iraak

جaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaعaaرaaاaaق
jamhooriya-al-iraakiya (arabi)

Iraq ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: اaaلaaلaaه أaaكaaبaaر (arabi)
"Allahu Akbar" (anuvaad)
"Allah ho Akbar"
raashtragaan: aradulafurataini vatan
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
Baghdad
33°a20′aN 44°a26′aE / 33.333°aN 44.433°aE / 33.333; 44.433
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi bhaasha, kurdish
dharm islaam(94%), isaai(4–5%), mandiyn & yajeedi (<1%)
nivaasi Iraqi
sarkaar vikaasasheel sansadeeya ganatantr
- raashtrapati jalaal taalaabaani
- pradhaanamantri noori al-maliki
svatantrata
- otoman saamraajya se 1 October 1919
- yunaaited kingadam se 3 October 1932
- ganatantr 14 July 1958
- vartamaan samvidhaan 15 October 2005
kshetrafal
- kul 438,317 varg kilometer (58 vaan)
169,234 varg meal
- jal (%) 1.1
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 31,234,000 (39 vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2009 praakkalan
- kul $114.151 billion (-)
- prati vyakti $3,655 (-)
mudra Iraqi deenaar (IQD)
samay mandal GMT+3 (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 964
Internet teeeladi .iq
1. kurd Ey Reqîab ko raashtragaan ke taur pe istemaal karte hain.
2. Iraqi kurdistaan ki rajdhani arbil hai.
3. arabi aur kurd Iraqi sarkaar ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai. aartikl 4 ke anusaar, Iraqi savindhaan khand 4 ke anusaar, esiriyn (siriyaak) (eraamik bhaasha ki ek boli) aur Iraqi turkamaan ([turk
4. CIA world faiktabuk

iraak pashchimi Asia mein sthit ek janataantrik desh hai jahaaain ke log mukhyat: muslim hain. iske dakshin mein saudi arab aur Kuwait, pashchim mein Jordan aur Syria, uttar mein Turkey aur poorv mein Iran avasthit hai. dakshin pashchim ki disha mein yeh faaras ki khaadi se bhi juda hai. dajala nadi aur faraat iski do pramukh nadiyaaain hain jo iske itihaas ko 5000 saal peechhe le jaati hain. iske doaabe mein hi mesopotaamiya ki sabhyata ka udaya hua tha.

iraak ke itihaas mein aseeriya ke patan ke baad videshi shaktiyon ka prabhutv raha hai. isaapoorv chhathi sadi ke baad se faarasi shaasan mein rahane ke baad (saataveen sadi tak) ispar arabon ka prabhutv bana. arab shaasan ke samay yahaaain islaam dharm aaya aur Baghdad abbaasi khilaafat ki rajdhani raha. terahaveen sadi mein mangol aakraman se Baghdad ka patan ho gaya aur uske baad ki araajakata ke saalon baad turkon (usmaani saamraajya) ka prabhutv yahaaain par ban gaya 2003 se December 2011 tak America ke netrutv mein naito ki sena ki yahaaain upasthiti bani hui thi jiske baad se yahaaain ek janataantrik sarkaar ka shaasan hai.

rajdhani Baghdad ke alaava karabala, basara, kirkuk tatha najaf anya pramukh shahar hain. yahaaain ki mukhya bolachaal ki bhaasha arabi aur kurdi bhaasha hai aur donon ko saanvaidhaanik darja mila hai.

