ispaat

ispaat ka pul

ispaat (Steel) shabd itne vividh prakaar ke paraspar atyadhik bhinn gunonvaale padaartho ke liye prayukt hota hai ki is shabd ki theek-theek paribhaasha karna vastut: asambhav hai. parantu vyavahaarat: ispaat se lohe tatha praangaar (kaarban) ki mishr dhaatu hi samajhi jaati hai (doosare tatv bhi saath mein chaahe hon athva na hon). ismein kaarban ki maatra saadhaaranataya 2 pratishat se adhik naheen hoti. kisi anya tatv ki apeksha kaarban, lohe ke gunon ko adhik prabhaavit karta hai; isse adviteeya vistaar mein vibhinn gun praapt hote hain. vese to kai anya saadhaaran tatv bhi milaae jaane par lohe tatha ispaat ke gunon ko bahut badal dete hain, parantu inmein kaarban hi pradhaan mishradhaatukaari tatv hai. yeh lohe ki kathorata tatha pushtata samaanupaatik maatra mein badhaata hai, visheshakar uchit ushma upachaar ke uparaant.

ispaat ek mishran hai jismein adhikaansh hissa loha ka hota hai. ispaat mein 0.2 pratishat se 2.14 pratishat ke beech kaarban hota hai. loha ke saath kaarban sabse kifaayat mishrak hota hai, lekin jaroorat ke anusaar, ismein mainganeej, kromiym, vainnediym aur tangsatan bhi milaae jaate hain. kaarban aur doosare padaarth mishr-dhaatu ko kathorata pradaan karte hain. lauhe ke saath, uchit maatra mein mishrak milaakar lohe ko aavashyak kathorata, tanyata aur sughatyata pradaan kiya jaata hai. lauhe mein jitna jyaada kaarban milaate hain ispaat utana hi kathor banta jaata hai, kathorata badhne ke saath hi usaki bhangurata bhi badhti jaati hai. 1149digri celcius par lauhe mein kaarban ki adhiktam ghulyata 2.14 pratishat hai. kam taapamaan par agar lauhe mein jyaada maatra mein kaarban ho to isse simeintaait ka nirmaan hoga. lauhe mein agar isse jyaada kaarban ho to yeh Caste aayaran kahalaata hai, kyonki iska galanaak kam ho jaata hai. ispaat, Caste aayaran se isliye bhi alag hota hai kyonki ismein doosare tatvon ki maatra atyant kam hoti hai yaani 1 se teen pratishat ke kareeb. ispaat jang-rodhi hota hai aur ise aasaani se veld kiya ja sakta hai.

aajkal, gruh-nirmaan, baandh, pul, sadak aadi mein ispaat ka bade paimaane par istemaal hota hai aur baajaar alag alag gunavatta vaale ispaat alag-alag daamon par upalabdh hain.

anukram

ispaat ka mahatva

hamaare jeevan mein is‍aapaat ka kaafi prabhaav hai - car jise ham chalaate hain, bhavan jismein ham kaarya karte hain, jis ghar mein ham rahate hain aur asankh‍aaya an‍aaya pahaloo ismein aate hain. vidyut power line tower, praakrutik gas pipe laainein, machine upakaran aadi mein is‍aapaat ka prayog hota hai jiski soochi kaafi lam‍aabi hai. gharon mein hamaare parivaaron ko surakshit rakhane, hamaare jeevan ko suvidhaajanak banaane mein is‍aapaat ka mahat‍aavapoorn s‍aathaan hai. iska faayda nisandeh s‍aapash‍aat hai. is‍aapaat at‍aayadhik mahat‍aavapoorn, bahukaaryaat‍aamak aur sarvaadhik anukoolaneeya hai. yadi is‍aapaat naheen hota to maanav jaati ka vikaas sambhav naheen hota. is‍aapaat ke bal par aur sahaj prayog se viksit arthav‍aayavas‍aatha ka aadhaar rakha gaya tha. is‍aapaat ka vividh prayog kramash: is‍aapaat ka anukoolaneeya maapadan‍aad hai jinhe is‍aapaat ke nim‍aanalikhit visheshataaon se aanka ja sakta hai -

garm aur than‍aadi avastha mein roopaantaran (hot and cold formable), vel‍aad karne yog‍aaya, yaantrik roop se upayukt - sakh‍aat, taf, kam ghisne wala, jang pratirodhi, taap pratirodhi - uch‍aach taapamaan par bhi kam vikruti aadi.

is‍aapaat ka an‍aaya padaarthon se tulana ki jaaya to iski ut‍aapaadan-laagat kam hai. eluminiym ko banaane mein jitna urja lagti hai usaka lagbhag 25% urja se loh ayas‍aak se loha banta hai. is‍aapaat paryaavaran-mitr hai, isko pun:chakrit (recycle) kiya ja sakta hai. bhoogarbh mein 5.6% lauh tatv vidyamaan hai at: iska kachcha maal ka aadhaar bhi majaboot hai. is‍aapaat ka ut‍aapaadan anya sabhi alauh padaarthon ke kul utpaadan se bhi 20 guna adhik hai. sab milaakar is‍aapaat ke lagbhag 2000 kismon ka vikaas hua hai jismein 1500 prakaar ke is‍aapaat uch‍aach gred ke hain. tathaapi vibhin‍aan prakaar ke gunadharm vaale is‍aapaat ke naye gredon ke vikaas ki aseem sanbhaavaeain hain. hamaare jeevan mein is‍aapaat ke upayog ka mahat‍aavapoorn s‍aathaan hai aur aane vaale varshon mein iska upayog hota rahega.

