islaam

islaam (arabi: اaaلaaإaaسaaلaaاaaم) ek ekeshvaravaadi dharm hai, jo iske anuyaayiyon ke anusaar, Allah ke antim rasool aur nabi, muhammad dvaara manushyon tak pahunchaai gayi antim ishvareeya pustak kuraaan ki shiksha par aadhaarit hai. Quraan arabi bhaasha mein rachi gayi aur isi bhaasha mein vishv ki kul janasankhya ke 25% hisse, yaani lagbhag 1.61se 1.8 arab logon, dvaara padhi jaati hai; inmein se (sroton ke anusaar) lagbhag 20 se 30 karod logon ki yeh maatrubhaasha hai. muhammad ke muainh se kathit hokar likhi jaane waali pustak aur pustak ka paalan karne ke nirdesh pradaan karne waali shareeyat hi do aise sansaadhan hain jo islaam ki jaankaari srot karaar diye jaate hain.

anukram

islaami mat

islaami dharm ke pramukh mat yeh hain:

ishvar ki ekta

musalmaan ek hi ishvar ko maanate hain, jise ve Allah (faarasi: khuda) kehte hain. ekeshvaravaad ko arabi mein tauheed kehte hain, jo shabd vaahid se aata hai jiska arth hai ek. islaam mein ishvar ko maanav ki samajh se pare maana jaata hai. musalmaanon se ishvar ki kalpana karne ke bajaay usaki praarthana aur jaya-jayakaar karne ko kaha gaya hai. musalmaanon ke anusaar ishvar adviteeya hai - uske jaisa aur koi naheen. islaam mein ishvar ki ek vilkshan avadhaarana par bal diya gaya hai aur yeh bhi maana jaata ki usaka sampoorn vivran karna manushya se pare hai. kaho: ishvar ek aur anupam, sanaatan, sada se sada tak jeene wala hai,
na use kisi ne jana aur na hi vo kisi ka janak hai.
evam us jaisa koi aur naheen hai.”
(kuraaan, soorat 112, aayat 1 - 4)

nabi (doot) aur rasool

islaam ke anusaar ishvar ne dharati par manushya ke maargadarshan ke liye samay samay par kisi vyakti ko apna doot banaaya. yeh doot bhi manushya jaati mein se hote the aur ishvar ki or logon ko bulaate the. ishvar in dooton se vibhinn roopon se samapark rakhata tha. in ko islaam mein nabi kehte hain. jin nabiyon ko ishvar ne swayam, shaastr ya dharm pustakein pradaan keen unhein rasool kehte hain. muhammad bhi isi kadi ka bhaag the. unako jo dhaarmik pustak pradaan ki gayi usaka naam Quraan hai. Quraan mein Allah ke 25 anya nabiyon ka varnan hai. swayam Quraan ke anusaar ishvar ne in nabiyon ke alaava dharati par aur bhi kai nabi bheje hain jinka varnan Quraan mein naheen hai. lagbhag sansaar me 124000 nabi (doot) varnan Quraan mein hai.

sabhi musalmaan ishvar dvaara bheje gaye sabhi nabiyon ki vaidhata sveekaar karte hain aur musalmaan, muhammad ko ishavar ka antim nabi maanate hain. ahamadiyya samudaaya muhammad ko antim nabi naheen maanata tathaapi swayam ko islaam ka anuyaayi kehta hai aur sanyukt raashtra dvaara sveekaara bhi jaata hai haalaanki kai islaami raashtron mein use muslim maanana pratibandhit hai. Bhaarat ke uchchatam nyaayaalaya ke anusaar unako Bhaarat mein musalmaan maana jaata hai.[1] [2][3][4]

dhaarmik pustakein

Quraan ki ek paandulipi mein usaka pratham adhyaaya.

musalmaanon ke liye allah dvaara rasoolon ko pradaan ki gayi sabhi dhaarmik pustakein vaidh hain. musalamanon ke anusaar Quraan ishvar dvaara manushya ko pradaan ki gayi antim dhaarmik pustak hai. Quraan mein chaar aur pustakon ki charcha hai:

  • sahoof A ibraaheemi jo ki ibraaheem ko pradaan ki gayeen. yeh ab lupt ho chuki hai.
  • tauraat (toraah) jo ki moosa ko pradaan ki gayi.
  • jboor jo ki daaud ko pradaan ki gayi.
  • injeel (baaibal) jo ki isa ko pradaan ki gayi.

