jaanjeebaar

Zanzibar
Both Islands

Flag
Zanzibar ki aadhikaarik muhar
Seal
The Zanzibar archipelago
nirdeshaank : 6°a8′aS 39°a19′aE / 6.133°aS 39.317°aE / -6.133; 39.317
Country Tanzania
Islands Unguja and Pemba
Capital Zanzibar City
Settled AD 1000
shaasan
• pranaali semi-autonomous part of Tanzania
• President Ali Mohammed Shein
kshetr[1]
• kul 2,643
janasankhya (2004)
• kul 10,70,000
jaanjeebaar
Native name: Zang bar (Rust-land)
Spice Islands (Tanzania).svg
bhoogol
sthiti Indian Ocean
kshetrafal 984 kimi2 (380 varg meal)
desh
Tanzania
Region Zanzibar
sabse bada shahar Wete
janasaankhyiki
janasankhya 362,000 (as of census 2002)
ghanatv 428 /kimi2 (1,110 /varg meal)

jaanjeebaar (uchchaarit/ˈaazæaanzɨaabɑaar/, faarasi زaaنaaگaaبaaاaaر; pratyaya bāar (baar) se: "tat" aur Zangi (jaingi): "kaala"[2][3]), poorvi Africa ke United ripblik of tanjaaniya ka ek arddh-svaayatt hissa hai. ismein hind mahaasaagar mein jaanjeebaar dveepasamooh shaamil hai jo mukhya bhoo-bhaag ke tat se 25–50 kilometer (16–31 meal) door hai aur yeh kai chhote-chhote dveepon aur do bade dveepon: unguja (mukhya dweep, jise anaupachaarik roop se jaanjeebaar ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai) aur pemba se milkar bana hai. anya sameepavarti dweep deshon aur kshetron mein dakshin ki taraf sthit komoros aur maiyat, sudoor dakshin poorv ki taraf sthit Mauritius aur reeyooniyn aur poorv mein lagbhag 1,500 kimi door sthit seshels dweep samooh shaamil hai. aaranbhik kaal mein arabi aur purtagaali vyaapaariyon ne is kshetr ka daura kiya aur athaarahaveen aur unneesaveen sadiyon mein is par omaanavaasiyon ka niyantran tha. Britain ne 1890 mein yahaaain ek sanrakshit raajya ki sthaapana ki thi jo December 1963 mein ek svatantr saltanat ban gaya aur January 1964 mein ek vidroh ke baad yeh ek ganataantrik kshetr ban gaya. April 1964 mein yeh tangaanika se jud gaya aur ek nae ganatantr ka nirmaan hua jise October 1964 mein tanjaaniya naam diya gaya. (fromars, 2002) unguja dweep par sthit jaanjeebaar ki rajdhani ka naam jaanjeebaar shahar hai aur ston taaun ke naam se mashahoor iska aitihaasik kendra ek world heritej saait (vishv viraasat sthal) hai.

jaanjeebaar ke mukhya udyog masaale, raifiya (taad ke ped ka resha) aur paryatan hai. khaas taur par in dveepon par laung, jaayafal, daalacheeni aur kaali mirch ka utpaadan hota hai. is vajah se tanjaaniya ke maafiya dweep ke saath in dveepon ko kabhi-kabhi masaala dweep samooh (ek aisa shabd jiska sambandh Indonesia ke malukoo dweep samooh se bhi hai) kaha jaata hai. sthaanik jaanjeebaar red kolobas aur sanbhavat: vilupt jaijibaar teindue ka ghar hone ke naate jaanjeebaar ki paaristhitiki ullekhaneeya hai.

anukram

itihaas

maaikrolithik upakaranon ki maujoodagi is baat ki saakshi hai ki jaanjeebaar mein kam se kam 20,000 varshon se manushyon ka vaas raha hai. jaanjeebaar shabd ki utpatti faarasi shabd "jaingi-baar" (jaingi=kaala aur baar=ka sthaan) se hui hai. yeh dweep samooh us samay vistrut vishv ke aitihaasik record ka hissa ban gaya jab faarasi vyaapaariyon ko is dweep samooh ka pata chala aur jab unhonne is dweep samooh ka istemaal madhya poorv, Bhaarat aur Africa ke beech ki yaatraaon ke ek aadhaar ke roop mein kiya. unguja, bada dweep, ne ek sanrakshit aur rakshaayogya potaashraya pradaan kiya isliye dweep samooh ne kuchh moolyavaan utpaadon ki peshakash ki, faarasiyon ne yahaaain basana shuroo kar diya jo aage chalakar jaanjeebaar shahar (ston taaun) ke naam se jaana jaane laga jo poorv afreeki tateeya nagaron ke saath vyaapaar karne ke liye ek suvidhaajanak kendra tha.

jaanjeebaar ka ek puraana kila

unhonne is dweep samooh par chaukiyaan sthaapit ki aur dakshini golaarddh mein unhonne pratham paarasi agni mandir aur masjid ka nirmaan kiya.[4]

anveshan yug ke dauraan purtagaali saamraajya jaanjeebaar par niyantran praapt karne waali pehli Europeeya shakti thi aur lagbhag 200 varshon tak yeh purtagaaliyon ke kabje mein raha. 1698 mein jaanjeebaar omaan saltanat ke niyantran mein chala gaya jahaan ek shaasak arabi kuleen ke saath nakadi fasalon aur vyaapaar ki arthavyavastha ka vikaas hua. masaalon ka utpaadan karne ke liye vrukshaaropan ko badhaava diya gaya isliye iska naam masaala dweep samooh pad gaya. jaanjeebaar ke liye faayademand saabit hone wala ek aur pramukh vyaapaar haatheedaant tha. jaanjeebaar ke sultaan ne poorv afreeki tat ke ek mahatvapoorn bhaag par kabja kar liya jise jainj ke naam se jaana gaya; ismein mombaasa, daar S salaam aur vyaapaarik maarg jaise kaango nadi par kindoo tak jaane wala maarg shaamil the jisse is dweep ka kaafi vistaar hua.