ispaat nirmaan

ispaat ki visheshataaeain

saadhaaran ispaat mein, chaahe vah jis vidhi dvaara banaaya gaya ho, kaarban tatha mainganeej 0.10 se 1.50 pratishat, silikn 0.20 se 0.25 pratishat, gandhak tatha faasaforas 0.01 se 0.10 pratishat tatha taaainba, ailyuminiym aur aarasenik nyoon maatra mein upasthit rahate hain. praaya: haaidrojan, aakseejan tatha naaitrojan bhi alp maatra mein rahate hain. is jaati ke ispaat kai prakaar ke kaam mein aate hain. yadyapi sabhi ispaat mishradhaatu hi hain, tathaapi saadhaaran bolachaal mein ispaat ko ek saral (amishr) dhaatu hi maana jaata hai. oopar diye hue vishleshan se yadi kisi tatv ki maatra adhik ho, athva ispaat mein doosare tatv, jaise nikal, kromiym, vainediym, tangstan, maalibdeenam, taaiteniym aadi bhi hon, jo saamaanyat: ispaat mein naheen hote, to vishesh ya mishr dhaatveeya ispaat banta hai. yaantrik gunon ki vruddhi ke liye hi saamaanyat: yeh milaavat ki jaati hai. ispaat ki kuchh visheshataaeain, jo mishradhaatukaari tatvon dvaara prabhaavit hoti hain, is prakaar hain:

(k) yaantrik gunon mein vruddhi

(1) taiyaar ispaat ki pushtata mein vruddhi

(2) kisi nimnatam kathorata ya pushtata par chimdepan (tafnes) athva sughatyata (plaistisiti) mein vruddhi.

(3) us adhiktam motaai mein vruddhi jise bujhaakar vaanchhit seema tak kada kiya ja sakta ho.

(4) bujhaakar kathoreekaran ki kshamata mein kami.

(5) thandhi reeti se kathoreekaran ki dar mein vruddhi.

(6) kharaadane ityaadi ki kriya sugamata se kar sakane ke vichaar se kadaai ko surakshit rakhakar sughatyata mein kami.

(7) ghisaav-pratirodh athva kaatne ke saamathrya mein vruddhi.

(8) ichhit kathorata praapt karte samay ainthane ya chatakane mein kami.

(9) ooainche ya nimn taap par bhautik gunon mein unnati.

(kh) chubankeeya gunon mein vruddhi

(1) praarambhik chunbakasheelata (parmiyebiliti) tatha adhiktam preran (indakshan) mein vruddhi.

(2) prasaahi (koarsiv) bal, mandaayan (histerosis) tatha vidyut (vaat) haani mein kami (chunbakeeya arth mein komal loha).

(3) prasaahi bal tatha chunbakeeya sthaayitv (rimeneins) mein vruddhi.

(4) sabhi prakaar ke chubankeeya gunon mein kami.

(g) raasaayanik nishkriyta mein vruddhi

(1) aardr vaataavaran mein moracha lagne mein kami.

(2) uchch taap par bhi raasaayanik kriyaasheelata mein kami.

(3) raasaayanik vastuon dvaara aakraman mein kami.

ushma upachaar (heet-treetament) se ispaat ke gunon mein parivartan

loha do prakaar ke ati upayogi samamaapeeya (aaisometrik) ravon ke roop mein rahata hai : (1) ailfa loha, jiske thos ghol ko "feraait" kehte hain aur (2) gaama loha, jiska thos ghol "osatenaait" hai. shuddh lohe ka ailfa roop lagbhag 910digri sein. se kam taap par rahata hai; adhik taap par gaama roop rahata hai. in donon roopon ke lohon mein vividh mishradhaatukaari tatvon ko ghulanasheelata ati bhinn hai. vyaapaarik kaarban-ispaat, dhaatu-kaarmik vichaar se, lauh kaarbaaid ka feraait mein ek vikshepan (disparshan) hai, jismein lauh kaarbaaid ka anupaat kaaraban ki maatra par nirbhar rahata hai.

kaarban ispaat ke mote tukadon ko aisi vidhiyon tatha daron se ek seema tak thandha kiya ja sakta hai ki feraait mein seemeintaait ke sambhav vitranon mein se koi bhi vitran upalabdh ho jaae. sanrachana tatha ushma upachaar ke vichaar se kaaraban ispaat ke apekshaakrut aise chhote namoone saralata se chune ja sakte hain jinmein saadhaaran taap par praaya: mahattam yaantrik gun hon.