musalmaan yeh maanate hain ki isaaiyon aur yahoodiyon ne apni pustakon ke sandashon mein badlaav kar diye hain. ve in chaaron ke alaava anya dhaarmik pusatakon ka ishvareeya hone ki sambhaavana se mana naheen karte hain.

devadoot

musalmaan devadooton (arabi mein malaaika/ urdu me "frishte") ke astitv ko maanate hain. unke anusaar devadoot swayam koi vivek naheen rakhate aur ishvar ki aajnyaa ka yathaaroop paalan hi karte hain. vah keval roshani se bani hooi amoort aur nirdosh aakrutiyaaain hain jo ki na purush hain na stri, balki manushya se har drushti se alag hain. haalaanki devadoot agananeeya hain, par kuchh devadoot Quraan mein prabhaav rakhate hain:

  • jibraail jo nabeeyon aur rasoolon ko ishvar ka sandesh la kar deta hai.
  • ijraail jo ishvar ke samaadesh se mrutyu ka doot jo manushaya ki aatma le jaata hai.
  • meekaail jo ishvar ke samaadesh par mausam badalanevaala devadoot.
  • israafeel jo ishvar ke samaadesh par pralaya ke din ke aarambh par ek aavaaj dega.
  • kiraaman kaatibeen (hindi me "pratishthit lekhak") jo manushya ke karmon ko likhte hain. islaamik maanyata anusaar pratyek manushya ke saath do devadoot lage hote hain jo uske karmon ko likhte rahate hain(kuraaan -82-9 va 10)
  • munakir nakeer ya nakeerain - manushya ke maranoparaant usaki kabr me aa kar usase teen prashan poochhane vaale.

pralaya (kyaamat)

madhya Asia ke anya dharmon (isaai aur yahoodi) ke samaan islaam mein bhi brahmaand ka ant pralaya ke din dvaara maana jaata hai. iske anusaar ishvar ek din sansaar ko samaapt karega. yeh din kab aayega iski sahi jaankaari keval ishvar ko hi hai. islaam ke anusaar sabhi mrut logon ko us din punarjeevit kiya jaaega aur Allah ke aadeshaanusaar apna jeevan vyateet karne vaalon ko svarg bheja jaaega aur usaka aadesh na manaane vaalon ko nark mein jalaaya jaaega.

bhaagya

musalmaan bhaagya ko maanate hain. bhaagya ka arth inke liye yeh hai ki ishvar beete hue samay, vartamaan aur bhavishya ke baare mein sab jaanta hai. koi bhi ghatna usaki anumati ke bina naheen ho sakti hai. manushya ko apni ichha se jeene ki svatantrata to hai par iski anumati bhi ishvar hi ke dvaara use di gayi hai. islaam ke anusaar manushya apne kukarmon ke liye swayam uttaradaai isliye hai kyonki unhein karne ya na karne ka nirnaya ishvar manushya ko swayam hi lene deta hai. uske kukarmon ka bhi poorv gyaan ishvar ko hota hai.

musalmaanon ke kartavya aur shareeyat

islaam ke 5 stambh

namaaj ada karte musalmaan.
haj ke dauraan musalmaan kaaba ka chakkar lagaate hue

islaam ke do pramukh varg hain, shiya aur sunni. donon ke apne apne islaami niyam hain lekin aadhaarbhoot siddhaant milte-julate hain. bahut se sunni, shiyaaon ko poornat: musalmaan naheen maanate. sunni islaam mein har musalmaan ke 5 aavashyak kartavya hote hain jinhein islaam ke 5 stambh bhi kaha jaata hai. shiya islaam mein thode alag siddhaanton ko stambh kaha jaata hai. sunni islaam ke 5 stambh hain-

  • saakshi hona (shaahaada)- is ka shaabdik arth hai gavaahi dena. islaam mein iska arth me is arabi ghoshana se hai:

arabi:لaaا اaaلaaه اaaلaaا اaaلaaلaaه مaaحaaمaaد رaaسaaوaaل اaaلaaلaaه
hindi: allaah ke siva aur koi Bhagwan naheen hai aur muhammad Allah ke rasool hain.

is ghoshana se har musalmaan ishvar ki ekeshvaravaadita aur muhammad ke rasool hone ke apne vishvaas ki gavaahi deta hai. yeh islaam ka sabse pramukh siddhaant hai. har musalmaan ke liye anivaarya hai ki vah ise sveekaare. ek gair-muslim ko dharm-parivartan kar islaam sveekaar karne ke liye ek islaami dhaarmik nyaayaadheesh ke sammukh ise sveekaar kar lena paryaapt hai.