jaanjeebaar mein gulaamon ka smaarak

kabhi-kabhi dheere-dheere aur kabhi-kabhi uthate-baithate jaanjeebaar ka niyantran british saamraajya ke haathon mein chala gaya; das vyaapaar ke unmoolan ke liye unneesaveen sadi mein kiya gaya aandolan is hastaantaran ki raajaneetik prerana ka ek hissa tha. 1890 ke helogolaind-jaanjeebaar ki sandhi dvaara us samay ki sabse najadeeki praasangik aupaniveshik satta jarman saamraajya aur Britain saamraajya ke beech ek nae rishte ki shuruaat hui jismein Germany ne dveepeeya jaanjeebaar mein british hiton ke saath hastakshep na karne ka vachan diya. us varsh, jaanjeebaar Britain ka ek sanrakshit kshetr (upanivesh naheen) ban gaya. 1890 se 1913 tak kathaputaliyon ki tarah shaasan kaarya karne ke liye paaramparik vijeeron ki niyukti ki gayi jo 1913 se 1963 tak british nivaasiyon (prabhaavi roop se Governor) ki ek pranaali mein parivrtit ho gayi. 25 August 1896 ko pro-british sultaan hamad bin thuvaini ki maut aur britishon ki manjoori ke bina sultaan khaalid bin barghaash ke sinhaasanaaroodh hone ke falasvaroop englo-jaanjeebaar yuddh hua. 27 August 1896 ki subah ko shaahi nausena ke jahaajon ne bit al hukum pailes ko nasht kar diya. 38 minute baad ek sangharsh viraam ki ghoshana ki gayi aur is din hui bamabaari ko itihaas ka sabse chhota yuddh maana jaata hai.[5]

is dweep samooh ko ek samvaidhaanik raajashaahi ke roop mein December 1963 mein Britain ke daasatv se mukti mili. ek maheene baad ek khuni jaanjeebaar kraanti hui jahaan ek narasanhaar mein hajaaron arabi aur Indian maare gaye aur hajaaron ko yahaaain se nikaal diya gaya[6] jiske falasvaroop jaanjeebaar aur pemba ganatantr ki sthaapana hui. April ke maheene mein hi is ganaraajya ko mukhya bhoo-bhaag poorv upanivesh tangaanika mein shaamil kar liya gaya. tangaanika aur jaanjeebaar ke is sanyukt ganaraajya ko bahut jald (ek portamanto ke roop mein) United ripblik of tanjaaniya naam diya gaya jahaaj jaanjeebaar abhi bhi ek arddh-svaayatt kshetr ke roop mein kaayam hai.

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

saaaincha:Politics of Tanzania tanjaaniya ke ek arddh-svaayatt bhaag ke ek roop mein jaijibaar ki apni alag sarkaar hai jise rivolyooshanari gavarnameint of jaanjeebaar ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iska nirmaan kraantikaari parishad aur pratinidhi sabha se hua hai.

pratinidhi sabha ki banaavat tanjaaniya ki raashtreeya vidhaanasabha ke samaan hai: ismein nirvaachan kshetron ke 50 sadasya shaamil hain jinhein paanch saal ki avadhi ke liye saarvabhaumik mataadhikaar dvaara nirvaachit kiya jaata hai; 10 sadasyon ki niyukti jaanjeebaar ke raashtrapati dvaara ki jaati hai; mahilaaon ke liye 15 vishesh seatein aarakshit hain; 5 kshetreeya aayukt; aur ek ataarni-general. uske baad in 81 sadasyon mein se paanch sadasyon ka nirvaachan tanjaaniya ki raashtreeya vidhaanasabha mein jaanjeebaar ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.[7]

unguja ke teen prashaasanik kshetr: jaanjeebaar kendreeya/dakshin, jaanjeebaar uttar aur jaanjeebaar shahari/pashchim hain. pemba ke do prashaasanik kshetr: pemba uttar aur pemba dakshin hain.

jaanjeebaar mein kai raajaneetik dal hain lekin unamein se mukhya dal chaama cha maapindooji (seeseeem) aur sivik United frant (seeyooef) hain. 1990 ke dashak ke aaranbhik daur ke baad se, in donon raajanitik dalon ke lagaataar sangharsh is dveepasamooh ki raajaneeti ki khaasiyat ban gayi hai. 2000 ke antim daur mein hui chunaavi ladaai ke falasvaroop January 2001 mein jaanjeebaar mein narasanhaar hai jab sarkaar ne pradarshanakaariyon ki bheed par goli chalaai jismein 35 maare gaye aur 600 ghaayal ho gaye.[8] ek aur chunaavi ladaai ke baad 2005 mein ek baar fir hinsa bhadak uthi jahaan seeyooef ka kehna tha ki unki adhikaarapoorn jeet ko unase chura liya gaya tha. 2005 ke baad donon dalon ke aapasi deerghakaaleen tanaav ko khatm karne aur aapse mein satta ka bantavaara karne ke uddeshya se donon dalon ke beech ek vaarta hua lekin unhein fir se kai baar aapasi sangharsh ka saamana karna pada. ismein se sabse ullekhaneeya sangharsh April 2008 mein hua jab sata ke bantavaare ke samjhaute par kiye gaye ek saude ke roop mein prastut kiye jaane vaale ek janamat sangrah ko anumodit karne ke liye seeseeem ke aahvaan ke baad seeyooef vaarta table se uthakar chale gaye.

raajaneetik samaadhaan

October 2009 mein, jaanjeebaar raashtrapati amaani karoom ne is baat par vichaar vimarsh karne ke liye state house mein seeyooef sekretari sif shareef hamad se bheint ki ki bhaavi raajaneetik uthalaputhal se jaanjeebaar ki raksha kaise ki jaae aur unke beech ke matabhed ko kaise door kiya jaae.[9] unke is kadam ka yooesae[10] aur raajaneetik dalon sahit kai logon ne svaagat kiya. pehli baar seeyooef karoom ko jaanjeebaar ke vaidh raashtrapati ki maanyata dene par sahamat the.