akathoreekrut ispaat ke do avayavon mein doosra kaarabaaid kala (fej) hai. kaarabaaid ki maatra, jo kaaraban ke anupaat par nirbhar rahati hai, ispaat ke gunon ko badalti hai. vikshepan (disparshan) mein kaarabaaid ke kanon ke roop tatha usaki sookshmata se yeh aur bhi adhik badalti hai. ispaat ko kathor karne mein tatha paani chadhaate samay, mishradhaatukaari tatv ki upasthiti ant mein praapt padaarth ko ekdam badal sakti hai. falat: sanrachana aur isliye ispaat ke gun, jo isi par atyadhik aadhaarit hain, ostenaait ki sanrachana tatha daane ke parimaan par nirbhar hain.

bujhaae hue ispaat kaarban ke maatraanusaar vibhinn kathorataavaale hote hain. kathorata ke liye keval kaaraban par hi nirbhar hone mein ispaat ko ekaaek bujhaana padta hai. isse ya to doosari buraaiyaaain utpann ho sakti hai athva bahut bheetar tak kathoreekaran naheen ho paata hai. kuchh uchch mishradhaatveeya ispaaton mein saadhaaran taap par hi apekshaakrut dheere dheere thanda kar, yeh kathoreekaran kuchh anshon mein praapt kiya ja sakta hai.

bujhaae hue tatha kathoreekrut ispaaton mein aantarik tanaav hota hai, jo fir se garam karke door kiya jaata hai. is kriya ko paani chadhaana (teinparing) kehte hain.

mishradhaatukaari tatvon ka prabhaav

ostenaait roopaantaran mein kaaraban ke atirikt anya mishradhaatukaari tatv saamaanyat: susti paida karte hain. kobalt chhod anya tatvon ki upasthiti mein bujhaane par adhik gaharaai tak kathoreekaran hota hai. saadhaaranataya sabhi mishradhaatveeya ispaaton tatha bahut se kaaraban-ispaaton mein ichhit gunon ka achha sanyog uchit ushmaaupachaar se praapt hota hai.

kaarban - saade kaaraban-ispaat mein, kaaraban ki maatra ko 0.1 pratishat se 1.0 pratishat tak ya adhik badhaane par tanaav pushtata badhti hai. bujhaae hue kaaraban ispaat mein tanaav pushtata atyadhik badh jaati hai, jaise 1 pratishat kaaraban par 150 tan varg inch tak. bujhaae hue tatha paani chadhaae (teinpar kiye) ispaat ki shakti paani chadhaane ke taapakram par nirbhar rahati hai.

ailyuminiym - dhaatu ke daanon ke parimaan (gren saaij) ko niyantrit karne ke liye thodi maatra mein ailyuminiym, 3 pound prati tan tak, pighle hue ispaat mein milaaya jaata hai. satah ki atyadhik kathorataavaale bhaagon mein 1.3 pratishat tak ailyuminiym rahata hai.

boran - boran ispaat aadhunik vikaas hai. kuchh nimn mishradhaatveeya ispaaton mein 0.003 pratishat jaisi kam maatra mein boran milaae jaane par kathor ho jaane ki kshamata badhti hai tatha yaantrik gunon ki unnati hoti hai.

kromiym - akele athva doosare mishradhaatukaari tatvon se sanyojit kromiym, ispaat ka gharshan-avarodh tatha kathor ho sakane ki kshamata badhaata hai. adhik maatra mein, 12 se 14 pratishat tak, hone par yeh akalush (stenales) ispaat ka aavashyak tatv hai. isi athva isse bhi adhik maatra mein (20 pratishat tak) kromiym rahane par, nikal aur kabhi-kabhi doosare tatvon ke saath milaakar, tarah tarah ke ushma pratirodhak ispaat tatha vibhinn prakaar ke ostenaait ispaat bante hain jo maarchein tatha aml ki kriya ke prati atyadhik avarodhakata ke liye prasiddh hain. kromiym gharshan-avarodh ki unnati karta hai; isliye 2 pratishat kaaraban ke saath 12 pratishat tak kromiym kuchh vishesh tarah ke yantron tatha thappon ke liye ispaat banaane mein upayukt hota hai. prushth kathoreekaran (case haardening) tatha naaitraaiding ke liye ispaat mein kromiym praaya: 2 pratishat se kam hi hota hai. seedhe kathoreekrut chharro (baal beyaring) tatha kuchalane ki masheenavaale goalon ke ispaat mein kromiym ki maatra adhik hoti hai.

kobaalt - kobalt se, kuchh uchch vegavaale yaantrik ispaaton ki kaatne ki kshamata badhti hai. kuchh ushma pratirodhak ispaaton mein, jaise gas tarbin engine ke dhale hue bledon mein, yeh prayukt hota hai. adhik maatra mein yeh aise ispaat ka aavashyak ang hota hai jo un ati kathin paristhitiyon ko sahan karne ke liye bante hain jinmein gas tarbin ke blade kaarya karte hain. in upayaagon mein kobalt milaane se ispaat ko ushma avarodhak gun, satah par chippad (skel) na banane dene tatha dheere-dheere maap mein svat: parivartan (kreep) ko rokane ki kshamata milti hai. sthaayi chunbak ki mishradhaatuon mein bhi kobalt paryaapt maatra mein rahata hai.

taaainba - bina taaainba ke ispaat ki tulana mein taaainba ki thodi bhi maatraavaale ispaat mein sankshaaran-avarodh adhik hota hai. gruhanirmaan ke liye prayukt athva aise hi doosare prakaar ke naram ispaaton mein lagbhag 0.6 pratishat tak taaainba rahata hai.

mainganeej - ispaat ka thosapan badhaane ke liye tatha bachi hui gandhak se milkar, salfaaid ke kaaran, bhurabhuraapan rokane ke liye 0.5 se 1.0 pratishat tak mainganeej milaaya jaata hai.