  • praarthana (salaat)- ise faarasi mein namaaj bhi kehte hain. yeh ek prakaar ki praarthana hai jo arabi bhaasha mein ek vishesh niyam se padhi jaati hai. islaam ke anusaar namaaj ishvar ke prati manushya ki krutajnyaata darshaati hai. yeh makka ki or muainh kar ke padhi jaati hai. har musalmaan ke liye din mein 5 baar namaaj padhna anivaarya hai. vivshata aur beemaari ki haalat mein ise naheen taala ja sakta hai.

sooryodaya se (m.garib) sooryaast tak vrat rakhana anivaarya hai. is vrat ko roja bhi kehte hain. roje mein har prakaar ka khaana-peena varjit hai. anya vyarth karmon se bhi apne-aap ko door rakha jaata hai. yaun gatividhiyaaain bhi varjit hain. vivshata mein roja rakhana aavashyak naheen hota. roja rakhane ke kai uddeshya hain jin mein se do pramukh uddeshya yeh hain ki duniya ke baaki aakarshanon se dhyaan hata kar ishvar se niktata anubhav ki jaae aur doosra yeh ki nirdhanon, bhikhaariyon aur bhookhon ki samasyaaon aur pareshaaniyon ka gyaan ho.

  • daan (jkaat)- yeh ek vaarshik daan hai jo ki har aarthik roop se saksham musalmaan ko nirdhan mesalamaanon mein baantana anivaarya hai. adhiktar musalmaan apni vaarshik aay ka 2.5% daan mein dete hain. yeh ek dhaarmik kartavya is liye hai kyonki islaam ke anusaar manushya ki poonji vaastav mein ishvar ki den hai. aur daan dene se jaan aur maal ki suraksha hoti he.
  • teerth yaatra (haj)- haj us dhaarmik teerth yaatra ka naam hai jo islaami kailendar ke 12vein maheene mein makka mein jaakar ki jaati hai. har samarpit musalmaan (jo haj ka kharcha‍a‍ utha sakta ho aur vivsh na ho) ke liye jeevan mein ek baar ise karna anivaarya hai.

shareeyat aur islaami nyaayashaastr

vishv mein islaam ke pramukh panth aur unka vitran.

musalmaanon ke liye islaam jeevan ke har pahaloo par apna prabhaav rakhata hai. islaami siddhaant musalmaanon ke ghareloo jeevan, unke raajanaitik ya aarthik jeevan, musalmaan raajyon ki videsh niti ityaadi par prabhaav daalte hain. shareeyat us samuchchaya neeti ko kehte hain jo islaami kaanooni paramparaaon aur islaami vyaktigat aur naitik aacharanon par aadhaarit hoti hai. shareeyat ki neeti ko neenv bana kar nyaayashaastr ke adhyyan ko fikh kehte hain. fikh ke maamale mein islaami vidvaanon ki alag alag vyaakhyaaon ke kaaran islaam mein nyaayashaastr kai bhaagon mein bat gaya aur kai alag alag nyaayashaastr se sambandhit vichaaradhaaraon ka janm hua. inhein panth kehte hain. sunni islaam mein pramukh panth hain-

  • hanafi panth- iske anuyaayi dakshin Asia aur madhya Asia mein hain.
  • maaliki panth-iske anuyaayi pashchim Africa aur arab ke kuchh bhaagon mein hain.
  • shaafyi panth-iske anuyaayi afreeka ke poorvi Africa, arab ke kuchh bhaagon aur dakshin poorv Asia mein hain.
  • hanbali panth- iske anuyaayi Saudi arab mein hain.

adhiktar musalmaanon ka maanana hai ki chaaron panth aadhaarbhoot roop se sahi hain aur inmein jo matabhed hain vah nyaayashaastr ki baareek vyaakhyaaon ko lekar hai.

itihaas

muhammad paiganbar

makka ke paas sthit hira ki gufa jahaan muhammad paiganbar ko ishvar se pehla sandesh mila tha.

muhammad paiganbar (570-632) ko makka ki pahaadiyon mein param gyaan 610 ke aaspaas praapt hua. jab unhonne upadesh dena aarambh kiya tab makka ke samruddh logon ne ise apni saamaajik aur dhaarmik vyavastha par khatra samjha aur unka virodh kiya. ant mein 622 mein unhein apne anuyaayiyon ke saath makka se madeena ke liye kooch karna pada. is yaatra ko hijra kaha jaata hai aur yaheen se islaami calendar ki shuruaat hoti hai. madeena ke logon ki jindagi aapasi ladaaiyon se pareshaan si thi aur muhammad ke sandeshon ne unhein vahaaain bahut lokapriya bana diya. 630 mein muhammad ne apne anuyaayiyon ke saath ek sandhi ka ullanghan hone ke kaaran makka par chadhaai kar di. makkaavaasiyon ne aatmasamarpan karke islaam kabool kar liya. makka mein sthit kaaba ko islaam ka pavitra sthal ghoshit kar diya gaya. 632 mein muhammad paiganbar ka dehaant ho gaya. par unki mrutyu tak islaam ke prabhaav se arab ke saare kabeele ek raajaneetik aur saamaajik sabhyata ka hissa ban gaye the. is ke baad islaam mein khilaafat ka daur shuru hua.