jaanjeebaar sarkaar aur tanjaaniyaai mukhya bhoo-bhaag ke beech ka rishta us samay se haal ke varshon mein kaafi achha naheen hai jab tanjaaniya ke pradhaan mantri mijeingo pinda ne is dweep samooh ki samprabhuta ke baare mein yeh tippani ki ki jaanjeebaar sanyukt sarkaar ke baahar ek svatantr desh naheen hai jiske tahat yeh keval apni samprabhuta ka istemaal kar sakta hai.[11] sattaaroodh dal chaama cha maapindooji (seeseeem) aur vipakshi dal sivik United frant (seeyooef) donon dal ke sadasya shri pinda ki baat se asahamat the aur jaanjeebaar ko ek poorn svaayatt aur poorn raajya ki maanyata dilaane ke liye drudh sankalp the,[12] unke is kadam ko United ripblik of tanjaaniya ki sarkaar ke nirmaan dvaara vyaapak roop se amaanya kar diya gaya hai jo tanjaaniya mukhya bhoo-bhaag aur jaanjeebaar ke saansadon ke beech matabhed ka kaaran bana hua hai.

2008 mein, tanjaaniya ke raashtrapati jakaaya kikvet ne is vishay ko shaant karne ki koshish ki jab unhonne ek jeevant sammalen mein desh ko sambodhit karte hue kaha ki jaanjeebaar aatanrik drushti se ek raajya lekin antarraashtreeya drushti se ek arddh-raajya hai .

pratidvandvi dalon ko raashtreeya ekta ke saath sarkaaron ka nirmaan karne ki anumati pradaan karne ke liye jaanjeebaar ke kaanoon ko sanshodhit karne ke ek prastaav ko 31 July 2010 ko kiye gaye ek janamat sangrah ke aadhikaarik parinaamon ke baad 66.4 pratishat matadaataaon ne sveekaar kar liya.[13]

jaanjeebaar nirvaachan aayog (jek) adhyaksh ne kaha ki apna mat pradaan karne ke liye is dweep samooh ke matadaan kendron par vaastav mein janamat sangrah ke liye panjeekrut 407,667 logon mein se 293,039 (ya 71.9 pratishat) log upasthit the. unhonne kaha ki kul 284,318 vaidh vote daale gaye jismein se 188,705 (ya 66.4 pratishat) vote gavarnameint of naishanal unity (raashtreeya ekta sarkaar) ke paksh mein aur 95,613 vote vipaksh mein daale gaye aur 8,721 vote barbaad ho gaye.[14]

bhoogol, mausam aur jalavaayu

jaanjeebaar shahar ka jaleeya-chhor

2,461 kimi2 (950 varg meal)[15] kshetrafal mein faila jaanjeebaar mukhya roop se ek nimn stareeya dweep hai jiska uchchatam sthal 120 meter ooncha hai.[16] yeh 108 kimi lamba aur 32 kimi chauda hai.[17] sardiyon ke dauraan yeh +3 jeeemati aur garmiyon ke dauraan +2 rahata hai. yeh tanjaaniya ki mukhya bhoo-bhaag se lagbhag 25 meal aur bhoomadhya rekha se 6° dakshin mein hind mahaasaagar mein sthit hai. sundar reteele samudra tat aur kinaare ki taraf koral reef ke saath aitihaasik ston taaun - jiske baare mein kaha jaata hai ki yeh poorv Africa ka ekamaatr kriyaasheel praacheen nagar hai - ka jaadoo yahaaain ki mukhya visheshata hai.[18] poorvi tat ke chaaron taraf sthit koral reef (moonge ka pahaad) samudri vividhta ke maamale mein dhani hai.

yahaaain garmiyon mein mausami garmi padti hai jo aksar hava ki dashaaon ke prabhaav mein aate hi thandi pad jaati hai jiske parinaamasvaroop khaas taur par uttari aur poorvi taton par samudri sameer bahne lagti hai. bhoomadhyarekha ke nikat sthit hone ki vajah se yeh dweep samooh varsh bhar garm rahata hai lekin aadhikaarik taur par December aur June mein kramash: sabse jyaada garmi aur sabse jyaada sardi padti hai.

November ke maheene mein thodi bahut baarish ho sakti hai lekin aam taur par baarish ki bauchhaarein padti hain jo jyaada der tak naheen tikti hain. aam taur par April aur May ke maheenon mein jyaada der tak baarish hoti hai haalaanki ise aksar "harit mausam" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai aur us dauraan yahaaain aam taur par roj baarish naheen hoti hai.

vanya-jeevan

jaanjeebaar ke mukhya dweep, unguja, mein ek aisa jeev paaya jaata hai jisse antim himyug ke dauraan afreeki mukhya bhoo-bhaag ke saath iske sambandh ka pata chalta hai.[19][20] mahaadveepeeya rishtedaaron vaale sthaanik stanadhaariyon mein jaanjeebaar red kolobas ka naam shaamil hai jo Africa ke sabse durlabh nar vaanaron mein se ek hai jinki sankhya keval 1500 ke aaspaas ho sakti hai. kam se kam 1,000 varsh tak is dweep par ekaant vaas karne vaale is jaanjeebaar red kolobas (prokolobas kirki) ko ek vishisht prajaati ki maanyata di gayi hai jinka kot paitarn, aavaaj aur khaadya aadatein mukhya bhoo-bhaag par pai jaane waali sambandhit kolobas prajaatiyon se alag hai.[21]

jaanjeebaar red kolobas tateeya jhaadiyon aur koral raig skrab vaale tarah-tarah ke sookhe kshetron ke saath-saath maingro svaimp aur krushi kshetron mein rahate hain. lagbhag ek tihaai red kolobas jojaani jungle mein aur uske paas nivaas karte hain - vidambana yeh hai ki aasaani se dekhe jaane vaale bandar aarakshit kshetr se sate krushi bhoomi par paae jaate hain. logon ki maujoodagi aur kam vanaspati ki vajah se ve jameen ke kareeb aate hain.

