht samooh se sambandhit hone ke vishay mein koi jaagrukta naheen hoti hai.
  • "jaateeya network" ke star par, samooh ko ek ekajutata ka ehsaas hone lagta hai aur isi star par utpatti aur saanskrutik aur jaivik roop se saajha viraasat ka aam mithk ubharane lagta hai, kam se kam buddhijeevi varg mein.[29]
  • "jaateeya samudaayon" ya "prajaati" ke star par, sadasyon ki swayam ke vishay mein spasht avadhaaranaaen hoti hain "ek naamit maanav aabaadi jinke paas samaan vansh mithk hai, saajha aitihaasik yaadein hain aur ek ya adhik samaan saanskrutik tatv hai, jismein ek maatrubhoomi ke saath judaav aur kuchh had tak ekajutata hai, kam se kam buddhijeevi varg ke beech". iska matlab, ek prajaati ek samooh ke roop mein aatm-paribhaashit hai, jabki jaateeya shreniyaan baahari logon dvaara sthaapit ki jaati hai chaahe unke apne sadasya unhein diye gaye shreni mein taadaatmya sthaapit kar paae ya naheen.[30]
  • ek "paristhitijnya jaateeyata " ek jaateeya pehchaan hai jise saamaajik vyavastha ya sthiti ke aadhaar par ek pal mein chuna jaata hai.[31]

jaateeyata ko samajhne ke drushtikon

jaateeyata ko samajhne ke liye vibhinn saamaajik vaigyaaniko dvaara kai alag-alag drushtikon ka prayog kiya gaya hai, jab unhonne jaateeyata ki prakruti ko maanav jeevan aur samaaj mein ek kaarak ke roop mein samajhne ki koshish ki. is tarah ke tareekon ke udaaharan hain: aadimvaad, taatvikvaad, sthaayitvavaad, rachanaavaad, aadhunikvaad aur karanavaad.