raashidoon khaleefa aur gruhayuddh

750 mein islaami samraajya.

muhammad ke sasur abu bakr siddeek musalmaanon ke pehle khaleefa (sardaar) 632 mein banaaye gaye. kai pramukh musalmaanon ne mil ke unka khaleefa hona sveekaar kiya. sunni musalamaano (80-90%) ke anusaar abu bakr siddeek ki khilaaft ke sambandh me koi vivaad nahi huva apitu sabhi ne unhe khalifa svikaar kar liya tha, sunni maanytaaon ke anusaar muhammad ne swayam apne svargavaas se poorv hi abu bakr siddeek ko apne sthaan par imaamat karne[ salaat (faarasi me "namaaj") padhaane ] ka kaarya bhaar dekar abu bakr siddeek ke khalifa hone ka ka sanket de diya tha parantu shiya muslim (10-20%)ke anusaar muhammad ke chacha jaad bhaai, Ali, jin ka musalmaan bahut aadar karte the ne abu bakr ko khaleefa maanane se inkaar kar diya. lekin yeh vivaad islaam ki tabaahi ko rokne ke liye vaastav mein hajrat Ali ki soojh bujh ke kaaran tal gaya abu bakr ke kaaryakaal mein poorvi roman saamraajya aur Irani saamraajya se musalmaan faujon ki ladaai hooi. yeh yuddh muhammad ke jmaane se chali aa rahi dushmani ka hissa the. abu bakr ke baad umar bin khattaab ko 634 mein khaleefa banaaya gaya. unke kaaryakaal mein islaami saamraajya bahut teji se faila aur samapoorn Irani saamraajya aur do tihaai poorvi roman saamraajya par musalmaanon ne kabaja kar liya. poore saamraajya ko vibhinn pradeshon mein baat diya gaya aur aur har pradesh ka ek raajyapaal niyukt kar diya gaya jo ki khaleefa ka adheen hota tha.

umar bin khattaab ke baad usamaan bin affaan 644 mein khaleefa bane. yeh bhi muhammad ke pramukh saathiyon mein se the tatha daamaad the. usamaan bin affaan par unke virodhiyon ne ye aarop lagaane shuru kiye ki vo pakshapaat se niyuktiyaaain karte hain aur ki Ali (muhammad saahib ke chacha jaad bhaai) hi khaleefa hone ke sahi hakdaar hain. tabhi misr mein vidroh ki bhaavana jaagane lagi aur vahaaain se 1000 logon ka ek sashastr samooh islaami saamraajya ki rajdhani madeena aa gaya. us samay tak sabhi khaleefa aam logon ki tarah hi rahate the. is liye yeh samooh 656 mein usamaan ki hatya karne mein safal ho gaya. kuchh pramukh musalmaanon ne ab Ali ko khaleefa sveenkaar kar liya lekin kuchh pramukh musalmaanon ka dal Ali ke khilaaf bhi ho gaya. in musalmaanon ka maanana tha ki jabatak usamaan ke hatyaaron ko saja naheeain milti Ali ka khaleefa banana sahi naheen hai. yeh islaam ka pehla gruhayuddh tha. shuru mein is dal ke ek hisse ki aguaai aayasha, jo ki muhammad ki patni thi, kar rahi theen. Ali aur aashya ki senaaon ke beech mein jang hooi jise jang-A-jamal kehte hain. is jang mein Ali ki sena vijay hooi. ab Syria ke raajyapaal muaaviya ne vidroh ka bigul bajaaya. muaaviya usamaan ke rishtedaar bhi the muaaviya ki sena aur Ali ki sena ke beech mein jang hooi par koi parinaam naheen nikla. Ali ne saamraajya mein faili ashaanti par kaaboo paane ke liye rajdhani madeena se koofa mein (jo abhi iraak mein hai) pehle hi badal di thi. muaaviya ki senaaain ab poore islaami saamraajya mein fail gayeen aur jald hi koofa ke pradesh ke sivaaye saare saamraajya par muaaviya ka kabja ho gaya. tabhi ek kattarpanthi ne 661 mein Ali ki hatya kar di.