anukram

itihaas

iraak ke itihaas ka aarambh bebeeloniya aur usi kshetr mein aarambh hue kai anya sabhyataaon se hota hai. lagbhag 5000 isaapoorv se sumeriya ki sabhyata is kshetr mein fal-fool rahi thi. iske baad bebeeloniya, aseeriya tatha akkad ke raajya aae. is samay ki sabhyata ko pashchimi desh ek mahaan sabhyata ke roop mein dekhte hain. iska mukhya kaaran yeh hai ki lekhan ka vikaas sarvapratham yaheen hua. iske alaava vigyaan, ganit tatha kuchh anya vidhaaon ka sabse aaranbhik pramaan bhi yaheen milta hai. iska doosra pramukh kaaran ye hai ki mesopotaamiya (aadhunik dajala-faraat nadiyon ki ghaati ka kshetr) ko praacheen isaai aur yahoodi kathaaon mein kai poorvajon ka nivaas sthaan ya karmasthali maana gaya hai. aarambh ke Europeeya itihaasakaaron ne baaibal ke mutaabik itihaas ki shuruaat 4400 isaapoorv maana tha. is kaaran bebeelon (jise baabili sabhyata bhi kaha jaata tha) tatha anya sabhyataaon ko duniya ki sabse puraani sabhyata maana gaya. hainlaanki vaigyaanik vidhiyon se iski santoshajanak pushti hoti hai, is baat ko baad ke Europeeya itihaasakaaron ne maanane se mana kar diya ki yaheen se insaan ki utpatti hui thi. is sthal ko yahoodiyon tatha isaaiyon ke (aur is kaaran islaam ke kuchh) dharmaguruon (paigmbaron tatha maseehon) ka mool-sthal maanane par adhikaansh itihaasakaar sahamat hain.

faaras ke hakhaamani (ekemenid) shaasakon ki shakti ka udaya isa ke chhathi sadi poorv ho raha tha. unhonne meediyon tatha baad ke aseeriyaaiyon ko hara kar aadhunik iraak par kabja kar liya. sikndar ne 330 isaapoorv mein faaras ke shaah daara truteeya ko kai yuddhon mein hara kar faarasi saamraajya ka ant kar diya. iske baad Iraqi bhoobhaag par yavanon tatha baad mein romanon ka aanshik prabhaav raha. romanon ki shakti jab apne charam par thi (130 isvi) tab ye faaras ke paarthiynon ke saasan mein thi. iske baad teesara sadi ke aarambh mein saasaaniyon ne paarthiynon ko haraakar iraak ke kshetr par apna kabja bana liya. iske baad se saataveen sadi tak mukhya roop se yeh paarasi saasaaniyon ke shaasan mein hi rahi. pashchimi padosi Syria se romanon ne yuddh jaari rakha aur is beech isaai dharm ka bhi prachaar hua.

islaam

iske baad jab arabon ka prabhutv badha (630 isvi) tab yeh arabon ke shaasan mein aa gaya. faaras par bhi arabon ka prabhutv ho gaya aur 762 mein bagdaad islaami abbaasi khilaaft ki rajdhani bani. yeh kshetr islaam ke kendra ban gaya. Baghdad mein islaam ke vidvaanon ne pustakaalayon ka nirmaan karavaaya. islaam ka prasaar ho raha tha aur Baghdad ka mahatva badhta ja raha tha. sabhi islaamik pradesh, Spain se lekar madhya Asia tak, bagdaad ko kisi na kisi roop mein kar dete the. par dheere-dheere islaamik raajya svaayatt hote gaye.

bagdaad mein bana abbaasi sikka, san 1244

1258 mein mangolon ne bagdaad par kabja kar liya. unhonne bhayankar narasanhaar kiya aur pustakaalayon ko jala diya. koi 90,000 log maare gaye aur kai itihaasakaar maanate hain ki is yuddh ke baad hi iraak ke is hisse mein kheti ka naash ho gaya aur janasankhya mein bhaari kami aa gayi. iske baad iraak par san 1401 mein taimoor lang ka aakraman bhi hua jismein bhi kai log maare gaye. pandrahaveen sadi mein istaanbul ke usmaani (automan) turk tatha anya sthaaneeya pakshon ke beech iraak ke liye sangharsh hota raha.

