istaanbul

istaanbul
İaastanbul
mahaanagareeya kshetr
देखें कैप्शन
Clockwise from top: The Golden Horn between Galata and the Seraglio Point, with the Princes' Islands on the horizon; nostalgic tram on İastiklal Avenue; skyscrapers of Maslak financial district; the Bosphorus Bridge; and the Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Turkey, with Istanbul pinpointed at the northwest along a thin strip of land bounded by water
istaanbul
Turkey mein sthaan
nirdeshaank : 41°a00′a49″aN 28°a57′a18″aE / 41.01361°aN 28.955°aE / 41.01361; 28.955
Country Turkey
kshetr marmara
praant istaanbul
sthaapit
- baayjaintiym c. 660 BC[a]
- kustuntuniya 330 AD
- istaanbul 1930 (officially)[b]
Districts 39
shaasan
• mahaapaur kaadir topabaas (ekepi)
kshetr
• nagar[c] 5,343
janasankhya (2011)[2]
• mahaanagareeya kshetr 13
• ghanatv 2,523
vaaseenaam Istanbulite(s)
(Turkish: İaastanbullu(lar))
samay mandal EET (UTC +2)
• greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) EEST (UTC+3)
w:Postal code 34000 to 34850
doorabhaash code (+90) 212 (European side)
(+90) 216 (Asian side)
jaalasthal Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality

itihaas mein kasnniya ke naam se prasiddh Turkey shahar istaanbul (Turkey: İaastanbul) ke naam se jaana jaata hai) desh ka sabse bada shahar aur usaki saanskrutik aur aarthik kendra hai. shahar raajya istaanbul raashtrapati sthaan hai. aabanaaie baasaturas aur usaki praakrutik bandargaah shaakha muhaana (Turkey: Haliç) ke kinaare sthit Turkey ka uttar pashchimi shahar baasaturas ek or Europe kshetr thares aur doosari or Asia ke kshetr aanaaoliyh tak faila hua hai is tarah vah duniya ka ekamaatr shahar hai jo do mahaadveepon mein sthit hai. istaanbul taareekhe aalam ka ekamaatr shahar jo teen mahaan satinton ki rajdhani raha hai jinmein 330 E. se 395 E. tak roman saamraajya, 395 A se 1453 E. tak beejaantin saamraajya aur 1453 E. se 1923 E. tak raajya itamaaniya shaamil hain. 1923 E. mein Turkey ganaraajya ki sthaapana ke baad rajdhani Ankara kar diya gaya. 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar shahar ki aabaadi 88 lakh 3 hajaar 468 A aur kal shahari kshetr ki aabaadi ek karod 18 hajaar 735 hai is tarah istaanbul Europe ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai. shahar ko 2010 ke liye paiks, Hungary aur aasan, Germany ke saath Europe ki saanskrutik rajdhani ghoshit kiya gaya hai. itihaas mein shahar ne nivaasiyon ki sanskruti, bhaasha aur dharm ke aadhaar par kai naam badle jinmein se baajnatiym, kasnniya aur istaanbul bhi jaane jaate hain. shahar ko "saat pahaadiyon ka shahar" kaha jaata hai kyonki shahar ka sabse praacheen kshetr saat pahaadiyon par bana hua hai jahaan har pahaadi ki choti par ek masjid sthaapit hai.

anukram

itihaas

baajnatiym

kasnniya, ek chitrakaar ki nazar mein.

baajnatiym daraasal meegaara ke yoonaaniyon ne 667 isa poorv mein sthit tha aur apne raaja baaijaas ke naam par baajnatiym ka naam diya. 196 A mein seepateemes siyoiras aur peeskeeniys naaiejar ke beech yuddh mein shahar ka mshaasarah kiya gaya aur use bhaari nuksaan pahuncha. jeet ke baad roman shaasak seepateemes ne baajnatiym fir nirmaan aur shahar ek baar fir khoi hui mahima li.

beejaantin saamraajya ke shaasan

jaamiya haagiya sofiya, jise ab sangrahaalaya ke roop mein di gayi hai.

baajnatiym ke aakarshak sthaan ke kaaran 330 E. mein kasnatiyn pradhaanamantri ne kathit taur par ek sapane se sthaan ki sahi pehchaan ke baad is shahar ko nova roma (room aadhunik) ya kasnniya (apne naam ki tulana se) ke naam se dobaara aabaad kiya. nova roma to kabhi saamaanya upayog mein naheen aasaka lekin kasnniya antararaashtreeya khyaati praapt ki. shahar 1453 E. mein raajya itamaaniya ke haathon jeet tak poorvi roman saamraajya ki rajdhani raha. beejaantin shaasanakaal ke dauraan chauthi kroos yuddh mein saleebiyon ne shahar ko barbaad karadayaaaaor 1261 E. mein Michael hashatam peelayoologas ki dvaara kamaan neetiyaai sena ne shahar ko fir se haasil kar liya.