shiya aur sunni vargon ki neenv

inhein bhi dekhein: shiya islaam
inhein bhi dekhein: sunni islaam

Ali ke baad haalaanki muaaviya khaleefa ban gaye lekin musalmaanon ka ek varg rah gaya jiska maanana tha ki musalmaanon ka khaleefa muhammad ke parivaar ka hi ho sakta hai. unka maanana tha ki yeh khaleefa (jise vah imaam bhi kehte the) svayain Bhagwan ke dvaara aadhyaatmik maargadarshan paata hai. inke anusaar Ali pehle imaam the. yeh varg shiya varg ke naam se prasiddh hua. baaki musalmaan, jo ki yeh naheen maanate hain ki muhammad ka parivaarajan hi khaleefa ho sakta hai, sunni kahalaaye. sunni pehle chaaron khaleefaaon ko raashidoon khaleefa kehte hain jiska arth hai sahi maarg pe chalne vaale khaleefa.

muaaviya ke khaleefa banane ke baad khilaafat vanshaanugat ho gayi. isse ummaya: vansh ka aarambh hua. shiya itihaas kaaron ke anusaar muaaviya k bete yajeed ne khilaafat praapt karte hi islaam ki neetio ke viruddh kaarya karna shuroo kar diya, uske krutya se dhaarmik musalmaan asahaj sthiti mein aa gaye, ab yajeed ko aayashyakata thi ki apni galat neetio ko aise vyakti se maanyata dila de jis par sabhi muslamaan bharosa karte ho, is kaam ke liye yajeed ne hajrat muhammad ke navaase, hajrat Ali alaihis salaam aur hajrat muhammad ki ikalauti putri Fatima ke putr hajrat husain se apni khilaafat par manjoori karni chaahi parantu hajrat husain ne uske islaam ki neetio ke viruddh kaarya karne ke kaaran apni manjoori dene se mana kar diya, hajrat husain ke mana karne par yajeed ki faujon ne hajrat husain aur unke 72 saathiyo par paani band kar diya aur badi hi bedardi ke saath unka ktl karke unke ghar vaalo ko bandhak bana liya, kaii sunni itihaas kaaron ne bhi apni pustakon me yajeed ko husain ke ktl ka jimmedaar maana hai parantu ye sabhi shiya itihaas kaaron se prerit the ya inke gyaan ka asal kendra shiyaaon ki gadi gayi banoo umayya ke viruddh jhoothi kahaaniyaan hai. sunni mat ke bade vidhvaano imaam Ahmad bin hanbl, imaam gjaali vagairah ne yajeed ko ktle husain karne ka jimmedaar nahi maana hai. is jang mein husain ko shahaadat praapti ho gayi. shiya log 10 muharram ke din isi ka shok manaate hain.

islaam ka svarn yug (750-1258)

iban rashud jisne darshanashaastr mein ibanarashuvaad ko janm diya.

ummayad vansh 70 saal tak satta mein raha aur is dauraan uttari Africa, dakshin Europe, sindh aur madhya Asia ke kai hisson par unka kabja ho gaya. ummayad vansh ke baad abbaasi vansh 750 mein satta mein aaya. shiya aur ajami musalmaanon ne (vah musalmaan jo ki arab naheen the) abbaasiyon ko ummayad vansh ke khilaaf vidroh karne mein bahut sahaayata ki. ummayad vansh ki ek shaakha dakshin Spain aur kuchh aur kshetron par simat kar rah gayi. keval ek islaami samraajya ki dhaarana ab samaapt hone lagi.

abbaasiyon ke raaj mein islaam ka svarn yug shuru hua. abbaasi khaleefa gyaan ko bahut mahattv dete the. muslim duniya bahut teji se vishv ka bauddhik kendra banane lagi. kai vidvaanon ne praacheen yunaan, Bhaarat, cheen aur faarasi sabhaytaaon ki saahitya, darshanashaasr, vigyaan, ganit ityaadi se sambandhit pustakon ka adhyayan kiya aur unka arabi mein anuvaad kiya. visheshagyon ka maanana hai ki is ke kaaran bahut bada jnyaaanakosh itihaas ke pannon mein khone se rah gaya.[5] muslim vidvaanon ne sirf anuvaad hi naheen kiya. unhonne in sabhi vishyon mein apni chhaap bhi chhodi.