durlabh mool jaanvaron mein jaanjeebaar teinduaa ka naam shaamil hai jo gambhir roop se khatre mein hai aur sanbhavat: vilupt ho gayi hai; aur haal hi mein jaanjeebaar sarvalin jenet ke baare mein pata chala hai. jaanjeebaar koi bada jangali jaanavar naheen hai aur jojaani jaise jangali kshetron mein bandaron, jhaadi mein rahane vaale sooaron, chhote hirnon, kastoori bilaav aur afavaah ke taur par maayaavi jaanjeebaar teinduon ka vaas hai. is dweep par nevalon ki vibhinn prajaatiyaan bhi dekhne ko mil sakti hain. yahaaain vibhinn prakaar ke pakshi paae jaate hain aur graameen kshetron mein kaafi sankhya mein titliyaaain dekhne ko milti hain. pemba dweep gahre channelon dvaara unguja dweep aur afreeki mahaadveep se alag hai aur yahaaain ek tadanusaar pratibandhit vanya jeevan upalabdh hain jisse mukhya bhoo-bhaag se iske tulanaatmak alagaav ka pata chalta hai.[19][20] iska sabse mashahoor sthaanik jeev pemba flaaing fauks hai.

janasankhya

2002 ki janaganana ke anusaar mukhya dweep ki aabaadi 981,754 hai. 205,870 ki janasankhya ke saath jaanjeebaar shahar ki aabaadi sabse adhik hai. jaanjeebaar ke log alag mool ke hain. jaanjeebaar ke pehle sthaayi nivaasi sanbhavat: hadimu aur tumbaatu ke poorvaj hain jinhonne poorv afreeki mukhya bhoo-bhaag se lagbhag 1000 E. mein aana shuroo kiya. unka sambandh vibhinn mukhya bhoo-bhaag jaateeya samoohon se tha aur jaanjeebaar mein ve chhote-chhote gaaainvon mein rahate the aur badi raajaneetik ikaaiyon ka nirmaan karne ke liye ve sangathit naheen hue the. kendreeya sangathan ke abhaav ke kaaran ve aasaani se baahari logon ke adheen ho gaye.

praacheen bartanon se praacheen ashshooriyon ke saath jaanjeebaar ke maujooda vyaapaarik maargon ka pata chalta hai. arab, vartamaan kaaleen Iran (khaas taur par shiraaj) ke faaras ki khaadi ke kshetr aur pashchimi Bhaarat ke vyaapaariyon ne sanbhavat: pehli sadi ke aarambh mein jaanjeebaar ka daura kiya tha. unhonne maanasooni havaaon ke sahaare hind mahaasaagar ki yaatra poori ki aur vartamaan kaaleen jaanjeebaar taaun ke kshetr mein sthit aashrit potaashraya par utare. yahaaain jyaadaatar baantoo mool ke afreeki log hain;[22] yahaaain alpasankhyak Asiaee bhi rahate hain jo vaastav mein Bhaarat aur arab deshon se aae the. yahaaain kuchh aise logon ki ek bahut badi sankhya bhi nivaas karti hain jinki pehchaan shiraaji ke roop mein ki jaati hai. 2002 mein jaanjeebaar ki aabaadi 984,625 thi[23] jo ab tak ki antim janaganana hai jiska vaarshik vruddhi dar 3.1% hai jo kuchh varshon tak kaafi had tak sthir raha hai. ismein se lagbhag do tihaai log 622,459 jaanjeebaar dweep (unguja) mein rahate hain jismein se jyaadaatar log ghani aabaadi vaale pashchimi kshetr mein nivaas karte hain. jaanjeebaar ki sabse badi basti jaanjeebaar nagar (jise kabhi-kabhi jaanjeebaar shahar bhi kaha jaata hai) jo jaanjeebaar dweep par sthit hai aur jahaan 205,870 log nivaas karte hain. jaanjeebaar dweep par sthit anya nagaron mein chaani, baambi, mahonda aur makundoochi shaamil hain lekin ye sabhi chhote nagar hain. in nagaron ke baahar jyaadaatar log chhote chhote gaaainvon mein rahate hain aur kheti ya machhali pakadne ka kaam karte hain.

pemba par sthit basti ka dhaancha bhi kul milaakar isi tarah ka hai. sabse bada nagar check check hai jiski aabaadi 19,283 hai; anya chhote-chhote nagar vete aur makoni hain. maafiya ki kul aabaadi 40,801 thi. mote taur par baraabar sankhya mein bante pemba aur unguja mein rahane vaale logon aur shaharon aur gaaainvon mein rahane vaale logon ke jeevanayaapan ke star mein kaafi antar hai. keval 250 ameriki dollar ausat vaarshik aay se is baat par parda pad jaata hai ki lagbhag aadhi aabaadi gareebi rekha se neeche jeevanayaapan karti hai. apekshaakrut uchch stareeya praathamik svaasthya seva aur shiksha ke baavajood abhi bhi 1,000 jeevit janm lene vaale shishuon mein se 83 shishuon ki maut ho jaati hai aur aisa anumaan hai ki is dweep samooh ke har teen mein se ek vyakti par kuposhan ka asar padta hai; janm ke samay jeevan pratyaasha 48 hai. kul milaakar tanjaaniya ki tulana mein jaanjeebaar mein echaaaivi/eds ki ghatna kaafi kam (lagbhag 8% ki raashtreeya ausat ki tulana mein keval 0.6%) hone ke baavajood yeh ek uttarottar badhti samasya hai.