  • "aadimvaad ", ka maanana hai ki jaateeyata maanav itihaas mein sada se rahi hai aur yeh ki aadhunik jaateeya samoohon mein ateet se chali aa rahi aitihaasik nirantarata bani hui hai. unke liye, jaateeyata ki yojana raashtron ki yojana se judi hai aur iski jadein vebar-poorv ki us samajh ke saath judi hain jiske anusaar maanavata maulik roop se maujooda samoohon mein vibhaajit hai jinki jadein rakt sambandhon aur jaivik viraasaton mein jami hai.
    • "taatvikvaadi aadimvaad " ka aage yeh maanana hai ki maanav astitv mein jaateeyavaad ek sangheeya tathya hai, ki jaateeyata kisi maanav samaaj ke sampark se aage chalta hai aur yeh ki vah moolat: swayam dvaara badla bhi naheen ja sakta. yeh siddhaant jaateeya samoohon ko na sirf aitihaasik roop se, balki praakrutik roop se bhi dekhta hai. yeh samajh yeh spasht naheen karta hai ki kaise aur kyon raashtra aur jaateeya samooh jaahir taur par itihaas ke maadhyam se prakat, gaayab aur aksar pun: prakat hote hain. ismein aadhunik samay ki bahu-jaateeya samaajon ki rachana ke liye antarjaateeya vivaah, pravaas aur upaniveshan parinaamon se utpann samasyaaen bhi hain.[30]
    • "rakt sambandh aadimvaad " ke anusaar jaateeya samudaaya rakt sambandhi ikaaiyon ka vistaaran hai, mool roop se rakt sambandhon ya vansh sambandhi saanskrutik lakshan jaise (bhaasha, dharm, paranparaaon) ke dvaara sateek roop se jaivik samaanata dikhaane ke liye chune jaate hain. is tarah, samaan jaivik vansh ke mithk ko jo jaateeya samudaaya ki visheshata ko paribhaashit karte hain vaastavik jaivik itihaas ko darshaane wala samjha jaana chaahiye. jaateeyata sambandhi is drushtikon ki ek samasya yeh hai ki yeh aksar naheen hone ke bajaya adhikaansh maamalon mein vishisht jaateeya samoohon ke mithk mool seedhe taur par jaateeya samudaayon ke gyaat jaivik itihaas ka khandan karta hai.[30]
    • maanavavijnyaaani kliford geertj dvaara vishesh roop se samarthit, "geertjs praaimoradiylijm " ka yeh maanana hai ki manushya, saamaanya roop se, aaranbhik maanaveeya "pradaanon" ko ek aparihaarya shakti samarpit karte hain, jaise rakt sambandh, bhaasha, kshetr aur saanskrutik matabhed. geertj ki rai mein, jaateeyata apne aap mein maulik naheen hai lekin manushya use is roop mein mahasoos karta hai kyonki yeh duniya ke vishay mein unke anubhav mein ant:sthaapit hai.[30]
  • "sthaayitvavaad " ke anusaar jaateeyata satat parivrtanasheel hai aur jabki jaateeyata ki avadhaarana hamesha astitv mein rahi hai, jaateeya samooh, aam taur par jaateeya seemaaon ke ek nai paddhati mein pun: sangathit hone se pehle alpakaalik hote hain. virodhi sthaayitvavaadi vichaar hai ki jahaan jaateeyata aur jaateeya samooh itihaas mein hamesha se astitv mein rahe hain, ve praakrutik vyavastha ka hissa naheen hain.
    • "anant sthaayitvavaad " ka maanana hai ki vishisht jaateeya samooh itihaas mein lagaataar maujood rahe hain.
    • "sthitigt sthaayitvavaad " ka maanana hai ki desh aur jaateeya samooh itihaas ke kram mein ubharate hain, parivrtit hote hain aur gaayab ho jaate hain. is drushtikon ke anusaar jaateeyata ki avadhaarana moolat: raajaneetik samoohon dvaara, dhan, shakti, kshetr ya haisiyat jaise sansaadhanon ko apne vishesh samoohon ke hit mein dohan karne ke liye prayog kiya jaane wala upakaran hai. tadanusaar, jaateeyata tab ubharati hai jab yeh saamoohik hiton ko aage badhaane mein praasangik hai aur samaaj mein raajaneetik parivartan ke anusaar parivrtit hoti hai. jaateeyata ki sthaayitvavaadi vyaakhya ke udaaharan, baarth aur saaidanar mein bhi paae jaate hain, jo jaateeyata ko logon ke aise samoohon ke beech hamesha badalti seemaaon ke roop mein dekhte hain jo jaari saamaajik samvaad aur sampark ke maadhyam se sthaapit hoti hai.
    • "karanavaadi sthaayitvavaad ", jaateeyata ko mukhyat: ek bahumukhi upakaran ke roop mein dekhte hue, jo vibhinn jaateeya samoohon aur seemaaon ki pehchaan samay ke maadhyam se karta hai, jaateeyata ko saamaajik stareekaran ke ek tantr ke roop mein samajhta hai, jiska paryaaya yeh hai ki jaateeyata vyaktiyon ki padaanukramit vyavastha ka aadhaar hai. jaateeya stareekaran ke mool par ek siddhaant ko viksit karne vaale samaajashaastri donaald noel ke anusaar, jaateeya stareekaran "stareekaran ki ek aisi pranaali hai jismein kuchh apekshaakrut sthir samooh sadasyata (jaise, jaati, dharm, ya raashtreeyata) ko saamaajik sthiti nidhaaran ke liye ek pramukh maapdand ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai.[32] jaateeya stareekaran kai vibhinn prakaar ke saamaajik stareekaran mein se ek hai, jismein saamaajik aarthik sthiti, nasl, ya ling par aadhaarit stareekaran shaamil hai. donaald noel ke anusaar, jaateeya stareekaran keval tabhi ubharata hai jab vishisht jaateeya samoohon ko ek doosare ke saath sampark mein laaya jaata hai aur keval tabhi jab ve samooh ek uchch stareeya prajaatikeindrikta, pratiyogita aur antar shakti ki visheshataaon se paripoorn ho. prajaatikeindrikta vishv ko mukhya roop se apne swayam ki sanskruti ke najriye se dekhne aur apni sanskruti se baahar ke anya samoohon ko padaavanat karne ki pravruti hai. vinsent hachaings aur Lawrence bobo jaise kuchh samaajashaastriyon ka kehna hai ki jaateeya stareekaran ki utpatti jaateeya poorvaagrah ki vyaktigat pravruti se hui hai, jo prajaatikeindrikta ke siddhaant se sambandhit hai.[33] noel ke siddhaant ke saath satat, jaateeya stareekaran ke udbhav ke liye thodi maatra mein antar shakti ki upasthit honi chaahiye. doosare shabdon mein, jaateeya samoohon ke beech ek taakat ki asamaanata ka taatparya hai ki "ve ek doosare se taakat mein itne asamaan hain ki ek apni ichhaaon ko doosare par thopane mein saksham hoga".[32] antar shakti ke atirikt, jaateeya seemaaon ke saath sanrachit pratiyogita ki ek maatra jaateeya stareekaran ke liye bhi jaroori hoti hai. vibhinn jaateeya samoohon mein shakti ya prabhaav, ya dhan ya kshetr jaisi bhautik ruchiyon jaise kuchh aam lakshya ke liye pratispardha hona chaahiye. Lawrence bobo aur vinsent hachaings ne prastaav diya ki pratiyogita aatm-roochi ya shatruta dvaara sanchaalit hota hai aur aparihaarya stareekaran aur sangharsh jaise parinaamon ko janm deta hai.[33]
  • "rachanaavaad ki drushti mein aadimvaadi aur sthaayitvavaadi, donon hi mool roop se doshapoorn hain aur jaateeyata ko ek buniyaadi maanav sthiti hone ki dhaarana ko nakaarate hain.[33] iska maanana hai ki jaateeya samooh, keval saamaajik maanaveeya sampark ki utpatti hain aur unhein sirf vaidh saamajik nirmaanon ke roop mein samaajon mein banaae rakha ja sakta hai.
    • "aadhuniktaavaadi rachanaavaad ", jaateeyata ke udbhav ko raashtraraajyon ki disha mein aandolanon ke saath sambaddh karti hai jo aadhunik kaal ke poorvaardh mein shuroo hue.[34] erik hobsabaum jaise is siddhaant ke samarthakon ne yeh tark diya ki jaateeyata aur raashtravaad jaisi jaateeya garv ki dhaarana, poorn roop se aadhunik aavishkaar hain aur ye keval vishv itihaas mein aadhunik samay mein darshaae gaye hain. ve maanate hain ki isse pehle, jaateeya samaroopata ko bade paimaane par samaaj ke gathan mein ek aadarsh ya aavashyak pahaloo naheen maana jaata tha.