chikitsa vigyaan mein shareer rachana aur rogon se sambandhit kai nai khojein hooin jaise ki khasara aur chechak ke beech mein jo fark hai use samjha gaya. ibane seena (980-1037) ne chikitsa vigyaan se sambandhit kai pustakein likheen jo ki aage ja kar aadhunik chikitsa vigyaan ka aadhaar bani. is liye ibane seena ko aadhunik chikitsa ka pita bhi kaha jaata hai.[6][7] isi tarah se al haithaam ko prakaashiki vigyaan ka pita aur abu moosa jabeer ko rasaayan shaastr ka pita bhi kaha jaata hai.[8][9] al khvaarijmi ki kitaab kitaab-al-jabar-val-mukaabala se hi beejaganit ko usaka angreji naam mila. al khvaarijmi ko beejaganit ki pita kaha jaata hai.[10]

islaami darshanashaastr mein praacheen yunaani sabhayta ke darshanashaasr ko islaami rang se viksit kiya gaya. ibane seena ne navapletovaad, arastuvaad aur islaami dharmashaastr ko jod kar siddhaanton ki ek nai pranaali ki rachana ki. isse darshanashaasr mein ek nai lahar paida hooi jise ibanaseenaavaad kehte hain. isi tarah iban rashud ne arastoo ke siddhaanton ko islaami siddhaanton se jod kar ibanarashuvaad ko janm diya. dvandvavaad ki madad se islaami dharmashaastr ka adhyayan karne ki kala ko viksit kiya gaya. ise kalaam kehte hain. muhammad saahab ke uddharan, gatividhiyaan ityaadi ke matlab khojana aur unase kaanoon banaana svayain ek vishay ban gaya. sunni islaam mein isse vidvaanon ke beech matabhed hua aur sunni islaam kaanooni maamalon mein 4 hisson mein bat gaya.

raajanaitik taur par abbaasi samraajya dheere dheere kamzor padta gaya. Africa mein kai muslim pradeshon ne 850 tak apne aap ko lagbhag svatantr kar liya. Iran mein bhi yahi haal ho gaya. sirf kehne ko yeh pradesh abbaasiyon ke adheen the. Mehmood gjni (971-1030) ne apne aap ko to sultaan bhi ghoshit kar diya. saljook turakon ne abbaasiyon ki sena shakti nasht karne mein aham bhoomika nibhaai. unhonne madhya Asia aur Iran ke kai pradeshon par raaj kiya. haalaanki yeh sabhi raajya aapas mein yuddh bhi karte the par ek hi islaami sanskruti hone ke kaaran aam logon mein buniyaadi sampark abhi bhi naheen toota tha. is ka krushivijnyaaan par bahut asar pada. kai fasalon ko nai jagah le jaakar boya gaya. yeh muslim krushi kraanti kahalaati hai.

vibhinn muslim samraajyon ki rachana aur aadhunik islaam

salaadeen ki sena ka 1187 ke yarooshalem ke liye hue yuddh ka kalaatmak chitran.

faatimid vansh (909-1171) jo ki shiya tha ne uttari Africa ke kuchh hisson par kabja kar ke apni svatantr khilaafat ki sthaapana ki. (haalaanki is khilaafat ko adhiktam musalmaan aaj avaidh maanate hain.) misr mein gulaam sainikon se bane mamalook vansh ne 1250 mein satta haasil kar li. mangolon ne jab 1258 mein abbaasiyon ko bagdaad mein hara diya tab abbaasi khaleefa ek naam nihaad hasti ki tarah misr ke mamalook samraajya ki sharan mein chale gaye. Asia mein mangolon ne kai samraajyon par kabja kar liya aur boddh dharm chhod kar islaam kabool kar liya. muslim samraajyon aur isaaiyon ke beech mein bhi ab takaraav badhne laga. ayyoobid vansh ke salaadeen ne 1187 mein yerushalaaim ko, jo pehli salebi jang (1096-1099) mein isaaiyon ke paas aa gaya tha, vaapas jeet liya. 13veen aur 14veen sadi se usmaani saamraajya(1299-1924) ka asar badhne laga. usane dakshini aur poorvi Europe ke kai pradeshon ko aur uttari Africa ko apna adheen kar liya. khilaafat ab vaidh roop se usmaani vansh ki hone lagi. Iran mein shiya safavi vansh(1501-1722) aur Bhaarat mein Delhi sultaanon (1206-1527) aur baad mein mugl saamraajya(1526-1857) ki hukoomat ho gayi.

