itihaas lekhan

itihaas lekhan ya itihaas-shaastr (Historiography) se do cheejon ka bodh hota hai- (1) itihaas ke vikaas evam kriyaapaddhati ka adhyan tatha (2) kisi vishay ke itihaas se sambandhit ekatrit saamagri. itihaasakaar itihaasashaastr ka adhyayan vishyavaar karte hain, jaise- Bhaarat ka itihaas, Japani saamraajya ka itihaas aadi.

parichay

itihaas ke mukhya aadhaar yugavishesh aur ghatnaasthal ke ve avashesh hain jo kisi na kisi roop mein praapt hote hain. jeevan ki bahumukhi vyaapakata ke kaaran svalp saamagri ke sahaare vigat yug athva samaaj ka chitranirmaan karna du:saadhya hai. saamagri jitni hi adhik hoti jaati hai usi anupaat se beete yug tatha samaaj ki rooparekha prastut karna saadhya hota jaata hai. paryaapt saadhanon ke hote hue bhi yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki kalpanaamishrit chitr nishchit roop se shuddh ya satya hi hoga. isliye upayukt kami ka dhyaan rakhakar kuchh vidvaan kehte hain ki itihaas ki sanpoornata asaadhya si hai, fir bhi yadi hamaara anubhav aur gyaan prachur ho, aitihaasik saamagri ki jaaainch-padtaal ko hamaari kala tarkapratishthat ho tatha kalpana sanyat aur viksit ho to ateet ka hamaara chitr adhik maanaveeya aur praamaanik ho sakta hai. saaraansh yeh hai ki itihaas ki rachana mein paryaapt saamagri, vaigyaanik dhang se usaki jaaainch, usase praapt gyaan ka mahatva samajhne ke vivek ke saath hi saath aitihaasak kalpana ki shakti tatha sajeev chitran ki kshamata ki aavashyakta hai. smaran rakhana chaahiye ki itihaas na to saadhaaran paribhaasha ke anusaar vigyaan hai aur na keval kaalpanik darshan athva saahityik rachana hai. in sabke yathochit sanmishran se itihaas ka svaroop racha jaata hai.

itihaas nyoonaadhik usi prakaar ka satya hai jaisa vigyaan aur darshanon ka hota hai. jis prakaar vigyaan aur darshanon mein herafer hote hain usi prakaar itihaas ke chitran mein bhi hote rahate hain. manushya ke badhte hue gyaan aur saadhanon ki sahaayata se itihaas ke chitron ka sanskaar, unki puraavrutti aur sanskruti hoti rahati hai. pratyek yug apne-apne prashn uthaata hai aur itihaas se unka samaadhaan dhoondhta rahata hai. iseeliye pratyek yug, samaaj athva vyakti itihaas ka darshan apne prashnon ke drushtibinduon se karta rahata hai. yeh sab hote hue bhi saadhanon ka vaigyaanik anveshan tatha nireekshan, kaalakram ka vichaar, paristhiti ki aavashyakataaon tatha ghatnaaon ke pravaah ki baareeki se chhaanabeen aur unase parinaam nikaalne mein sartakata aur sanyam ki anivaaryata atyant aavashyak hai. unke bina aitihaasik kalpana aur kapolakalpana mein koi bhed naheen rahega.

itihaas ki rachana mein yeh avashya dhyaan rakhana chaahiye ki usase jo chitr banaaya jaae vah nishchit ghatnaaon aur paristhitiyon par drudhta se aadhaarit ho. maanasik, kaalpanik athva manamaane svaroop ko khada kar aitihaasik ghatnaaon dvaara uske samarthan ka prayatn karna akshamya dosh hone ke kaaran sarvatha varjit hai. yeh bhi smaran rakhana aavashyak hai ki itihaas ka nirmaan bauddhik rachanaatmak kaarya hai ataev asvaabhaavik aur asanbhaavya ko pramaanakoti mein sthaan naheen diya ja sakta. iske siva itihaas ka dhyeyavishesh yathaavat gyaan praapt karna hai. kisi vishesh siddhaant ya mat ki pratishtha, prachaar ya niraakaran athva use kisi prakaar ka aandolan chalaane ka saadhan banaana itihaas ka durupayog karna hai. aisa karne se itihaas ka mahatva hi naheen nasht ho jaata, varan upakaar ke badle usase apakaar hone lagta hai jiska parinaam antatogatva bhayaavah hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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