1.0 pratishat se 1.8 pratishat tak, mainganeej ispaat ki tanaavapushtata tatha kathorata mein vruddhi karta hai. 13 pratishat mainganeej-ispaat ka ek alag hi varg hai. aisa ispaat thonkane peetane se kada ho jaata hai, arthaat sughatya tanaav (plaistik stren) padne par swayam kada ho jaata hai. kisi saadhaaran ushma upachaar dvaara iska kathoreekaran naheen hota. yeh adhiktar dhalaai ke liye prayukt hota hai. jhaam (drejar) ke oshth, chattaan todnevaali masheenon ke jabade, rel ki patariyon ki sanghi (kraasaovar) tatha anya vishesh maarg sambandhi kaaryo mein, jahaaain ghisaai ki vishesh aashanka rahati hai, iska upayog hota hai.

maalibdeenam - ispaat mein maalibdeenam shakti, kathor ho sakane ki kshamata tatha dheere-dheere svat: parivartan ke prati avarodh badhaata hai. uchch taapakram par kaarya karne ke liye ispaat ki kathorata surakshit rakhane mein bhi maalibdeenam sahaayak hai. isliye kuchh uchch veg ispaaton mein tangstan ke ek ansh ke badle isi ka upayog hota hai. udaaharan ke liye 5.5 pratishat maalibdeenam aur 6 pratishat tangstan ka ek uchchaveg ispaat hai, jo praamaanik 18 pratishat tangstan ki tulana mein upayogi aur sasta hota hai.

nikal - ispaat mein milaane ke liye (mainganeej ko chhod) sabse adhik upayog isi ka hota hai. pighle hue lohe mein yeh sabhi anupaaton mein ghul jaata hai tatha thanda hone par thos ghol banaata hai. 5 pratishat tak rahane par yeh ispaat ka chimdaapan tatha tanaav pushtata badhaata hai. yeh kathor ho sakane ki kshamata ko bhi badhaata hai, jisse paani mein bujhaane ki jagah tel mein bujhaakar kathoreekaran sambhav hai. fatne tatha ainthane ki pravrutti ko bhi kam karta hai, jisse badi naap ke aise ispaat ko bhi achhi tarah kathor kiya ja sakta hai.

kuchh prushth-kathoreekaran ispaaton mein 1.0 se 5.0 pratishat tak nikal rahata hai. naaitraaiding ispaaton mein saadhaaranat: nikal ki maatra adhik se adhik 0.4 pratishat tak hi seemit hai. (naaitraaiding ispaat ke baahari prushth ko kada karne ki ek reeti hai. saadhaaranat: amoniya gas mein ispaat ko 500-555digri seinteegred tak tapt karne se yeh kaarya siddh hota hai.)

bahut se sankshaaran-avarodhak tatha "stenales" ostenaaitamaya ispaaton mein nikal ka ansh 8 pratishat tatha isse adhik hota hai. prasiddh 18 : 8 kromiym-nikal-ispaat tatha usase milte julate ispaat bhi isi varg mein sammilit hain. kuchh ati naveen prakaar ke ispaaton mein nikal ki maatra adhik hoti hain, jaise 20 pratishat ya isse bhi adhik. ye uchch taap tatha atyadhik dabaav ki sthitiyon mein kaarya karne ke liye upayukt hote hain; udaaharanat:, gas tarbin ke sthir tave (disk) tatha blade. 36 pratishat nikal ka, ispaat, jo "inavaar" naam se prasiddh hai, apne ati nimn-prasaar-gunaank ke kaaran yathaarthadarshi ghadiyon, svaritr (tayooning fork) tatha bahut se vaigyaanik upakaran banaane mein upayukt hota hai.

kolanbiym - kromiym ispaat ya 18 : 8 kromiym-nikal prakaar ke ispaat ko sthir karne ke liye 1 pratishat athva aisi hi maatra tak kolanbiym ka upayog hota hai. yeh taaiteniym ke sadrush hi kaarya karta hai.

silikn - mainganeej ki bhaaainti silikn sabhi ispaaton mein praarambh se hi, athva ispaat banaate samay milaavat ke kaaran, rahata hai. iski upasthiti se ispaat ka anaakseekaran hona praaya: nishchit sa ho jaata hai. silikn mein, adhik maatra mein rahane par, ispaat ki shakti tatha kathor ho sakane ki kshamata badhaane ki tatha aantarik tanyata kam karne ki pravrutti hoti hai. silikn mainganeej ke kamaani vaale ispaat mein iski maatra 1.5 pratishat se 2 pratishat tak rahati hai, jismein mainganeej ki maatra lagbhag 0.6-1.0 pratishat hoti hai. silikn -kromiym se bane injanon ke vaalvon ke ispaat mein silikn ki maatra 3.75 pratishat hoti hai. nikal-kromiym-tangstan vaalvon ke ispaat mein iski maatra 1.0-2.5 pratishat hoti hai.