dharm

sabse adhik prachalit dharm islaam hai. jaanjeebaar ki lagbhag 95% aabaadi islaam ke niyamon ka paalan karti hai. iske itihaas par arabiyon aur bhaarateeya mukhya bhoo-bhaag nivaasiyon ka kaafi asar pada tha. shesh nivaasi isaai hain.[24]

yahaaain 51 masjidein hain jahaaain praarthana se pehle ajaan hoti hai. yahaaain chh: Catholic charchon ke saath-saath jaanjeebaar ke bahujaateeya nagar (ston taaun) mein ek angreji church bhi hai. iske baahari ilaake ke aaspaas kai kabristaan bhi hain jahaan dilchasp hedastons aur kabr hain aur kuchh mahatvapoorn kabrein swayam nagar mein bhi hai jo aam taur par ateet ke kuchh dhaarmik netaaon ke hain. jaanjeebaar nagar mein kuchh injeel isaai church bhi hain. jaanjeebaar nagar se kuchh door anya isaai church bhi hain jaise ivainjelistik asembaleej of gaud jaanjeebaar (iejeejed) jo kijito upale-fuoni jaanjeebaar mein hai jiska maarg jaanjeebaar ke injeel aandolan ke sansthaapan rev. liyonaard masaasa ne prashast kiya tha. ek aur church tanjaaniya asembalij of gaud hai jo kariyaakoo mein hai. jaanjeebaar mein ab 25 se jyaada injeel church hain. yahaaain bahaaiyon ki ek chhoti aabaadi bhi nivaas karti hai (tanjaaniya mein bahaaiyon ki aastha dekhein).

arthavyavastha

molukkan dweep samooh (jo aaj Indonesia mein sthit hai) se utpann hone vaale laung ki shuruaat unneesaveen sadi ke prathamaarddh mein omaani sultaanon dvaara jaanjeebaar mein hui thi.[25] jaanjeebaar, mukhya roop se pemba dweep, kabhi duniya ka sabse pramukh laung utpaadak tha[26] lekin 1970 ke dashak ke baad se vaarshik laung bikri mein giraavat aa gayi hai. teevr gatisheel vaishvik baajaar, antarraashtreeya pratiyogita aur 1960 aur 1970 ke dashakon mein samaajavaad ke saath tanjaaniya ke vifal prayog ke dushparinaam ne jaanjeebaar ke laung udyog ko apang bana diya hai jab sarkaar ne laung ki keematon aur niryaaton ko niyantrit kiya. is kshetr mein ab jaanjeebaar teesare sthaan par hai jahaan jaanjeebaar se aapoortit vaishvik laung ke 7% ki tulana mein Indonesia 75% vaishvik laung ki aapoorti karta hai.[26]

jaanjeebaar masaalon, shaivaalon aur faain raifiya ka niryaat karta hai. yahaaain machhali pakadne aur khodakar dongi banaane ka kaam bhi bade paimaane par hota hai. paryatan ek pramukh videshi mudra arjak hai.

micheinjaani apaartameint block, ston taaun ke paas; jaanjeebaar ke saath poorvi jarman vikaas samjhaute ka ek gauravashaali prateek

jajajaanjeebaari arthavyavastha mukhya roop se laung ke utpaadan par aadhaarit hai (jismein se 90% laung ka utpaadan pemba dweep par hota hai) jo yahaaain ka pramukh videshi mudra arjak hai. niryaat par laung ke baajaar mein I mandi ka kaafi asar pada hai. paryatan ek aashaajanak kshetr hai aur haal ke varshon mein yahaaain kai nae hotelon aur rijort ka nirmaan hua hai.

jaanjeebaar ki sarkaar ne mukhya bhoo-bhaag tanjaaniya se pehle is dweep samooh par videshi mudra bureau ko vaidh kiya. iske prabhaavasvaroop upabhokta vastuon ki upalabdhata mein vruddhi hui. sarkaar ne ek mukt bandargaah kshetr bhi sthaapana ki hai jo nimnalikhit laabh pradaan karta hai: mukt vyaapaar ka avsar pradaan karne ke saath-saath samarthan sevaaon ki sthaapana ko protsaahit karke aarthik vividhta mein yogadaan; ek aisi shaasan vyavastha ka sanchaalan jo saamaanya vastuon ka aayaat, niryaat aur bhandaaran karta hai; vyaapaar ke prabhaavi sanchaalan ki jarooraton ko poora karne ke liye paryaapt bhandaaran suvidhaaeain aur anya buniyaadi dhaanche; aur saamaanon ke prabhaavashaali punarniryaat ke liye ek kushal prabandhan pranaali ka nirmaan.[27]

is dweep ka vinirmaan kshetr mukhya roop se pratisthaapan udyogon ke aayaat tak seemit hai jaise cigarette, joote aur prasanskrut krushi utpaad. 1992 mein, sarkaar ne do niryaat-utpaadak kshetron ka nirmaan kiya aur apatateeya vitteeya sevaaon ke vikaas ko protsaahit kiya. jaanjeebaar abhi bhi apni adhikaansh aavashyakataaon, petrolium utpaadon aur nirmit vastuon ka aayaat karta hai.

May aur June 2008 ke dauraan jaanjeebaar ko apni vidyut pranaali mein ek bahut badi vifalta ka saamana karna pada jiski vajah se saare dweep mein lagbhag ek maheene tak bijli naheen thi. panadubbi kebalon aur sthaaneeya sanyantr ke saath ek samasya utpann hone ki vajah se is dweep ko December 2009 se March 2010 tak ek baar fir se aaindhere ka saamana karna pada. isse mukhya roop se videshi paryatan par nirbhar iski kamjor arthavyavastha ko ek gahra aur vidyamaan jhatka laga. 2000 mein, prati vyakti vaarshi aay 220 ameriki dollar thi.[1]

jaanjeebaar ke pemba dweep par tel upalabdhata ki sambhaavana bhi prakat ke gayi hai aur tanjaaniya ki sarkaar aur jaanjeebaar ki kraantikaari sarkaar ne iska pata lagaane ki koshish shuroo kar di hai jo haal ki smruti ki ek sabse mahatvapoorn khoj saabit ho sakti hai. tel se jaanjeebaar ki arthavyavastha ko sudrudh banaane mein madad milegi lekin tanjaaniya ki sarkaar aur jaanjeebaar ki sarkaar ke beech iske hisson ko lekar kaafi matabhed hai jismein se baad vaale ka kehna hai ki tel ko sanyukt padaarthon mein nikaala jaana chaahiye. iski tel kshamata ya sambhaavana ki chhaanabeen karne ke liye Norway ke ek salaahakaar ko jaanjeebaar mein bheja gaya hai.[28]