rom aur pashchimi roman saamraajya ke patan ke baad shahar ka naam kasnniya rakh diya gaya aur beejaantin saamraajya ka ekamaatr rajdhani ghoshit paaya. yeh raajya yoonaani sanskruti ke alamabaradaar aur rom se alagaav ke baad yoonaani aarathodokas isaai ka kendra ban gayi. baad yahaan kai mahaan girje aur church nirmaan hue jinmein vishv ka sabse bada church aayaadafaya bhi shaamil tha jise sultaan mohammad vijeta ne jeet kasnniya ke baad masjid mein badal diya. is shahar ke jabaradast sthaan ki vajah se yeh kai jabaradast mshaasaron ke baavajood jeet naheen saka jinmein khilaaft aamoya ke daur ke mshaasare aur raajya itamaaniya ke shuruaati daur ke kai asafal mshaasare hain.

raajya itamaaniya ka daur

29 May 1453 E. ko sultaan mohammad vijeta ne 53 divseeya mshaasare ke baad kasnniya ko jeet liya. mshaasare ke dauraan usmaan sena ki topon se theeodosas sameeksha ki sthaapit deevaaron ko bhaari nuksaan pahuncha. is tarah istaanbul barosah aur aadarana ke baad raajya itamaaniya ka teesara rajdhani ban gaya. Turkey jeet ke baad agale saalon mein top kaapi mahal aur baajaar ki shaanadaar nirmaan prakriya mein aain. dhaarmik nirmaan mein vijeta masjid aur usase sate madarason aur hamaam shaamil the. usmaan daur mein shahar vibhinn dharmon aur sanskrutiyon ka kendra raha aur musalmaan, isaai aur yahoodi sahit vibhinn dharmon se sambandh rakhane vaalon ke prabhaav sankhya yahaan base rahi. sulaimaan pradhaanamantri avaidh door nirmaan aur kala ka gahan daur tha jiske dauraan visheshagya pamairaan snaan paasha ne shahar mein kai mahaan masjid aur imaaraton nirmaan keen.

ganatantr Turkey

brij rutih se shaakha sunahara ek aakarshak drushya.

1923 E. mein Turkey ganaraajya ki sthaapana ke baad rajdhani istaanbul se Ankara kar diya gaya. usmaan daur mein shahar ka naam kasnniya maujood raha jabki raajya se baahar use aastaamabol ke naam se jaana jaata tha lekin 1930 mein ganatantr Turkey ne iska naam badalkar istaanbul diya. ganatantr ke shuruaati daur mein Ankara ki tulana mein istaanbul par adhik dhyaan naheen diya gaya lekin 1950 aur 1960 E. ke dashak mein istaanbul mein bhaari badlaav sthit hui. shahar ki yoonaani samudaaya 1955 A ke tahat Turkey chhodkar grees chali gayi. 1950 ke dashak mein adanaan menadares sarkaar ke dauraan desh vikaas ke liye kai kaam kiye gaye aur desh bhar mein nai sadkein aur kaarkhaane nirmaan hue. istaanbul mein aadhunik vishaal shaaharaaheen sthaapit hai lekin durbhaagya se yeh sauda shahar ki praacheen imaaraton ke badle mein gaya aur istaanbul kai praacheen imaaratein se vanchit ho gaya. 1970 E. ke dashak mein shahar ke majaafaat mein sthaapit nae kaarkhaanon mein naukri ke uddeshya se desh bhar se janta ki bahu sankhya istaanbul pahunchi jisne shahar ki aabaadi mein teji se vruddhi hui. aabaadi mein teji se vruddhi ke baad nirmaan kshetr mein bhi kraanti aaya kai upanagareeya gaanvon vistaar paate hue shahar mein shaamil ho gaye.

sthaan

istaanbul aabanaaie baasaturas dakshin kshetr mein donon or sthit hai is tarah vah do mahaadveepon mein sthit duniya ka ekamaatr shahar hai. shahar ka pashchimi hissa Europe jabki poorvi bhaag Asia mein hai. shahari seema ek hajaar 539 varg kilometer tak hai jabki raajya istaanbul 5 hajaar 220 varg kilometer paramahee hai.