gandhak - jaisa vidit hai, ispaat mein gandhak ka hona saadhaaranataya upadravaprad hai. mishradhaatukaari tatv ke roop mein iska upayog keval svachhandata se katanevaale ispaat mein hota hai.

siliniym- yeh tatv gandhak ke sadrush hi kaarya karta hai.

taaiteniym - thodi maatra mein milaane se yeh ispaat ki sthirta badhaata hai aur kehte hain, iske kaaran daane (gren) ka parimaan adhik sookshm hota hai.

tangstan - 20 pratishat tak ki maatra mein tangstan uchchaveg ispaat ka aavashyak avayav hai; isliye ki yeh ispaat ko ushma upachaar ke baad atyadhik kathorata pradaan karta hai, jo ooainche taap par bhi sthir rah jaati hai. garm-thappa-ispaat tatha doosare garm kaarya ke liye upayukt ispaat mein bhi iska upayog hota hai. ismein iski maatra 2 pratishat se lagbhag 10 pratishat tak hoti hai.

vainediym - ispaat mein vainediym, fero-vainediym ke roop mein milaaya jaata hai. yeh shaktishaali schachhakaarak vastu hai. isse ispaat ki sthirta tatha safaai badhti hai tatha ushma upachaarit kaarabanamaya aur mishradhaatveeya ispaat ke yaantrik gun unnat hote hain. hava mein kathoreekaran ke gun tatha kaatne ki kshamata badhaane ke liye 1h pratishat tak vainediym uchchaveg yaantrik ispaat mein prayukt hota hai. ek prakaar ke prasiddh uchchaveg ispaat mein vainediym 4.5 jaise ooainche anupaat mein rahata hai.

jirkoniym - kuchh uchch kromiym-nikal tatha ostenaaitamaya 18 : 8 prakaar ke ispaat mein, mukt katane ke gun dene ke liye, thodi maatra mein yeh tatv gandhak ke saath prayukt hota hai.

nimn-mishr-dhaatveeya, uchch-tanaav-pusht, bhavan-nirmaan-ispaat

praamaanik byore ke anusaar in ispaaton ki antim tanaav-pushtata 37-43 tan prati varg inch hai, tatha trotanavindu (vah seema jispar chhad tootata hai). moti chhad ke liye 23 tan prati varg inch hai. ye ispaat mote taur par nimnalikhit vargo mein rakhe ja sakte hain:

(1) silikn ispaat,

(2) mainganeej ispaat,

(3) taaainbe ki thodi maatra ke saath mainganeej ispaat.

(4) mainganeej, kromiym tatha taaainbe ki milaavat ka ispaat,

varg 1 : silikn ispaat ki, jiski maulikta Amreeki hai, antim tanaav-pushtata 37.7-42.4 tan prati varg inch tatha nimnatam trotanabindu 20.1 tan prati varg inch hai. iski tanaavapushtata kaaraban ki ooainchi maatra ke kaaran utpann hoti hai (0.4% tak).

varg 2 : is samooh ke ispaat adhiktar mainganeej ki maatra (lagbhag 1.25%) par nirbhar hain.

varg 3 : saamaanyat: 0.25% se 0.5% tak taaainbe ki milaavat hone par varg (2) ke samaan hi is varg ki bhi saadhaaran prakruti hoti hai. mainganeej ke saath taaainbe ki maatra sankshaaran-pratirodh badhaati hai, jo narm ispaat ki apeksha 30-40% adhik ho jaati hai.

varg 4 : is varg ke ispaat mein mainganeej, kromiym tatha taaainba mishrit rahata hai. ismein ooaincha trotanavindu tatha saath hi unnat sankshaaran avarodh milta hai.

vaayuyaan motor tatha gaadiyon ke engine ka ispaat

motaragaadiyon ki kraink dhuri sadaiv peetakar hi taiyaar ki jaati hai tatha 45-65 tan prati varg inch ki saadhaaran seema tak tanaav-pushtata praapt karne ke liye ushmaaupachaarit hoti hai. aavashyak ispaat ka chunaav puraje ki pradhaan motaai par nirbhar hai. chhoti kraink dhuri ke liye 0.40% kaaraban ispaat, bina nikal ke ya 1.0% nikal sahit, athva nimn mishradhaatveeya mainganeej-maalibdeenam ispaat ko praathamikta di jaati hai. bhaari kraink dhuriyaaain nikal-kromiym-maalibdeenam ispaat ki banti hain, jo 55-65 tan prati varg inch tanaav-pushtata ke liye ushma-upachaarit rahati hain. nikal-kromiym ispaat mein, jo paani chadhaai hui avastha mein upayukt hota hai, paani chadhaane par bhurabhuraapan bachaane ke liye maalibdeenam ki milaavat ek maanak prachalan hai.