shiksha

san 2000 mein jaanjeebaar mein 207 sarkaari school aur 118 niji school the.[1] yahaaain do vishvavidyaalaya aur ek college bhi hain: jaanjeebaar university, state university of jaanjeebaar (suja) aur chukvaani college of education.[29]

suja ki sthaapana 1999 mein hui hai aur yeh ston taaun mein poorv kisvaahili end fauren laingvej (taakiluki) sansthaan ki imaaraton mein sthit hai.[30] yeh jaanjeebaar ka ekamaatr saarvajanik uchch shiksha sansthaan hai, anya do sansthaan niji hain. 2004 mein, teenon sansthaanon mein kul 948 chhaatr-chhaatraaon ka naamaankan hua tha jinmein se 207 mahilaaen theen.[31]

jaanjeebaar mein praathamik aur maadhyamik shiksha pranaali tanjaaniyaai mukhya bhoo-bhaag ki shiksha pranaali se thodi alag hai. mukhya bhoo-bhaag mein keval saat saal tak praathamik shiksha anivaarya hai jabki jaanjeebaar mein atirikt teen saal maadhyamik shiksha anivaarya aur muft hai.[1] mukhya bhoo-bhaag ke chhaatron ki tulana mein jaanjeebaar ke chhaatr padhaai aur ganit ke maanakeekrut pareekshaaon mein kaafi kam ank praapt karte hain.[1][32]

1970, 1980 aur 1990 ke dashakon mein maadhyamik shiksha ke baad raashtreeya seva jaroori thi lekin ab yeh svaichhik ban gayi hai aur keval kuchh chhaatr hi svechhaapoorvak raashtreeya seva mein bhaag lete hain. jyaadaatar chhaatr rojagaar ki talaash karne ya adhyaapak ke collegeon mein bhaag lene ka vikalp chunate hain.

parivhan

jaanjeebaar mein 1,600 kimi tak sadkon ka jaal bichha hua hai jismein se 85% pakki ya arddh-pakki sadkein hain. shesh kachchi sadkein hain jinhein varsh bhar gamaneeya banaane ke liye har varsh unhein unki poorv dasha mein laaya jaata hai. jaanjeebaar mein filhaal sarkaar ke svaamitv waali koi saarvajanik parivhan vyavastha naheen hai lekin daalaadaala (jaanjeebaar mein aadhikaarik taur par ise isi naam se jaana jaata hai) ekamaatr saarvajanik parivhan hai jis par niji maalikon ka svaamitv hai; daalaadaala shabd ki utpatti 1970 aur 1980 ke dashakon ke dauraan svaahili shabd daala ya paanch shiling (us samay saarvajanik parivhan ka kharch paanch shiling tha) se hui hai.

jaanjeebaar mein ab ek behtar aur sampann samudri parivhan network hai jisse saarvajanik svaamitv waali jahaaj aur niji speed bot jaanjeebaar ke bandaragaahon par chalte hain jise yooropi sangh ki madad se punarnirmit kiya gaya tha. jaanjeebaar aur pemba ke dveepon mein paanch bandargaah hain. jaanjeebaar port kaurporeshan (jedapeesi) ek saarvajaanik ikaai hai jise bandaragaahon ke sanchaalan aur vikaas ki poorn svaayatta praapt hai. mukhya samudri bandargaah ke ghaaton ko Europeeya sangh ki vitteeya sahaayata se 1989-1991 mein nirmit kiya gaya tha.[33] yeh bandargaah jaanjeebaar ke 90% se adhik vyaapaar ko sanbhaalata hai. 1925 mein ek maamooli halke bandargaah ke roop mein maalindi bandargaah ka nirmaan kiya gaya.

buniyaadi suvidhaaon (ghaat, kantenar bhandaaran yaard, ityaadi) ki drushti se bandargaah ki haalat kharaab hai aur iske saath hi saath sanchaalan kshetr aur bhandaaran suvidhaaeain kaafi seemit hain. 1995 aur 2001 ke daramyaan maalindi bandargaah ki dasha se sambandhit kai moolyaankan kiye gaye. lekin fir bhi koi marammat kaarya na kiye jaane ke parinaamasvaroop ghaaton ki haalat aur bigdti ja rahi hai. mukhya bandargaah ke ghaat ki haalat itni kharaab ho gayi hai ki iski ab marammat bhi naheen ki ja sakti.

sabse haal ki durghatana May 2009 mein ghati jab ek maalavaahi jahaaj daar-S salaam ke liye ravaana hone se pehle doob gaya. abhi bhi spasht roop se yeh naheen maaloom ho paaya hai ki ismein kitne logon ko apni jaan se haath dhona pada tha aur ab tak durghatana ke kaaran ka bhi pata naheen lagaaya ja saka hai. jahaaj ko nikaalne mein ek saptaah se bhi jyaada samay laga tha. jaanjeebaar duniya ke baaki hisson se kaafi achhi tarah se juda hai. jaanjeebaar ka mukhya havaai adda, jaanjeebaar antarraashtreeya havaai adda, ab bade vimaanon ko bhi sanbhal sakta hai jiske parinaamasvaroop yaatriyon aur saamaanon ki aavaagaman mein kaafi vruddhi hui hai.

oorja

jaanjeebaar ke oorja kshetr mein avishvasaneeya vidyut shakti, petrolium aur petrolium utpaad shaamil hai; kami ko jalaavan aur isse sambandhit utpaadon se poora kiya jaata hai. ghareloo aur audyogik prayojanon ke liye shaayad hi kabhi koyale aur gas ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. jaanjeebaar ko apni vidyut shakti jarooraton ka 70 pratishat ek panadubbi kebal ke maadhyam se mukhya bhoo-bhaag tanjaaniya se praapt hota hai aur shesh oorja (pemba ke liye) ka utpaadan taap vidyut ke maadhyam se kiya jaata hai. jaanjeebaar ki kraantikaari sarkaar aur Norway raajya ki sarkaar ne August 2008 mein ek samjhaute par hastakshar kiya jiske tahat Norway tanga-pemba sab si kebal project ke liye paise dene ke liye raaji ho gaya jisse pemba dweep ko tanga kshetr se naishanal grid se bijli praapt ho paaegi; 40 megawatt ke samudri kebal ko bichhaane ka kaam December 2009 mein shuroo hua.[34] utpann 70 se 75 pratishat bijli ka istemaal ghareloo kaamon mein kiya jaata hai jabki 20 pratishat se bhi kam bijli ka istemaal audyogik star par kiya jaata hai. jyaadaatar graameen aur shahari kshetron mein khaana pakaane aur raushani karne ke liye oorja ke srot ke roop mein vyaapak taur par indhan ki lakdi, koyala aur mitti ke tel ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. petrolium, gas, tel, mitti ke tel aur aaideeo ki khapat kshamata varsh dar varsh badhti ja rahi hai, jahaan 1997 mein kul 5,650 tan ki khapat hui thi vaheen 1999 mein 7,500 tan se jyaada khapat hui thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] jaanjeebaar ko 10 December 2009 se 23 March 2010 tak ek baar fir se ek bahut bade aaindhere ka saamana karna pada[35] aur tanjaaniya dweep ke oorja mantri ka kehna hai ki yeh baat abhi bhi spasht naheen ho pai hai ki is samasya se kab chhutakaara milega.[36] 21 May se 19 June 2008 tak ise pehli baar ek bade aaindhere ka saamana karna pada tha jahaan dveepavaasiyon ko bijli rahit dasha mein rahana pada tha aur bijli utpaadan ke liye poori tarah se vaikalpik tareekon (mukhya roop se diesel jenaretar) par nirbhar rahana pada tha. jis mukhya bhoo-bhaag par isse sambandhit galati hui thi, vahaan ise usi samay poorv dasha mein laane ka prabandh kar diya gaya tha.[37]

sanskruti aur bhaashaaen

jaanjeebaar ke sthaaneeya log ek mishrit jaateeya prushthabhoomiyon se sambandh rakhate hain[38] jo is kshetr ke rangeen itihaas ka ek sanket hai. jaanjeebaar ke log svaahili (jise sthaaneeya taur par kisvaahili ke naam se jaana jaata hai) bolte hain jo poorv Africa mein bade paimaane par boli jaani waali bhaasha hai. kai logon ka vishvaas hai ki iske sabse shuddh roop ko jaanjeebaar mein bola jaata hai kyonki yeh is bhaasha ka janmasthaan hai. kai sthaaneeya log angreji bhi bolte hain.

jaanjeebaar ka sabse mashahoor kaaryakram jaanjeebaar antarraashtreeya film samaaroh hai jise festival of daaoo kantreej ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. har varsh July ke maheene mein is kaaryakram mein jaanjeebaar ke pasandeeda sangeet, taarab sahit svaahili kost ke behatareen kalaatmak drushyon ka bhi pradarshan kiya jaata hai.[39]

ston taaun ki mahatvapoorn vaastu visheshataaen livingaston house, jaanjeebaar ka puraana aushadhaalaya, gilaani brij, ngom kongve (jaanjeebaar ka puraana kila) aur house of vandars hain.[40] barghaash bin Saeed ke shaasan kaal mein Iran ke shiraaj ke aapravaasiyon dvaara nirmit hamaamni parsiyn baaths kidichi nagar ki mukhya visheshata hai.

jaanjeebaar poorvi afreeki deshon mein ekamaatr aisa sthaan bhi hai jahaan sabse lambe aavaaseeya bhavan hain jinhein aupachaarik taur par micheinjaani flaits ke naam se jaana jaata hai jise jaanjeebaar mein aavaaseeya samasya ko door karne ke liye 1970 ke dashak mein poorv jarman ki sahaayata se banavaaya gaya tha.

media aur sanchaar

jaanjeebaar Africa ka pehla aisa kshetr tha jahaan sabse pehle 1973 mein rangeen television ka istemaal shuroo hua. mukhya bhoo-bhaag tanjaaniya par pehli television seva iske lagbhag bees saal baad tak chaaloo naheen hui thi lekin pradaan ki jaane waali kharaab seva aur aadhunik utpaadan upakaranon ke saath-saath anubhavi karmachaariyon ke abhaav ki vajah se afreeki deshon mein vartamaan mein iska sthaan kaafi neeche hai. vartamaan TV station ko teeveejed kaha jaata hai.[41] yahaaain lagbhag 8 niji radio station hain.

1980 aur 1990 ke dashakon ke dauraan teeveejed ke mashahoor samvaadadaata svargavaasi alaviya alaavi (1961–1996; 1980 ke dashak ke dauraan mashahoor taarab gaayika inat alaavi ki badi bahan), neema moosa, shareefa maulid, faatama maji, jyanaab Ali, raamaadhaan Ali aur khaamis faki the.

sanchaar ke sandarbh mein, jaanjeebaar mein nav punargathit saarvajanik doorasanchaar company (teeteeseeel) aur chaar niji svaamitv waali mobile pranaaliyon ki achhi seva upalabdh hai. in pranaaliyon ke maadhyam se poore jaanjeebaar (unguja aur pemba) ko vyaapak roop se kavar kiya jaata hai aur duniya ke jyaadaatar hisson se jod diya gaya hai.

1999 ke baad se mukhya bhoo-bhaag mein apne mukhya mukhyaalayon ke sthaanaantarit hone tak jaintel ke naam se mashahoor jaanjeebaar teleekamyoonikeshiyo pehli aur ekamaatr jaanjeebaar aadhaarit door sanchaar company thi.[42] mukhya bhoo-bhaag tanjaaniya mein seva pradaan karne waali lagbhag sabhi mobile aur Internet companiyaan jaanjeebaar mein maujood hain.

khel

jaanjeebaar football association ki dekharekh mein khela jaane wala association football jaanjeebaar ka sabse lokapriya khel hai.[43] jaanjeebaar kaunfedareshan of afreekan football (seeeef) ka ek sahayogi sadasya hai. iska matlab hai ki jaanjeebaar raashtreeya football team afreekan nations cup jaisi raashtreeya seeeef pratiyogitaaon mein pravesh paane ke yogya naheen hai lekin jaanjeebaar ke football clubon ko seeeef kaunfedareshan cup aur seeeef champions league mein pratinidhitv praapt hota hai.

raashtreeya team gair-FIFA antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaon jaise feefi wild cup aur ielaef cup mein bhaag leti hai. choonki jaanjeebaar FIFA ka ek sadasya naheen hai, isliye unki team world cup ke yogya naheen hai.

sheersh clubon ke liye jaanjeebaar football association ki ek Premier league bhi hai jiska nirmaan 1981 mein kiya gaya tha.

1992 ke baad se jaanjeebaar mein judo ka khel bhi khela jaata hai. sansthaapak shri tsuyoshi shimaaoka ne ek majaboot team ki sthaapana ki thi jo raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaon mein bhaag leti hai. 1999 mein jaanjeebaar judo association (Z.J.A.) ko panjeekrut kiya gaya aur yeh tanjaaniya olympic committee ka ek sakriya sadasya ban gaya.

prasiddh log

  • murtaja aleedina, vidvaan
  • faaruk, jo Rajkumari daayana ke dijaayanar the
  • lokapriya band queen ke fredi markari ka janm jaanjeebaar mein hua tha

samakaaleen sandarbh

  • John brunner ka upanyaas stand on jaanjeebaar
  • helo 2 maip jaanjeebaar
  • gils foden ka upanyaas jaanjeebaar
  • Ashley provs ka upanyaas di klepsidra staupd
  • tristan jon ki di inakredibl vauyej
  • tenesiys di ki 'fak har jeintali'

gailari

File:ZanzibarBeach.jpg|jaanjeebaar ka ek beech File:Construction and repair of Dhows, near Mtoni, Zanzibar.JPG|mtoni ke paas dongi (ek prakaar ki naav) ka nirmaan aur marammat File:Zanzibar from sea.jpg|ston taaun File:Zanzibar sultan palace.jpg|sultaan pailes ke saath ston taaun File:Cloves-spice.jpg|laung ne jaanjeebaar ki arthavyavastha ke itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai hai File:Zanzibarsultanpalace22.JPG|house of vandars File:Zanzibar east coast pristine beach.JPG|jaanjeebaar ke poorvi chhor ka ek beech File:Severely polluted beach at Mtoni, Zanzibar.JPG|mtoni ka pradooshit beech File:Red-Knobbed_Starfish_Nungwi.jpg|red-nobd staarafish; uttari jaanjeebaar ke nungvi ke beech par

inhein bhi dekhein

  • jarman poorvi Africa
  • helogolaind-jaanjeebaar ki sandhi
  • jaanjeebaar ki Pak-shaili

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u Education in Zanzibar - Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
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  5. editor-in-chief, Craig Glenday (2007). Guinness World Records 2008. London: Guinness World Records. pa॰ 118. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1904994190.
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  25. professor trevar marcheind. omaan end jaanjeebaar: di saltans of omaan. aarkeelaujikl toors.
  26. a aa Edmund Sanders (24 November 2005). "Zanzibar Loses Some of Its Spice". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2005/nov/24/world/fg-cloves24. abhigman tithi: 2010-08-27.
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  29. tanjaaniya kamishn for yoonivrsiteej
  30. sooja (SUZA) website
  31. haaiar education - zanzibar.go.tz
  32. tanjaaniya entry - esaeseeemaikyoo (SACMEQ)
  33. "?". http://seaport.homestead.com/files/zanzibar.html.
  34. "?". http://www.dailynews.co.tz/home/?n=6654&cat=home. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010.
  35. Katrina Manson (22 December 2009). "?". Reuters. http://allafrica.com/stories/200912240605.html.
  36. "Zanzibar's tourist high season hit by blackout". Reuters. 2009-12-22. http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKLDE5BL04620091222. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010.
  37. "Melting in Zanzibar's blackout". BBC News. 30 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7427957.stm. abhigman tithi: 26 March 2010.
  38. "?". http://www.zanzinet.org/zanzibar/people/people.html.
  39. "?". http://www.ziff.or.tz/.
  40. "?". http://www.zanzibarheritage.go.tz/House%20of%20Wonders%20Museum.htm.
  41. TVZ.co.tz
  42. "?". http://www.zantel.com/company%20profile.html.
  43. "?". http://www.tanzaniasports.com/?p=3115. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010.

agrim pathan

  • rivolyooshan in jaanjeebaar, Don petarsan (bauldar, Colorado: vestavyoo press, 2002)
  • memoreej of N arebiyn prinses fraum jaanjeebaar, emili rut, 1888. (kai nae sanskaran). lekhak (1844-1924) ka janm jaanjeebaar aur omaan ki Rajkumari saalame ke roop mein hua tha aur ve Sayyed Saeed ki beti theen.
  • banaani: di traanjikshan fraum slevari too freedom in jaanjeebaar end pemba, H.S.nyoomain, (London, 1898)
  • traivals in di kaustalainds of british East Africa, dablyoo.dablyoo.A. fijraald, (London, 1898)
  • jaanjeebaar in kantempareri times, aar.N. lin, (London, 1905)
  • pemba: di spaais ijlaind of jaanjeebaar, J.E.E. krestar, (London, 1913)
  • nyerere end Africa: end of N era, aur tanjaaniya under mvaalimu nyerere: riflekshans on N Africa stetsamain, gaudafre mvaakikgile, (pritoriya, south Africa: new Africa press, 2006)
  • Hatice Uğaur, Osmanlı Afrikası'nda Bir Sultanlıak:: jaingibaar (jaanjeebaar ej A saltanat in di otoman Africa), istaanbul: Küare Yayıanları, 2005. kureyayinlari.com iske angreji sanskaran ke liye, dekho Boun.edu
  • chaileinjej of inaformal arbanisteshan. di case of jaanjeebaar/tanjaaniya, volfagaing skolj (daurtamund 2008) Amazon.de

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