naveen sadi se hi islaam mein ab ek dhaarmik rahasyavaad ki bhaavana ka vikaas hone laga tha jise soofi mat kehte hain. gjaali (1058-1111) ne soofi mat ke pash mein aur darshanashaastr ki nirrthakata ke baare mein kuchh aise tark diye the ki darshanashaastr ka jor kam hone laga. soofi kaavyaatmakata ki pranaali ka ab janm hua. roomi (1207-1273) ki masanavi is ka pramukh udaaharan hai. soofiyon ke kaaran kai musalmaan dharm ki or vaapas aakarshit hone lage. anya dharmon ke kai logon ne bhi islaam kabool kar liya. Bhaarat aur Indonesia mein soofiyon ka bahut prabhaav hua. moinuddeen chishti, Baba fareed, nijaamudeen jaise bhaarateeya soofi sant isi kadi ka hissa the.

1924 mein Turkey ke pehle pratham vishvayuddh mein haar ke baad usmaani saamraajya samaapt ho gaya aur khilaafat ka ant ho gaya. musalmaanon ke anya deshon mein pravaas ke kaaran yurop aur amareeka mein bhi islaam fail gaya hai. arab daishon mein tel ke utpaadan ke kaaran unki arthavyavastha bahut teji se sudhar gayi. 19veen aur 20veen sadi mein islaam mein kai punarjaagaran aandolan hue. in mein se salafi aur devabandi mukhya hain. ek pashchim virodhi bhaavana ka bhi vikaas hua jisse kuchh musalmaan kattarpanth ki taraf aakarshit hone lage.

samudaaya

janasaankhyiki

duniya mein muslim janasankhya.

vishv mein aaj lagbhag 1.3 arab (ya fir 130 karod) se 1.8 arab (180 karod) musalmaan hain. inmein se lagbhag 85% sunni aur lagbhag 15% shiya hain. sunni aur shiya ke atirikt islaam mein kuchh anya varg bhi hain parantu in ka prabhaav bahut kam hai. sabse adhik musalmaan dakshin poorv Asia aur dakshin Asia ke deshon mein rahate hain. madhya poorv, afreeka aur Europe mein bhi musalmaanon ke bahut samudaaya rahate hain. vishv mein lagbhag 48 desh aise hain jahaan musalmaan bahumat mein hain. vishv mein kai desh aise bhi hain jahaan ki musalmaan janasankhya ke baare mein koi vishvasaneeya jaankaari upalabdh naheen hai.

desh jinmein adhiktam musalmaan rahate hain[11] musalmaan janasankhya
indoneshiya 19,52,72,000
Pakistan 16,08,29,450
Bhaarat 15,45,00,000
Bangladesh 12,96,81,509
Turkey 7,27,50,000
misr 6,95,60,000
Iran 6,88,05,000
Nigeria 6,57,50,000
cheen 3,91,11,000
ithiyopiya 3,60,32,160

masjid

chitr:Masjid Nabawi. Medina, Saudi Arabia.jpg
masjid A nabavi, islaami duniya ki doosari sab se pavitra masjid. (madeena, Saudi arab).

musalmaanon ke upaasanaasthal ko masjid kehte hain. masjid islaam mein keval ishvar ki praarthana ka hi kendra naheen hota hai balki yahaaain par muslim samudaaya ke log vichaaron ka aadaan pradaan aur adhyayan bhi karte hain. masjidon mein aksar islaami vaastukala ke kai adbhut udaaharan dekhne ko milte hain. vishv ki sabse badi masjid makka ki masjid al haraam hai. musalmaanon ka pavitra sthal kaaba isi masjid mein hai. madeena ki masjid al nabavi aur yerushalaaim ki masjid A aksa bhi islaam mein mahatvapoorn hain.

paarivaarik aur saamaajik jeevan

musalmaanon ka paarivaarik aur saamaajik jeevan islaami kaanoonon aur islaami prathaaon se prabhaavit hota hai. vivaah ek prakaar ka kaanooni aur saamaajik anubandh hota hai jiski vaidhata keval purush aur stri ki marji aur 2 gavaahon se nirdhaarit hoti hai (shiya varg mein keval 1 gavaah chaahiye hota hai). islaami kaanoon striyon aur purushon ko viraasat mein aadha hissa deta hai. striyon ka hissa purushon ki tulana mein aadha hota hai.

islaam ke do mahatvapoorn tyauhaar Eid ul fitr aur Eid-ul-ajha hain. ramajaan ka maheena (jo ki islaami kailendar ka navaaain maheena hota hai) bahut pavitra samjha jaata hai. apni islaami pehchaan dikhaane ke liye musalmaan apne bachchon ka naam aksar arabi bhaasha se lete hain. isi kaaran vah daadhi bhi rakhate hain. islaam mein kapde pahanate samay lajja rakhane par bahut jor diya gaya hai. isaliye adhiktar striyaaain burka pahanati hain aur kuchh striyaaain nakaab bhi pahanati hain.

anya dharm

Bhaarat ke Ajmer shahar mein soofi sant moinudeen chishti ki dargaah. yahaan roj hajaaron log shraddhaanjali dene aate hain .

anya dharmon se islaam ka sampark samay aur paristhti se prabhaavit raha hai. yeh sampark muhammad ke samay se hi shuru ho gaya tha. us samay islaam ke alaava arab mein 3 paramparaaon ke maanane vaale the. ek to arab ka puraana dharm (jo ab lupt ho chuka hai) tha jiski vaidhata islaam ne naheen sveekaar ki. iska kaaran tha ki vah dharm ishvar ki ekta ko naheen maanata tha jo ki islaam ke mool siddhaanton ke viruddh tha. isaai dharm aur yahoodi dharm ko islaam ne vaidh to sveenkaar kar liya par islaam ke anusaar in dharmon ke anuyaayiyon aur pujaariyon ne inmein badlaav kar diye the. muhammd ne apne makka se madeena pahunchane ke baad vahaaain ke yahoodiyon ke saath ek sandhi curry jismein yahoodiyon ki dhaarmik aur saanskrutik svaayattata ko sveenkaara gaya.[12] arab bahudevavaadiyon ke saath bhi ek sandhi hooi jise hudaiba ki sulah kehte hain.

muhammad ke baad se aksar raajanaitik kaaran anya dharmon ki or islaam ka vyavahaar nirdhaarit karte aaye hain. jab raashidoon khaleefaaon ne arab se baahar kadam rakha to unka saamana paarasi dharm se hua. usako bhi vaidh sveenkaar kar liya gaya.[13] in sabhi dharmon ke anuyaayiyon ko dhimmi kaha gaya. musalmaan khaleefaaon ko inhein ek shulk dena hota tha jise jijya kehte hain. iske badle raajya unhein haani na pahunchaane aur suraksha dene ka vaada karta tha. ummayadon ke kaaryakaal mein islaam kabool karne vaale ko aksar hatotsaahit kiya jaata tha. iska kaaran tha ki kai log keval raajanaitik aur aarthik laabhon ke liye hi islaam kabool karne lage the. isse jijya kam hone laga tha.[14]

Bhaarat mein islaam ka aagaman to arab vyaapaari 7veen sadi mein hi le aaye the.[15] lekin Bhaarat mein praarambhik muslim sultaanon ka aana 10veen sadi mein hi hua. ab tak aadhikaarik roop se in sulataanon ka islaami khaleefaaon se koi sambandh naheen tha. isaliye in sabhi ne apni apni samajh ke hisaab se hindu dharm ki or apna ravaiya apnaaya. shuru mein kuchh muslim sultaanon ne hindu dharm ki kam jaankaari hone ke kaaran use puraane arab ke bahudevavaad ke saath joda. soofi santon aur bhakti aandolan ne is manamutaav ko door karne mein bahut aham bhoomika nibhaai.

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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  2. On Finality of Prophethood – Opinions of Islamic Scholars
  3. roomi: Mathnawi, Vol. VI, p.8, 1917 ed. Mathnavi Maulana Room, Daftar I, pg. 53 bhi dekhein.
  4. iban arabi: Futuhat-e-Makkiyyah vol. 2, p. 3
  5. Modern Muslim thought, Volume 2 By Ausaf Ali. Page 450.
  6. Cas Lek Cesk (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037)", Becka J. 119 (1), p. 17-23.
  7. Medical Practitioners
  8. R. L. Verma (1969). Al-Hazen: father of modern optics.
  9. Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), "On wine, chirality and crystallography", Acta Crystallographica A 64: 246–258 [247], doi:10.1107/S0108767307054293
  10. Boyer, Carl B. (1991), A History of Mathematics (Second Edition ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-54397-7. "The Arabic Hegemony" p. 230.
  11. Number of Muslim (most recent) by country. Retrieved on 3 October 2009.
  12. Jacob Neusner, God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions, p. 153, Georgetown University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-87840-910-6
  13. Zoroaster and Zoroastrians in Iran, by Massoume Price, Iran Chamber Society, retrieved March 24, 2006
  14. Berkey, Jonathan (1980). The Formation of Islam (2003 san॰). Cambridge University Press.
  15. ISBN 81-86050-79-5 Ancient and Medieval History of India.

baahari kadiyaaain