havaai engine ki kraink dhuri ke liye naaitraaiding ispaaton ka upayog prachalit hai. ye kromiym maalibdeenam ispaat hote hain jo 60-70 tan prati varg inch tanaav-pushtata tak ushma-upachaarit kiye jaate hain.

motor mein sanbandhak dandon (kaneÏaaktag road) ko madhyam kaaraban ya mainganeej-maalibdeenam ispaat se, jo 45-65 tan prati varg inch tanaav-pushtata tak ushma-upachaarit hote hain, peetakar banaaya jaata hai. havaai engine ke sanbandhak dand ke liye 3.5% nikal ispaat, 55-65 tan prati varg inch tanaav-pushtata dene ke liye upachaarit, tatha nikal-kromiym-maalibdeenam ispaat, 65-70 tan prati varg inch tanaav-pushtata tak upachaarit, anukool hain.

motor ke vaalvon ke liye 3.5% silikn aur 8.5% kromiym vaale ispaat ka upayog hota hai tatha kabhi-kabhi ostenaaitamaya ispaat, jismein 13% kromiym, 13% nikal, 2.5% tangstan tatha 0.4% kaaraban hota hai, nishkaasak (egjaust) vaalv ke liye prayukt hota hai.

kraink dhuri tatha taipat prushthakathoreekrut ispaat ke banaae jaate hain, jismein 5% nikal ispaat athva 4% nikal aur 1.3% kromiymavaale ispaat ka prayog hota hai.

daaainteedaar chakron ka vinaash thakaan (faiteeg) se utana naheen hota jitna ghisne ke kaaran. ye adhiktar prushthakathoreekrut ispaat se banaae jaate hai; jaise 0.20-0.28% kaaraban sahit 2 pratishat nikal molibdeenam ispaat, 3% nikal ispaat athva 5% nikal ispaat.

gair tarbaain ispaat

is kaarya mein prayukt saamagri mote taur par teen shreniyon mein vibhkt ki ja sakti hai. inmein se pehla feritik (parlitik) ya an-aastenaaitamaya varg kaha ja sakta hai, jismein ve mishr dhaatueain hain jo udaaharanat: 600 degree sein. adhiktam taap tak kaarya ke liye anukool hain.

doosari shreni mein ve mishr dhaatueain hain jinka vikaas pradhaanat: chippad na banane dene ki ooainchi kshamata ke liye hua hai tatha jinki bhaar sainbhaalane ki kshamata par adhik dhyaan naheen diya gaya hai. is varg mein aanevaale ispaaton ki raasaayanik sanrachana mein adhik antar hai. feritik tatha aastenaaitamaya donon prakaar ki mishr dhaatueain isi mein hain. kam shakti ke antardah engine mein vaalv-ispaat ke roop mein prayukt honevaale saade 6% kromiym ispaat se lekar dhaale athva peetakar banaae gaye 65% nikal aur 18% kromiymavaali mishr dhaatuon tak, jo namak ke gholavaale ushmakon mein tatha anya sankshaarak paristhitiyon mein uchch taap par prayog ke liye upayukt hoti hain, is varg mein sammilit hain.

teesari shreni mein ve aastenaaitamaya mishr dhaatueain aati hain jo 600digri sein. se oopar ke taap par dheere-dheere honevaale svat: parivartan ke viruddh ooainchi pratirodhak shkti ke liye hi banaai gayi hain. is sthiti mein moracha tatha chippad na banane dene ki achhi kshamata bhi aavashyak hai. is truteeya varg ka aadhaarbhoot padaarth prasiddh 18% kromiym aur 8% niklavaala "stenales" ispaat hai, parantu kuchh naveen tatha shreshth mishr dhaatueain ati jatil prakruti ki hain. inmein loha keval alp maatra mein hi ek ashuddhi ke roop mein rahata hai.

vaashp tarbin ke liye ispaat

aadhunik vaashp tarbin, parishuddh machine kiye hue aise angon se bani rahati hai jinhein uchch taap par atyadhik tanaav tatha bahudha kathin sankshaaran ki sthiti sahan karni padti hai tatha jo lambi avadhi tak lagaataar kaarya mein lage rahate hain. tarbin ki dhuri peetakar banaae gaye, tel mein bujhaakar kathor kiye gaye tatha kuchh paani utaare hue kaaraban ispaat ki hoti hai, jismein kaaraban lagbhag 0.4% tatha mainganeej 0.5 se 1.0% tak hota hai. uchch dabaavavaale tarbin ki dhuri aantarik tanaav rahit kiye tatha paani chadhe kaaraban-maalibdeenam-vainediym ispaat se banti hai. tarbin ke silindar ke liye praaya: saada ka rabanavaale athva kaaraban-mainganeej-vaale (mainganeej 1.4-1.8%) ispaat ka upayog hota hai. keval un cylinderon ke liye jo ati uchch taap par kaarya karte hain 0.5% maalibdeenam ispaat ki aavashyakta padti hai. blade ke liye vividh stenales ispaat tatha ooainchi nikal mishradhaatueain prayukt hui hain. aajkal sabse adhik prayukt honevaala padaarth 13% kromiym-nimn-kaarban ispaat hai.