jaateeyata aur nasl

vebar se pehle, aksar nasl aur jaateeyata ko ek hi cheej ke do pahaluon ke roop mein dekha jaata tha. 1900 ke aas-paas aur usase pehle jaateeyata ki taatvik aadimvaadi samajh pradhaan thi, logon ke beech saanskrutik bhinnata ko viraasat mein mile lakshanon aur pravruttiyon ke parinaam ke roop mein dekha jaata tha.[35] isi samay mastishk-vigyaan jaise "vijnyaaanon" ne daava kiya ki ve vibhinn aabaadiyon ke beech saanskrutik aur vyavahaarik gunon ko unki baahya bhautik sanrachana, jaise ki khopadi ke aakaar dvaara, sahasambaddh kar paane mein saksham hai.

vebar dvaara jaateeyata ko ek saamaajik nirmaan ke roop mein parichay diye jaane par, nasl aur jaateeyata ek doosare se vibhaajit kiye gaye. jeev vigyaan ke anusaar achhi tarah se paribhaashit naslon par ek saamaajik vishvaas tika raha. 1950 mein yoonesko ka bayaan "the race kvesachan" mein, jo us samay ke kuchh antarraashtreeya star par khyaati praapt buddhijeeviyon (jismein eshale montaagu, klaaude levi-straaus, gunaar mirlaad, juliyn haksale aadi shaamil the), dvaara hastaaksharit kiya gaya, sujhaaya gaya: "yeh jaroori naheen hai ki raashtreeya, dhaarmik, bhaugolik, bhaashaai aur saanskrutik samooh nasleeya samoohon ke saath mel khaae: aur is tarah ke samoohon ki saanskrutik visheshataaon ka nasleeya gunon ke saath koi pradarshit aanuvanshik lakshan sambandh naheen hai. kyonki "nasl" shabd ko aam bolachaal mein istemaal karte hue aadatan gambhir trutiyaan ho jaati hai, isliye maanav nasl ki baat karte hue "nasl" shabd ko chhod kar 'jaateeya samoohon' ke vishay mein baat karna behtar hoga. "[36]

1982 mein, ameriki saanskrutik maanavavijnyaaani, chaalees varshon ke nruvanshavijnyaaan shodh ka sangrahan karte hue, yeh tark dete hain ki nasleeya aur jaateeya shreniyaan prateekaatmak soochak hain un vibhinn tareekon ke liye jo vishv ke vibhinn hisson se logon ne vaishvik arthavyavastha mein shaamil kiya hai:

jo hiton ka virodh shramik varg ko vibhaajit karta hai vah aage chal kar "nasleeya" aur "jaateeya" bhed karne ki appeal ke maadhyam se aur majaboot banaaya jaata hai. aisi apeelein shramikon ke vibhinn shreniyon ko shram baajaaron ke paimaane ke paayadaan par se aabantit karne mein sahaayak hoti hain aur aabaadi ko nichle star tak padaavanat karke aur uchch upaadhi star ko nichle staron ke pratiyogita se rokati hai. poonjeevaad ne jaateeyata aur nasl ke beech us bhed ko naheen banaaya jo ek doosare se shramikon ki shreniyaan nirdhaarit karne ka kaarya karti hai. yeh fir bhi, poonjeevaad ke tahat shram sangrahan ki prakriya hai jo in bhedon ko unke prabhaavi maan pradaan karta hai.

vulf ke anusaar, Europeeya vyaapaarik vistaar ki avadhi ke dauraan naslon ka aur poonjeevaadi vistaar ki avadhi ke dauraan jaateeya samoohon ka, nirmaan aur samaavisht kiya gaya.[37]

jaateeyata aksar, saajha saanskrutik, bhaashaai, vyavahaar-janya, ya dhaarmik lakshanon ka sanket deti hai. udaaharan ke liye, khud ko yahoodi ya arab kahalaane ke liye turant bhaashaai, dhaarmik, saanskrutik aur nasleeya gunon ke put ko utpann karna hoga jise pratyek jaateeya shreni mein samaan maana jaata hai. aisi vyaapak jaateeya shreniyon ko bruhadajaateeyata bhi kaha gaya hai.[38] yeh unhein chhoti, adhik vyaktiprak jaateeya gunon se pruthak karta hai, jise aksar sookshmajaateeyata kaha jaata hai.[39][40]

jaateeyata aur raashtra

kuchh maamalon mein, vishesh roop se jismein antararaashtreeya pravaas, ya upaniveshik vistaar shaamil hai, jaateeyata raashtreeyata se judi hoti hai. maanavavijnyaaani aur itihaasakaar, jo arnest gelnar[41] aur benedikt Anderson[42] dvaara prastaavit jaateeyata ke aadhuniktaavaadi samajh ka paalan karte hain, ve raashtra aur raashtravaad ko satrahaveen sadi mein aadhunik raajya pranaali ke saath viksit hote hue dekhte hain. unhonne "nation-states" ke udbhav par samaapt kiya jismein raashtra ki aanumaanik seemaaen (ya aadarsh roop mein samaroop) raajya seemaaon ke saath samaroop ho jaati hain. is prakaar, pashchim mein, jaateeyata ki dhaarana, nasl aur raashtra ki tarah, Europeeya upaniveshik vistaar ke sandarbh mein viksit hone lagi, jab vanikvaad aur poonjeevaad janasankhya ke vaishvik aandolanon ko badhaava de raha tha aur saath hi saath raajya seemaaen adhik spasht aur sakhti se paribhaashit ki ja rahi theen. unneesaveen sadi mein, aadhunik raajyon ne saamaanyat: "raashtron" ka pratinidhitv karne ke daavon ke maadhyam se vaidhata ki maang ki. haalaanki, raashtra-raajya, nishchit taur par us aabaadi ko shaamil karta hai jo kisi ek ya anya kaaranon se raashtreeya jeevan se apavarjit kar diye gaye hain. falasvaroop, apavarjit samoohon ke sadasya, ya to samaanata ke aadhaar par shaamil kiye jaane ki, ya svaraajya ki, kabhi-kabhi apne hi raashtra-raajya mein poorn raajaneetik alagaav ki seema tak maang kareinge. [43] in paristhitiyon mein - jab log ek raajya se doosare raajya mein sthaanaantarit hote hain,[44] ya ek raajya par vijay praapt karte hain ya apni raashtreeya seema ke pare logon ke upanivesh banaate hain - jaateeya samooh aise logon dvaara banaai gayi, jinki pehchaan ek raashtra ke saath hai, parantu ve rahate doosare raajya mein hain.

jaatigt-raashtreeya sangharsh

kabhi-kabhi jaateeya samooh, desh ya uske ghatakon dvaara pratikool drushtikon aur kaarravaai ke adheen ho jaate hain. beesaveen sadi mein, log yeh tark dene lage ki jaateeya samoohon ke beech ya ek jaateeya samooh ke sadasyon aur raajya ke beech sangharsh ko in do mein se ek tareeke se sulajhaaya jaana chaahiye. yurgan haibaramaas aur brus bairi jaise kuchh logon ne, yeh tark diya hai ki aadhunik raajyon ki vaidhata, svaayatt vyaktigat janta ke raajaneetik adhikaaron ki dhaarana par aadhaarit honi chaahiye. is vichaar ke anusaar, raajya ko jaateeya, raashtreeya ya nasleeya pehchaan ko maanyata dene ke bajaay sabhi vyaktiyon ki raajaneetik aur kaanooni samaanata laagoo karni chaahiye. Charles Taylor aur vil kaimalika jaise doosaron ka tark hai ki vyaktigat svaayatta ki dhaarana swayam mein ek saanskrutik nirmaan hai. is vichaar ke anusaar, raajyon ko apni jaateeya pehchaan ko samajhna chaahiye aur aisi prakriyaaon ko viksit karna chaahiye jinke maadhyam se jaateeya samoohon ki vishesh jarooraton ko raashtra-raajya ki seemaaon ke bheetar samaayojit kiya ja sake.

unneesaveen sadi ne jaateeya raashtravaad ke raajaneetik siddhaant ka udbhav dekha, jab nasl ki avadhaarana ko johaan gotafraaid vaun haradar jaise jarman siddhaantakaaron dvaara raashtravaad ke saath joda gaya. samaaj ke jaateeya sambandhon par tark saadhya roop se itihaas ya aitihaasik sandarbh ka bahishkaar kiye jaane tak, dhyaan keindrit karne ke udaaharan raashtravaadi lakshyon ke samarthan mein falit hue. do kaal, jinhein iske udaaharan ke roop mein lagaataar uddhrut kiya jaata hai, ve hain unneesaveen sadi mein jarman saamraajya ka samekan aur vistaaran aur beesaveen shataabdi ka truteeya (greater jarman) saamraajya. pratyek ne is akhil-jaateeya vichaar ko badhaava diya jiske anusaar ye sarkaarein keval un jameenon par kabja kar rahi theen, jin par hamesha se jaateeya jarman base hue the. raashtra raajya ke model mein der se aane vaalon ka itihaas, jaise otomaan aur ostro-hangeriyn saamraajyon ke vightan ke pashchaat utpann hone vaale poorv aur dakshin poorvi Europe aur saath hi saath ve jo poorv USSR se utpann hue the, antar-jaateeya sangharsh se chihnit hai. is prakaar ke sangharsh aam taur par bahujaateeya raajyon mein hote hain, unke beech virodh ke roop mein, vishv ke doosare kshetron ke samaan. is prakaar, yeh sangharsh aksar gumaraah karne ke liye ankit aur naagrik yuddh ke roop mein chitrit kiya gaya, jabki ve ek bahu-jaateeya raajya mein ek antar-jaateeya sangharsh hote hain.

vishisht deshon mein jaateeyata

sanyukt raajya America mein "ethanik" shabd ka prayog, kuchh anya deshon mein saadhaaran roop se istemaal kiye jaane ki apeksha, bade vyaapak arth mein kiya jaata hai. jaateeyata aam taur par sambandhit samoohon ke sangrahan ko sandarbhit karta hai, jiska adhik sambandh aakruti vigyaan, vishesh roop se tvacha ke rang par aadhaarit hai aur raajaneetik seemaaon par naheen. "raashtreeyata" shabd ko saamaanyat: is uddeshya ke liye adhik istemaal kiya jaata hai (udaaharan ke liye itaalavi, jarman, French, roosi, Japani aadi raashtreeyata hain). America mein sarvaadhik vishisht roop se, laitin ameriki vyutpann aabaadi ko "hispainik" ya "laitino" jaateeyata mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. kai poorv naamit praachya jaateeya samoohon ko ab janaganana ke liye Asiaee nasleeya samooh ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai.

"black" aur "afreeki ameriki" alag hote hue bhi, donon ka America ke jaateeya shreniyon ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai. 1980 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein, "afreeki ameriki" shabd, ko ek sarvaadhik upayukt aur raajanitik roop se sahi jaati upaadhi maana gaya.[45] jabki ise ameriki ateet ke nasleeya anyaaya se visthaapan ke roop mein lakshit kiya gaya tha, jo "black race" ke aitahaasik drushtikon se juda tha, yeh bade paimaane par black, kalard, neegro aur unke samaan shabdon ka, jo kisi bhi kaali tvacha vaale vyakti ka bina usaki bhaugolik mool ki paravaah kiye zikr karti hai, maatr saamaanya pratisthaapan ban gaya. isi tarah, Africa se gori-chamadi vaale amerikiyon ko "afreeki ameriki" naheen maana jaata hai. kai afreeki ameriki bahu jaateeya hain. aadhe se bhi adhik afreeki amerikiyon ke paradaada tulya vanshaj Europeeya bhi hain aur keval 5 pratishat ke hi paradaada tulya vanshaj mool ameriki hain.[46]

"aam taur par white shabd un logon ka varnan karta hai jinki vansh parampara ke chinh Europe mein paae jaate hain (ismein Europe mein base anya desh jaise Argentina, Australia, Brazil, chili, kyooba, New Zealand aur dakshin Africa shaamil hain) aur jo ab sanyukt raajya America mein base hain. madhya poorvi log bhi kabhi-kabhi "white" shreni mein shaamil kiye ja sakte hai. inmein dakshin pashchim Asia aur uttari Africa ke log aur saath hi saath arab deshon, iraan, Afghanistan aur Pakistan ke log shaamil hai. sabhi uparokt ullikhit ko America ki janaganana ke vargeekaran ke anusaar "white" jaateeya samooh ke hisse ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. is shreni ko do samoohon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai: hispainiks aur naun -hispainiks (udaaharan ke taur par white naun-hispainik aur white hispainik.) haalaanki poorv Asia ke logon ki tvacha vishisht roop se gori ho sakti hai, parantu unhein unke mangoliyaai nasl ke kaaran, jo unke jaateeya samooh ke saamaajik roop se nirmit prakruti ko darshaata hai, "white" naheen maana jaata hai, .

United kingadam mein, kai vibhinn jaateeya vargeekaran, aupachaarik aur anaupachaarik, donon hi roop se kiya jaata hai. shaayad sabse adhik sveekaarya raashtreeya saankhyiki vargeekaran hai jo vels aur England mein 2001 mein ki gayi janaganana ke samaroop tha. (dekhein jaateeyata (United kingadam)). white british vargeekaran ka prayog svadeshi british logon ka ullekh karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. praachya shabd ka ullekh cheen, Japan, Korea aur prashaant saagar ke kinaare ke logon ko sandarbhit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai, jabki Asiaee shabd ka prayog bhaarateeya upamahaadveep; Bhaarat, Pakistan aur Bangladesh ke logon ka ullekh karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

cheen ne aadhikaarik taur par 56 jaateeya samoohon ko pehchaan di, jinmein se sabse badi haan chaaineej hai. kai jaateeya alpasankhyak ne apni sanskruti, bhaasha aur pehchaan ko anurakshit kiya hai jabki kai paashchaatyakaran se prabhaavit hote ja rahe hain. haan-chaaineej cheen ke adhikaansh kshetron mein janasankhya aur raajaneetik roop se prabal hain, jabki Tibet aur jhinjiyaang mein ve abhi bhi alpasankhyak hain. haan chaaineej ekamaatr aise jaateeya samooh the jo ekal-santaan neeti se bandhe hue the. (adhik jaankaari ke liye, cheen ke jaateeya samoohon ki soochi aur cheen mein jaateeya alpasankhyakon ki soochi dekhein.

France mein, sarkaar jaateeya shreniyon ke saath janasankhya deta ekatr naheen karti hai. vichi shaasan dvaara kiye gaye ullanghanon ke pehchaan ke taur par, vidhaayika ne sarkaar dvaara jaateeya aabaadi ke aankade ikattha kiye jaane, dekh rekh karne aur prayog karne par rok lagaane ke liye kaanoon jaari kiya.[47] Under the administration of Nicolas Sarkozy, the French government in 2008 began a legislative process to repeal this prohibition[krupaya uddharan jodein].

Bhaarat mein jaateeya shreniyaan sarkaar dvaara maanyata praapt naheen hain. 1,652 maatru bhaashaaon ko bole jaane aur/ya 645 anusoochit janajaati jiske antargat log aate hain, ke aadhaar par janasankhya ko vargeekrut kiya jaata hai.

roos mein, tofeleriya ke saaiberiyaai kshetr mein basane vaale tofelar ya tof ko vishv ka sabse chhota jaateeya samooh maana jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

yeh bhi dekhein

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
ethnicity ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
  • vanshakram
  • vansh
  • Europe mein media mein saanskrutik vividhta
  • jan visrjan
  • jaateeya svaayatt kshetr
  • jaatiyon ka shodhan
  • jaateeya alpasankhyak
  • jaateeya raashtravaad
  • jaateeyata aur svaasthya
  • prajaatikeindrikta
  • prajaativrutt
  • vanshaavali
  • aanuvanshik vanshaavali
  • maanav jeenom vividhta pariyojana (HGDP)
  • pehchaan ki raajaneeti
  • pratichhedaatmakata
  • rakt-sambandh aur vansh
  • jaateeya samoohon ki soochi
  • svadeshi logon ki soochi
  • raajyaviheen jaateeya samoohon ki soochi
  • meta-jaateeyata
  • bahusanskrutivaad
  • raashtra
  • raashtreeya alpasankhyak
  • raashtreeya prateek
  • kshanik (jaateeya samooh)
  • bahujaateeyata
  • janasankhya aanuvanshiki
  • sanyukt raajya America ki janaganana mein kul vansh aur jaateeyata
  • kul vansh (manushya ka vargeekaran)
  • raajyarahit raashtra
  • janajaati
  • jaateeya samoohon dvaara Y-DNA ekal samooh

not

  1. 1987 smith[page needed]
  2. maakrs bainks, ethinisiti: enthropolojeekal construction (1996), pru. 151 "'jaateeya samooh' sada aam vanshakram ya sagotr vivaah par jor daalte hain".
  3. "enthropoloji. di stadi of ethanisiti, maainoriti grups, end aaidenateeti," ensaaiklopeediya britaanika, 2007.
  4. Bulmer, M. (1996). "The ethnic group question in the 1991 Census of Population". In Coleman, D and Salt, J.. Ethnicity in the 1991 Census of Population. HMSO. pp. 35.
  5. Statistics Canada
  6. fredrik baarth sanskaran. 1969 ethinik grups end baaunadreej: di social orgnaaijeshan of kalcharal difreins; erik vulf 1982 Europe end di peepal vidaaut history pru. 381
  7. hobsabaam aur reinjar (1983), di inveinshan of tredeeshan, seedar 1993 lumbi Indian histreej.
  8. sedanar, (1982), ethanisiti, laiguej, end power fraum A saaikolinguisatik parsapektiv. peepi. 2-3.
  9. geertj, kliford, sanskaran. (1967) old sosaayateej end new states: di kvest for modaraniti in Africa end Asia. New York: the free press.
  10. kohen, abner (1969) custom end politiks in urban Africa: A stadi of hausa maaigreint in A yorooba taaun. London: routalej & kegaan paul.
  11. abner kohen (1974) too-daaimeinshanal main: N esse on power end simbolijm in kaampleks society. London: routalej & kegaan paul.
  12. J hachinsan aur E. smith (eds.), Oxford reedars: ethinisiti (Oxford 1996), "parichay", 8-9
  13. gelanar, arnest (1983) nations end naishanlijm. Oxford : Blackwell.
  14. arnest gelanar (1997) naishanlijm. London: veidenafeld aur nikolsan.
  15. smith, enthoni di. (1986) di ethanik orijins of nations. Oxford : Blackwell.
  16. enthani smith (1991) naishanal aaideinteeti. haarmandsavarth: penguin.
  17. Oxford english dikshanari doosra sanskaran, online sanskaran yatha 2008/01/12, "ethanik, a.end n.". saaits sar Daniel Wilson, di arkyoloji end pre historik anaals of Scotland 1851 '(1863)
  18. Oxford english dikshanari doosra sanskaran, online sanskaran yatha 2008/01/12, "ethanik, a. aur n. "saaiting haksale & haidan (1935), vi yooropiyns, peepi 136,181 .
  19. kohen, ronaald. (1978) "ethanisiti: praublam end fauks in enthropoloji", Ann. Rev. Anthropol. ' 1978. 7:379-403
  20. glejr, Nathan aur dainiyl pi. moyneehan (1975) ethanisiti - theeyori end eksapeeriyens, Cambridge, maas .Harvard university press.
  21. Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of 2008-01-12, "ethnic, a. and n."
  22. volmein, S. "ethinisiti reesarch in Britain", karreint enthropoloji, vi. 18, n. 3, 1977, peepi. 531-532.
  23. eriksen 1993 pru. 2
  24. maiks vebar [1922] 1978 ikonomiks end society sanskaran guenathar roth aur klaus vitich, traans. efrem feesachof, Vol. 2 Berkeley: university of California press, 389
  25. bainatan, Michael. (2007) "vebar on ethanik kamyuniteej: A kritik", nations end di naishanlijm 13 (1), 2007, 19-35.
  26. a aa i E u ronaald kohen 1978 "ethanik: problems end focus in enthropoloji", enyual reeviyu of enthropoloji 7: 383 paalo aalato: stainaford university press sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "cohen" defined multiple times with different content
  27. joaan vinsent 1974, "di strakchar of ethinisiti" hyooman orgenaaijeshan mein 33(4): 375-379
  28. (Smith 1999, p. 12)
  29. a aa delainti, jeraard & Krishna Kumar (2006) di SAGE haindabuk of nation end naishanlijm. SAGE. ISBN 1-4129-0101-4 pru. 171
  30. a aa i E (Smith 1999, p. 13)
  31. introdakashan too soshiyolauji, 7th edishn. enthoni geedeins, Michelle duneir, richrd appelaboom, debora car
  32. a aa Noel, Donald L. (1968). "A Theory of the Origin of Ethnic Stratification". Social Problems 16 (2): 157–172. doi:10.1525/sp.1968.16.2.03a00030.
  33. a aa i Bobo, Lawrence; Hutchings, Vincent L. (1996). "Perceptions of Racial Group Competition: Extending Blumer's Theory of Group Position to a Multiracial Social Context". American Sociological Review (American Sociological Association) 61 (6): 951–972. doi:10.2307/2096302. http://jstor.org/stable/2096302.
  34. (Smith 1999, pp. 4–7)
  35. bainatan, Michael. (2007) ""vebar on ethanik kamyuniteej: A kritik", nations end di naishanlijm 13 (1), 2007, 19-35.
  36. A. metarauks (1950) "yoonaaited nations ekonomik end sekyuriti kaunsil stetameint baai eksapart on praublam of race", American enthropolojist 53(1): 142-145)
  37. is sambandh mein, nasleeya bhed ke nihitaarth jaateeya bhinnaroopon se vastut: alag hai. "Indian" ya "afreeki ameriki" jaise nasleeya bhed, Europeeya vyaapaarik vistaar mein aabaadi ki adheenata ka parinaam hain. "Indian" aur baad mein "mool ameriki", shabd, nai duniya ke adheenasth aabaadi ke liye unke beech kisi bhi saanskrutik ya shaareerik matabhed ke bina, istemaal kiya jaata hai. "neegro" aur baad mein "afreeki ameriki" shabd, theek usi prakaar saanskrutik aur shaareerik roop se as‍aathaayi afreeki aabaadi, jo daason ko susajjit karte the aur saath hi daason ke khud ke liye bhi, ek aachhaadit karne vaale shabd ka kaam karti hai. Indians aise vijit log hain jinhein, shram ke liye ya shraddhaanjali arpit karne ke liye baadhya kiya ja sakta tha; neegroj "lakdi cheerane vaale aur paani bharne vaale" the, jinhein hinsa mein praapt kiya gaya tha aur balapoorvak kaam mein lagaaya gaya. is prakaar ye do shabd sammishrit ho gaye, is aitihaasik tathya par pramukh dhyaan keindrit karne ke liye ki in aabaadiyon ko daasata mein shram karne ke liye majaboor kiya jaata tha taaki adhiptiyon ke ek nae varg ka samarthan kiya ja sake. iske saath hi, "gore" jaise shabd, pratyek badi shreni mein kisi bhi ghatak samooh apne kisi bhi raajaneetik, aarthik, ya vaichaarik pehchaan ko nakaarate hue, saanskrutik aur shaareerik bhed ki upeksha karta hai.
    nasleeya shabd un raajaneetik prakriyaaon ka aaina hai jinke dvaara poore mahaadveepon ki aabaadi avapeedit, atirikt shramik pradaataaon mein parivrtit ho rahi hain. poonjeevaad ke tahat, in shabdaavaliyon ne naagrik ayogyata ke saath apne sambandh naheen khoe. unhonne is tarah ki damit aabaadi ke kathit vansh ka upayog karna karna jaari rakha, taaki ve shram baajaar ke oopari tabakon ke liye apne vikhyaat vansh ke abhigm ko rok sakein. is prakaar "Indians" aur "nigroj" audyogik sena ke nichle paayadaan tak hi seemit hain ya audyogik praarakshan mein unhein daba kar rakha jaata hai. poonjeevaad mein nasleeya shreniyon ke kaaryakalaap apavarjanaatmak hain. ve samoohon ko chihnit karte hain taaki unhein adhik aamdani waali naukariyon se aur unke nishpaadan ke liye aavashyak jaankaariyon se door rakha ja sake. ve adhik suvidha dene vaale kaaryakartaaon ko nichle star se hone vaale pratispardha ke khilaaf alag kar lete hain, jo niyoktaaon ke liye nindit aabaadi ko saste vikalpon ya aaghaaton se bhidne vaalon ke roop mein upayog karne mein mushkilein khadi kar deti hai. antat:, ve aise samoohon ki kshamata ko kamjor kar dete hain taaki ve unhein aakasmik rojagaar mein majaboor karte hue unki or se raajanaitik laabh le sakein aur is prakaar unke beech durlabh aur parivrtanasheel sansaadhanon ke liye pratispardha ko tej kar sakein.
    jabki nasl ki shreniyaan mukhya roop se sabhi audyogik sena mein se keval nimn upaadhi star vaale logon ko baahar rakhane mein sahaayata karti hai, jaateeya shreniyaan un tareekon ko jaahir karti hai jo vishesh aabaadiyaan swayam ko shram baajaar ke khandon ke saath jodne ke liye apanaati hain. aisi shreniyaan do shreniyon se utpann hoti hain, ek savaal ke beech khade samooh ke liye baahya aur doosra aantarik. jaise hi pratyek dasta audyogik prakriya mein pravesh karta tha, baahari log use kalpit mool-srot aur shram baajaar ke kis vishesh khand ke saath unki apekshit sambaddhata ke aadhaar par vargeekrut karne mein saksham hote the. usi samay, daste ke sadasya swayam hi samooh mein sadasyata ki keemat ko samajhne lage, is prakaar use aarthik aur raajaneetik daavon ki sthaapana ke liye ek yogyata ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya. is tarah ki jaateeyata shaayad hi kabhi audyogik bharti ki shurooaati aatm-pehchaan se mel khaati thi, jo apne aap ko jarman ke bajaay haanoveriyn ya baveriyn samajhte the, pols ke bajaay unke gaanv ya unke girijaaghar (okiloka) ka sadasya samajhte the, naaisaalaindar ke bajaae tonga ya yaao ke roop mein samajhte the. adhik vyaapak shreniyaan tabhi ubhareen jab shramikon ke vishesh daston ko shram baajaar ke vibhinn khandon ka abhigm praapt hua aur unhonne apni pahunch ko, saamaajik aur raajaneetik roop se apne bachaav ke liye ek sansaadhan ke roop mein upayog karna shuroo kiya. aisi jaatiyaan isliye "maulik" saamaajik rishte naheen hain. ve poonjeevaadi mod ke tahat shram baajaar mein vibhaajan ki aitihaasik utpatti rahi hain. erik vulf, 1982, Europe aur itihaas ke bina log, Berkeley: California vishvavidyaalaya ke press. 380-381
  38. Maria rostvorovsaki, "The Incas", peroo kalchar
  39. James Lockhart, Microethnicity in Philological ethnohistory
  40. Christopher Larkosh, "Je me souviens…aaaussi: Microethnicity and the Fragility of Memory in French-Canadian New England", TOPIA: journal for kanediyn kalchar stadeej, ank 16 (Toronto, 2006) pru. 91-108
  41. gelanar 2006 nations end di naishanlijm Blackwell prakaashan
  42. Anderson 2006 imejd kamyuniteej varasan
  43. vaaltar pohal "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies", deebeting di midl ejej: ishuj end reedings, san. lestar ke.litl aur baarabara H. rojenavaain, (blaikavel), 1998, pru. 13-24 ne likha ki itihaasakaaron ne unneesaveen sadi ke raashtra raajya ke pichhde samay ki avadhaaranaaon par prakaash daala, jismein janm aur badhat ke jaivik roopak shaamil hai: unhonne tippani ki "pravaas ki avadhi mein base logon ko un veerataapoorn (ya kabhi-kabhi paashvik) pishtokti se bahut kam matlab hota hai, ise ab itihaasakaaron ke beech sveekaar kar liya gaya hai." pehle ke madhyayugeen log jitna aksar socha gaya usase bahut kam sajaateeya the aur pohal, reinahaard veinsakus ki raah par chalte hain, Stammesbildung und Verfassung. (kolon aur graaj)1961, jarman logon ke "ethanojenesis" par jinke shodh ne unhein yeh vishvaas dilaaya ki jaisa ki Seville Gens est multitudo ab uno principio orta ("A peepal is A malteetiyud steming fraum van orijin") ke isidor dvaara jaahir kiya gaya aur jo mool etimolauji IX.2.i mein bhi jaari hai) "sive ab alia natione secundum propriam collectionem distinctaJ ("ya samuchit sambandhon dvaara doosare logon se vishisht") ek mithk tha.
  44. aihvaya ong 1996 "kalcharal sitijnaship in di meking" mein kareint enthropoloji 37(5)
  45. Encyclopedia of Public Health, by The Gale Group, Inc
  46. henari Louis Gates, junior., in sarch of aavar roots: how 19 ekstraaordinri afreekan amerikns reeklemd deyar paast, New York: kraaun prakaashak, 2009, pru. 20-21.
  47. (French) article 8 de la loi Informatique et libertéaas, 1978: "Il est interdit de collecter ou de traiter des donnéaes à caractèaare personnel qui font apparaîaatre, directement ou indirectement, les origines raciales ou ethniques, les opinions politiques, philosophiques ou religieuses ou l'appartenance syndicale des personnes, ou qui sont relatives à la santé ou à la vie sexuelle de celles-ci."

sandarbh

  • abeejaadeh, aaraash, "Ethnicity, Race, and a Possible Humanity" world order, 33.1 (2001): 23-34. (anuchhed jo jaateeyata aur kul vashan ke saamaajik nirmaan ki padtaal karta hai.)
  • baarth, fredrik. ethanik grups end baaunadreej. di social orgnaaijeshan of kalcharal difreins, oslo: yooneevarasitetsafauralaaget, 1969
  • bilingar, Michael S. (2007), "Another Look at Ethnicity as a Biological Concept: Moving Anthropology Beyond the Race Concept", kritik of enthropoloji 27, 1:5-35.
  • kol, si.L "Nike's America/ amerikaaj Michael jaurdan", Michael jaurdan, ink.: kaurporet support, media kalchar, end let modarn America. (New York: sani press, 2001).
  • Düannhaupt, jerahaard, "di beevaailadring jarman baaunadreej", mein: Festschrift for P. M. Mitchell (hedalabarg: winter 1989).
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  • haartaman, dagalas. "madhyaraatri basket baul aur manoranjan, race aur jokhim-par shahari yuva ki saanskrutik raajaneeti", par nots journal of support end social ishuj. 25 (2001): 339-366.
  • hobsabaavm, erik aur tereins reinjar, di inveinshan of tredeeshan ke sampaadak. (Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1983).
  • Thomas haailaind eriksen (1993) ethanisiti end naishanailijm: enthropolojikl parsapektivs, London: plooto press
  • levinsan, David, ethanik grups varldavaaid: A ready refarens haindabuks, greenavood pablishing group (1998), ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.
  • moraales-diaaj, enarik; gebriyl akvino; & Michael slechar, "ethanik", Michael slechar mein, sanskaran., nai England, (vestaport, CT, 2004).
  • omani, Michael aur haavard veenaant. reshiyl faurameshan in di yoonaaited states fraum di 1960j too di 1980j. (New York: routalej aur kegaan paul, ink., 1986).
  • seedanar, stenali S. ethanisiti, lainguej, end power fraum A saaikolinguisatik parsapektiv. (Bruxelles: Centre de recherche sur le pluralinguisme1982).
  • saaidar, geraald, loomabi Indian histreej (Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1993).
  • Smith, Anthony D. (1987). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Blackwell
  • Smith, Anthony D. (1999). Myths and memories of the Nation. Oxford University Press
  • ^ ameriki janaganana bureau State & County QuickFacts: Race.

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