usmaani turkon (otoman) ne solahaveen sadi ke ant mein bagdaad par adhikaar kiya. iske baad faaras ke safvi vansh tatha turkon ke beech bagdaad tatha iraak ke anya hisson ke liye sangharsh hota raha. 1508-33 katha 1622-38 ke kaal ke alaava turk adhik shaktishaali nikle. isi samay najd se bedoo aapravaasiyon ki sankhya bhi bahut badhi. Iran ke or se baad mein, athaarahaveen sadi mein, naadir shaah ne kai baar turkon ke khilaaf hamla bola par vo bhi mahatvapoorn shaharon par kabja karne mein naakaamayaab raha. maamalukon ke jaurjiyaai praantapaalon ka shaasan iraak par bana raha aur unhonne sthaaneeya vidrohon ko dabaane mein safalta praapt ki. san 1831 mein usmaani turkon ne maamalukon par niyantran paane mein safalta haasil ki.

pratham vishvayuddh

pratham vishvayuddh mein Turkey, Germany ke saath tha aur is tarah iraak Britain ka virodhi. san 1916-17 mein british sena ne, jismein bhaarateeya tukadi bhi thi, aaranbhik haaron ke baad bagdaad par kabja kar liya. yuddh mein mili jeet ke baad Britain aur France ke beech pashchim Asia par shaasan ke bantavaare ke liye samjhauta hua jiske tahat Britain ne iraak par kabja banaae rakha. yuddh ke baad Delhi mein banaae gaye India gate mein bhaarateeya sainikon ke mesopotaamiya mein upasthit hone ka zikr milta hai.

aadhunik kaal

san 1932 mein Britain ne iraak ko svatantr ghoshit kiya lekin iraaki maamalon mein britaani hastakshep bana raha. 1958 mein hue ek sainik takhtaapalat ke kaaran yahaaain ek ganataantrik sarkaar bani par 1968 mein samaajavaadi arab aandolan ne iska ant kar diya. is aandolan ke pramukh neta rahi baath party. is party ka siddhaant desh ko duniya ke nakshe par laana aur aadhunik arabi islaamik raashtra banaana tha.

saddaam husain ka sthaan aadhunik iraaki itihaas mein bahut pramukhata se liya jaata hai. usane baath party ke sahaare apna raajanaitik safr shuru kiya. usane pehle to Iraq ko ek aadhunik raashtra banaane ka prayatn kiya par baad mein usane kurdon tatha anya logon ke khilaaf hinsa bhi karavaai. 1979 mein padosi Iran mein ek islaamik janataantrik sarkaar bani jo raajashaahi ke khilaaf vidroh ke parinaam svaroop bani thi. yeh nai Irani shaasan vyavastha baath party ke nae shaasak saddaam husain ke liye sahaj naheen thi - kayonki Iran mein ab shiya shaasakon ke haath satta thi aur iraak mein bhi shiya bahumat (60 %) mein the. saddaam aur usaki party sunni samarthak thi. apne satta ke takhtaapalat ki saajish ka kaaran bataakar saddaam ne Iran ke saath 1980 mein ek yuddh ghoshit kar diya jo 8 saalon tak chala aur iska ant anirneet raha. iske baad desh khaadi yuddh mein bhi ulajha raha. baad mein ameriki netrutv mein naato ki senaaon ke 2003 mein iraak par chadhaai karne ke baad ise girftaar kar liya gaya aur ek mukadame me saddaam husain ko faansi ki saja mili. December 2011 mein aakhiri naito senaaen desh se kooch kar gain aur is tarah 8 saalon ki videshi sainya upasthiti ka ant hua. abhi vahaaain noori al maliki ke netrutv waali sarkaar hai jo shiya bahul hai.

vibhaag

Iraq ke 18 prashaasanik praant hain. inhein arabi mein muhaafdha aur kurdi mein paarijga kehte hain. inka vivran is prakaar hai -

इराक़ के प्रशासनिक मंडलों का संख्यावार चित्र
  1. Baghdad
  2. sala al deen
  3. diyaala
  4. vaasit
  5. mayasan
  6. al basara
  7. dhi kr
  8. al mutanna
  9. al-kaadisiya
  10. baabil
  11. karabala
  12. najaf ya annajaf
  13. al anabaar
  14. ninaava
  15. dahuk
  16. arbil
  17. at tameem (kirkuk)
  18. sulemaaniya

iname se aakhiri ke teen iraaki kurdistaan mein aate hain jiska ek alag prashaasan hai.

yeh bhi dekhiye