baayalar

aajkal ke baayalar 6000 sein. tak taap tatha 3,200 pound prati varg inch se adhik daab par kaarya karte hain. dhol (drum) saral kaaraban-ispaat, athva 3% nikal, 0.7% kromiym aur 0.6% maalibdeenamavaale ispaat se lavangit (rivet) karke, athva veld karke, athva tapt peetakar banaae jaate hain. baayalar ki naliyaaain praaya: kaaraban-ispaat, athva kromiym-maalibdeenam ispaat ki thos khinchi hui hoti hain.

daabasah baratan

aadhunik raasaayanik udyog mein raasaayanik kriya karaane tatha vibhinn gaison ko rakhane ke liye daabasah baratanon ki aavashyakta padti hai. in baratanon ke liye upayukt padaarth teen varg ke hote hain: kaaraban ispaat, mishradhaatu ispaat tatha stenales ispaat. saamaanyat: madhyam tanaav-pusht ispaat, jinmein mainganeej ki maatra 1.5 se 1.8% tak tatha 0.25% kaaraban rahata hai tatha jinki tanaav-pushtata 37 se 45 tan prati varg inch tak hoti hai, madhyam tatha uchch daab par kaarya ke liye daabasah baratanon mein upayukt hote hain.

raasaayanik udyog mein ispaat

sadaiv viksit hoti hui nai raasaayanik vidhiyon ke kaaran tatha un vishesh, naveen paristhitiyon ka saamana karne ke liye jo in vidhiyon mein upasthit hoti hai, vibhinn prakaar ke ispaat tatha anya dhaatuon ka upayog hota hai. raasaayanik udyog mein maal rakhane ke baratanon, anek masheenon aur bahut prakaar ke nirmaan baratanon tatha naliyon aadi ke liye naram ispaat hi atyadhik prayukt hota hai. kromiym tatha kromiym-nikal aastenaaitamaya sankshaaran avarodhak ispaat ka upayog raasaayanik udyog mein bahut hain. prachalit ispaat ki raasaayanik sanrachana mein 18% kromiym, 8% nikal tatha lagbhag 0.18% kaaraban rahata hai tatha ise taaiteniym ya niyobiym ki sahaayata se sthaayeekrut kar diya jaata hai. parantu aise ispaat ka sankshaaran-avarodh 2.5-3% maalbdieenam milaane se atayadhik badh jaata hai. raasaayanik udyog mein uchch taap par kaarya ke liye 25% kromiym tatha 20% niklavaala ispaat vyavahrut hota hai.

aujaar tatha thappe (tools & dies) ke liye ispaat

aadhunik utpaadan-vidhiyon ka vikaas aujaar banaane mein kaam aanevaale aise ispaat ki unnati par hi bahut kuchh nirbhar raha hai jo uttarottar kathin paristhitiyon mein bhi kaarya kar sake.

vaise to aujaari ispaat aganit prakaar ke hain, par unhein suvidhaapoorvak in saat samoohon mein baaainta ja sakta hai:

(1) saade kaaraban aujaari ispaat,

(2) nimn mishradhaatveeya aujaari ispaat,

(3) tel mein bujhaakar kathor kiya jaanevaala aujaari mainganeej ispaat,

(4) aaghaat-pratirodhak aujaari ispaat,

(5) uchchakaaraban uchchakromiym mishradhaatu,

(6) uchch veg ispaat tatha garam thappe ka ispaat,

(7) nikal-kromiym-maalibdeenam ispaat.

oopar diye hue ek ya adhik maulik gun, inmein se pratyek samooh mein adhik ansh tak paae jaate hain.

saada kaaraban aujaari ispaat

ek baar paani mein bujhaakar iska prushth kathor, komal tatha saadhaaran kathorata ka banaaya ja sakta hai.

nimn mishradhaatveeya aujaari ispaat

kaarabanavaale aujaari ispaat mein 0.2 se 0.5% tak vainediym ki upasthiti daanedaar hona rokati hai tatha kathoreekaran ki kshamata ko laabhadaayak seema tak badhti hai. 1.5% kromiym milaane se kathoreekaran ki kshamata tatha gharshan-avarodh badhta hai aur yadi mainganeej 0.5 tatha 0.75% ke beech mein sthir rakha jaae to yeh tel mein bujhaakar kathoreekaran yogya ispaat ho jaata hai. 1.2% kaaraban tatha 1.3% tangstanavaala ispaat, jo praaya: dhaatukat aari ke fal (haikasau blade) ke liye prayukt hota hai, iska ek achha udaaharan hai.

tel mein bujhaakar kathoreekaran yogya mainganeej aujaari ispaat

tel mein bujhaakar kathoreekrut praamaanik ispaat mein 0.8-1.0% kaaraban tatha 1.0-2.0% mainganeej rahata hai.

aaghaat pratirodhak ispaat

is prakaar ke ispaaton mein se saralatam ispaat mein 0.6% kaaraban, 0.6% mainganeej tatha 0.4-1.4% kromiym rahata hai. jismein adhik kromiym rahata hai vah mote yantron ke liye upayukt hota hai.