bhoovijnyaaan

istaanbul uttar aanaaoliyh ki bhookamp ki patti ke paas sthit hai jo uttari aanaaoliyh se saagar maramarah tak jaati hai. Africa aur eevareesheen plate yahi par milti hain. is bhookamp ki patti ke kaaran kshetr jlsalon ka kendra hai. 1509 E. mein ek bhookamp mein soonaami hua jismein 10 hajaar log maare gaye aur 100 se adhik masjidon nasht hui. 1766 E. mein ayyoob masjid poori tarah shaheed ho gayi. 1894 E. ke bhookamp mein istaanbul ke dhake hue baajaar ka adhikaansh hissa tabaah ho gaya. August 1999 ke vinaashakaari bhookamp ke natejad mein 18 hajaar 2001 ke sardiyon mein 41 log maare gaye. shahar mein garmi garm aur paranam jabki sardiyon mein baarish aur kabhi kabhi barf baari ke saath gambhir sardi padti hai. shahar mein vaarshik ausat 870 mimi baarish hoti hai. sardiyon ke dauraan ausatan taapamaan 7 se 9 degree semi ank tak rahata hai jiske dauraan barf baari bhi aamtaur hoti rahati hai. June se September tak garmi ke dauraan din mein ausat taapamaan 28 degree semi ank rahata hai. saal kaagaram sabse maheena June hai jismein ausat taapamaan 23.2 degree semi ank hai jabki saal ka thanda sabse maheena January hai jiska ausat taapamaan 504 degree semi ank hai. shahar mein sabse adhik taapamaan August 2000 mein 40.5 degree semi gred rikaard kiya gaya.

shahar sangathan

istaanbul ke jilon ko teen mukhya kshetron mein vibhaajit hai: praacheen kasnniya ka aitihaasik dweep numa aameenoono aur vijeta ke jilon paramashatamal hai. usmaan door ke ant mein istaanbul kahalaaya jaane wala yeh kshetr shaakha sunahara dakshin tat parakaaim hai jo praacheen shahar ke kendra ko Europeeya kshetr ke uttari kshetron se alag karti hai. is dweep numa ke dakshin ki or se saagar maramarah aur poorv mein baasaturas ne ghera hua hai. shaakha sunahara ke uttar mein aitihaasik ka aaogalo aur bashakshaaa ke jilon sthit hain jahaan antim sultaan ka mahal sthit hai. unke baad baasaturas ke tat ke saath aaraakoe aur bebak poorv gaanv sthit hain. baasaturas ke Europeeya aur Asiaee donon or istaanbul ke aamaraaya ne parapesh aavaaseeya makaan nirmaan kar rakha hai jinhein iaali kaha jaata hai. unke gharon ko garmi aavaas ke roop puraasapamaal hai. aaskodaar aur kaaji koe shahar ke Asiaee hisse hain jo daraasal mukt shahar the. aaj yeh aadhunik aavaaseeya aur vyaavasaayik kshetron mein shaamil hai aur istaanbul ki lagbhag ek tihaai aabaadi yahaan aavaas pajeerahe. kaaryaalaya aur aavaas shaamil buland imaaraton Europeeya bhaag ke uttar kshetr mein sthit hain jinmein khaaskar layoonat, masalaak aur aateelar kshetr shaamil hain baasaturas aur vijeta sultaan mohammad pulon ke beech sthit hai.

aabaadi mein vruddhi

istaanbul ki aabaadi 1980 se 2005 ke 25 varsheeya avadhi ke dauraan teen guna se bhi zyaada ho gayi hai. anumaanit 70 pratishat se adhik naagrik istaanbul ke Europeeya hisse mein jabki 30 pratishat Asiaee hisse mein rahate hain. dakshin poorvi Turkey mein berojgaari mein vruddhi ke kaaran kshetr ke logon ke bahumat istaanbul hijrat gayi jahaan vah shahar ke paas kshetron Ghaziabad usmaan paasha, jiya gok aalap va anya mein rahane vikaasasheel gayi.

saal aabaadi
330 varsh 40,000
440 varsh 4,00,000
530 varsh 550,000
545 varsh 350,000
715 varsh 300,000
950 varsh 4,00,000
1200 varsh 150,000
1453 varsh 36,000
1477 varsh 75,000
1566 varsh 600,000
1817 500,000
1860 varsh 715,000
1885 varsh 873,570
1890 varsh 874,000
1897 varsh 1,059,000
1901 varsh 942,900
1914 varsh 909,978
October 1927 varsh 680,857
October 1935 varsh 741,148
October 1940 varsh 793,949
October 1945 varsh 860,558
October 1950 983,041
October 1955 varsh 1,268,771
October 1960 varsh 1,466,535
October 1965 varsh 1,742,978
October 1970 varsh 2,132,407
October 1975 2,547,364
October 1980 2,772,708
October 1985 varsh 5,475,982
October 1990 6,620,241
November 1997 8,260,438
October 2000 8,803,468
January 2005 9,797,536
January 2006 10,034,830

shiksha

Turkey mein uchch shiksha ke liye sansthaanon se kuchh istaanbul mein sthit hain jinmein sarkaari va niji vishvavidyaalayon sahit. aksar prasiddh vishvavidyaalayon sarkaari lekin haal kuchh varshon mein niji vishvavidyaalayon ki sankhya mein ki gayi hai. pramukh sarkaari vishvavidyaalayon mein istaanbul takaneeki jaamiya, baasaturas jaamiya, rutih saraaya jaamiya, istaanbul jaamiya, maarmarah jaamiya, iladeej takaneeki jaamiya aur nirmaata snaan kala jaamiya shaamil hain.

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; roo177 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; tuik naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.


sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.