uchchakaaraban, uchchakromiym mishradhaatu

praamaanik mishradhaatu mein 2.2-2.4% kaaraban tatha 12-14% kromiym rahata hai. ismein uchch gharshan-avarodh tatha uchch sankshaaran-avarodh ka gun hota hai. yeh tel mein bujhaakar kathor kiya ja sakta hai, parantu 1% maalibdeenam ki milaavat ise vaayu mein kathoreekaran yogya mishradhaatu bana deti hai.

uchch veg tatha garm thappe ke liye upayukt ispaat

ooainche taap par kaarya karte samay achhi kathorata tatha kaatne ka dhaar surakshit rakhane ki kshamata hi uchchaveg ispaat ka mukhya gun hai. adhik upayog mein aanevaale is prakaar ke ispaat mein lagbhag 0.75% kaaraban, 1.8% tangastan, 4% kromiym tatha 1.5% vainediym rahata hai.

nikal-kromiym-maalibdeenam ispaat

0.3-0.6% kaaraban, 4% nikal, 1.3% kromiym tatha 0.3% maalibdeenam sahit ispaaton mein atyadhik chimdaapan (tafnes) hota hai.

chunbakayukt yantron ke bahut se aise kaaryo mein jahaaain pehle keval vidyuchchunbak hi vyavahrut hote the, ab naveen khojon ke kaaran, sthaayi chunbak safalataapoorvak prayukt hote hain. chunbak ispaat do vargo mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai - vah jo maurtenasitik ispaat hota hai tatha vah jismein avakshepan ki vidhi dvaara chunbakeeya kathorata utpann ki jaati hai. maartenasitik ispaat kromiym ispaat (kaaraban 0.9%, kromiym 3.5%), tangstan ispaat (kaaraban 0.7%, kromiym 0.3% tatha tangastan 6%) tatha kobalt ispaat (35% kobalt, 1% kaaraban, 5-9% kromiym, lagbhag 1% tangstan aur 1.5% maalibdeenam) ko milaakar banaaya jaata hai. avakshepan dvaara kathoreekrut mishradhaatuon mein ailyuminiym, nikal, kobalt tatha taaainba, kuchh taaiteniym, niyaabayam ya maalibdeenam ke saath rahate hain.

1900 E. tak, saadhaaran upayog mein, loha hi akele "naram" lauhachunbakeeya vastu tha. tatpashchaat anek mishradhaatuon ka pravesh hua, jinmein samuchit ushma upachaar se ooainchi praarambhik chubakasheelata (pamiyebiliti) tatha nimn mandaayan (histereesis) haani utpann hoti hai! inhein paar-mishradhaatu kehte hain. nikal-loha ki bahut si mishradhaatueain, jinmein doosari dhaatuon ki alp pratishat mein hi milaavat rahati hai, is kshetr mein ati shreshth thahari hain. in mishradhaatuon mein 35-90% nikal rahata hai tatha inmein milaai jaanevaali pradhaan dhaatueain maalibdeenam, kromiym tatha taaainba hai.

injeeniyri mein aise ispaat tatha mishradhaatuon ke anek upayog hain, jo yaantrik tanaav sah sake ya sahaara de sakein, parantu aaspaas mein chunbakeeya kshetr ki vruddhi na karein. inki chunbak-pravrutti (saseptiaabaliti) ko lagbhag shoonya tatha chubankasheelata ko lagbhag ikaai tak pahuainchana chaahiye. is kaarya mein prayukt honevaale padaarth nimnalikhit hain: (1) aastenaaitamaya mishradhaatu dhalavaaain loha tatha ispaat, (2) taapasamakaara mishradhaatu jinmein pradhaanat: nikal (30-36%) aur loha (59-70%) rahata hai tatha saath mein kabhi kabhi mainganeej ya kromiym (5%) hota hai, tatha (3) nishchunbakeeya ispaat (kaaraban 0.45%, mainganeej 8.5-9.5%, nikal 7.5-8.5%, kromiym 3.0-3.5%).

akalush ispaat (stenales steel)

yeh mishradhaatuon ke un samoohon ka pratinidhi hai jo vaayumandal tatha kaarbanik aur akaarbanik amlon se kalushit (kharaab) naheen hote hain. saadhaaran ispaat ki apeksha ye adhik taap bhi sah sakte hain. ispaat mein ye gun kromiym milaane se utpann hote hain. kromiym ispaat ke baahya tal ko nishkriya bana deta hai. pratirodhi shakti ki vruddhi ke liye ismein nikal bhi milaaya jaata hai. nikal ke sthaan par anshat: ya poornat: mainganeej ka bhi upayog kiya jaata hai. akalush ispaat ke nirmaan mein lohe mein kabhi-kabhi taamr, kobaalt, taaiteniym, niyobiym, taintaaliym, kolanbiym, gandhak aur naaitrojan bhi milaaya jaata hai. inki sahaayata se vibhinn raasaayanik, yaantrik aur bhautik gunon ke akalush ispaat banaae ja sakte hain.

vistrut vivran ke liye dekhein - stenales steel

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain