int

sheershon aur chaukhaton ke vaikal‍aapik vidhiyon ke saath rakha gaya angreji bandh patra mein puraani int ki deevaar
aitihaasik natchitoches, luisiyaana mein int se nirmiti ken nadi ke saath saamane ki gali

chinaai ke kaarya mein upayog kiya jaane wala int mitti ka block hai, jinhein saamaan‍aayat: vibhin‍aan prakaar ke gaare ka upayog kar china jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

triyer, Germany mein kons‍aatenataain I ke liye darshak hall ke roop mein ag‍aanirodhi inton se 4thi shataab‍aadi mein banaaya gaya roman kon‍aas‍aatenataain baasilika

10,000 saal puraani intein madh‍aaya poorv mein pai gayi theen aur int nirmaan ka sabse puraana ul‍aalekh baaibal (ut‍aapatti 11:3 ke atirikt, hamein int banaane do aur un‍aahein poori tarah jalaane do aur unke liye int pat‍aathar the aur gaara ke liye choona tha) palaayan mein 1:14; 5:4-19.[1]

aur un‍aahonne apne jeevan ko gaare, inton aur maidaan mein sabhi prakaar ki sevaaon se mushkil bandhan ke saath kathin kar diya: unki sabhi seva, chaahe un‍aahonne apni seva ke liye banaaya ho shram se bana tha ) kejevi (KJV)-palaayan 1:14
ye logon ko inton ko banaane ke liye aur adhik bhoose naheen degein: unhein jaane do aur khud ke liye puaal ikattha karne do. aur inton ki kahaani, jise un‍aahonne banaaya, aap un‍aaheen ko sunaana, aap unke aadarshon ko samaap‍aat naheen kareinge, isliye ve chil‍aalaaenge, kaheinge ki hamein jaane do aur hamaare ish‍aavar ke liye t‍aayaag karne do. ... aur ijaraayal ke bach‍aachon ke adhikaari, jin‍aahein firoh ke taas‍aakamaas‍aatar ne un par sthit kiya hai, peete gaye the aur maang kiye gaye the, jabki k‍aaya aapne apne kaarya ko kal aur aaj inton ke nirmaan ka poora naheen kiya hai, isliye? ... koi bhoosa aapke sevakon ko naheen diya gaya hai aur ve hamse kehte hain, ki int banaao aur dekhte hain, unke sevak peete jaate hain lakin galati hamaare logon mein hai. ... ' ' isliye ab jaao aur kaam karo, uske liye tum‍aahein bhoonsa naheen diya jaaega fir bhi aapko inton ki kahaani bataai jaaegi. ... or ijaraayal ke bachchon aur adhikaariyon ne dekha ki ve bari s‍aathiti mein the, iske baad yeh kaha gaya ki, aap apne dainik kaarya mein se int nirmaan ko naheen nikaal sakte. kejevi (KJV)-palaayan 05:07 ~ 8, 14, 16, 18 ~ 19

in abhilekhon ne dikhaaya ki ijaraayaliyon ne apne misri shaasakon ke liye dharati aur bhoose se inton ko banaaya.[1]

sabh‍aayata ke udaaharan ne, jin‍aahonne keenchad int ko banaaya, praacheen misravaasi[2] aur sindhu ghaati sabh‍aayata ke the, jahaan yeh vishesh roop se upayog kiya gaya. vishesh roop se, yeh buhen, mohan jodado aur hadppa ke khandaharon se spasht hai.

dhoop mein sukhaai gayi pratham inton ko mesopotaamiya (jo ab Iraq hai) ke praacheen shahar ur mein kareeb 4000 isa poorv mein banaaya gaya, haalaanki inton ko sukhaane wala chaap vaas‍aatav mein naheen mila.[2]

chitr:JetawanaStupa1.JPG
Sri Lanka ke anuraadhaapura mein praacheen jetaavanaram‍aaya stoop, vish‍aav mein inton ka sabse lamba nirmaan mein se ek hai.
laindashat, Germany mein into se nirmit duniya ka sabse ooncha seint Martin church ka tower 1500 mein poora hua
malbork kaisal, tyootanik kram ka poorv auraden‍aasabarg- duniya mein sabse bada inton ka mahal

sumeriyaai kaal mein as‍aathi devata ko khaadya aur peya prastut kiye gaye the jo ras‍aam mein pratham int ke roop mein pratinidhit‍aav kiya gaya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] abhi haal hi mein, istaanbul mein hagiya sofiya ki neenv ke liye gaara prat‍aayek 12 inton ke beech rakha gaya tha jo praarthana[tathya vaanchhit] ke liye tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]romanon ne pehli baar aag mein nirmit inton ka upayog kiya aur roman faujon ne, jin‍aahonne chalaayamaan bhatathon ko sanchaalit kiya, saamraajya ke kai bhaagon ke liye inton se parichit karaaya. roman int praaya: sena ke chin‍aah se mudrit rahati thi jo unke ut‍aapaadan ki nigraani karte the. pashchimi aur dakshini Germany mein inton ka istemaal, udaaharan ke liye, roman vaastukaar vitrooviys dvaara pehle se varnit paranparaaon mein pata lagaaya ja sakta hai.

poorv aadhunik cheen mein, int nirmaan nim‍aan aur akushal kaareegaron ka kaarya tha lekin bhattha maalik ka iske s‍aatar upar sam‍aamaanit tha.[3] inton ki praarambhik nishaaniyaan shiyaan mein 2009 mein kareeb 3800 saal puraane dh‍aavansaavasheshon mein paaya gaya hai. is khoj ke pehle, yeh v‍aayaapak roop se maana jaata hai ki int 3000 saal pehle pashchimi jhou raajavansh mein dikha tha k‍aayonki praacheenatam int pash‍aachimi jhou raajavansh ke khandaharon mein pai gayi theen.[4][5][6] ye intein pata lagaai gayi praacheenatam intein theen jo aag ki prakriya dvaara banaai gayi theen.[7] utpaadan prakriya aur inton ke liye upayog kiye gaye ki aur chamak takaneekon ki inton ka praarambhik vivran 1103 mein saang raajavansh ke sarkaari adhikaari li ju dvaara prakaashit mainual yeengajo faashi mein milta hai, jo kendra sarkaar ke nirmaan aijeinsi ke liye saarvajanik kaaryon ki dekharekh ka prabhaari tha. itihaasakaar Timothy Brooke ming raajavansh ke cheen mein ut‍aapaadan prakriya par likhte hain (1637 mein prakaashit vish‍aavakosh tiyaangong kaaivoo se vijual drush‍aayon ki sahaayata praapt):

iraan mein inton se nirmit shebeli tauvar 12veen shataab‍aadi ke shil‍aap kaushal ko pradarshit karta hai

... bhatathe ke maalik ko yeh sunishchit karna hota tha ki bhattha ke andar ka taapamaan ek star par s‍aathir rahe jo mitti ko taral sone ya chaandi ke rang ke saath timtimaane ka kaaran bane. unhein yeh bhi jaanana hota tha ki kab paani ke saath bhattha bujhaana hai taaki satah ki chamak ko ut‍aapan‍aan kiya ja sake. agyaat majadoor int nirmaan ke nim‍aan kushalata ke charanon ko mahasoos karte hain: gaare aur paani ka mishran, gahre pes‍aat mein ise karne ke liye mishran par bailon ko haankana, pes‍aat ko maanakeekrut lakdi ke frem mein (kul milaakar 42 semi lamba, 20 semi chauda aur 10 semi mota) bharna, ek dhanushaakaar taar ke saath satahon ko samalat karna, unhein frem se hataana, saamane aur peechhe ki or tikton ko mudran karna jo sankat karte the ki int kahaan se aaya hai aur ise kahaan jaana hai, bhatthe mein indhan (koyala ki jagah upayukt lakdi), bhatthe mein inton ko rakhana, un‍aahein thande s‍aathaanon par le jaana, haalaanki bhatthe tab bhi garm rahate the aur parivhan ke liye unahein bandalon mein taiyaar karna. yeh garm aur ganda kaam tha.[8]

intarein ke saamane ke bhaag par shramik ka naam aur jan‍aam tithi aur iske nirmaan s‍aathal ka naam likhne ka vichaar ming yug ke liye naya naheen tha aur yeh keval pradarshan tha.[9] kin raajavansh (221 isa poorv -206 isa poorv tak) sarkaar mein keval lohaaron aur hathiyaar nirmaataaon ko unke hathiyaaron ko vaapas khoj paane ke liye apne naamon ko khodana aavash‍aayak tha, taaki unke hathiyaar sarkaar ke liye aavash‍aayak maanak gunavat‍aata se kam gunavat‍aata ke saabit na hon.[10]

12 veen shataabdi mein, ut‍aatari-pash‍aachimi Italy se inton ko uttari-Germany mein pun: viksit ki gayi, jahaan ek s‍aavatantr parampara shaamil thi. isne tathaakathit int gothik ko ut‍aapan‍aan kiya jo gothik vaas‍aatushilp ka nim‍aan shaili thi jo ut‍aatari Europe mein viksit hui, vishesharoop se baal‍aatik saagar ke aaspaas ke kshetr mein, jahaan bina praakrutik chattaan ke sansaadhan hain. int gothik bhavan, jo lagbhag keval inton se banaae jaate the, Denmark, Germany, Poland aur roos mein paae jaate hain.

navajaagaran aur alankaar ke dauraan, drush‍aayamaan int ki deevaarein alokapriya theen aur int ka kaarya ak‍aasar plaastar ke saath kavar kiya gaya tha. yeh kevali 18 veen sadi ke madh‍aaya ke dauraan hi tha ki drush‍aayamaan int ki deevaarein lokapriyta ki kuchh unchaai par theen, jaisa ki udaaharan ke liye, pautsadaim ke dach quarter ke roop mein rekhaankit.

Hamburg, Germany mein chili ghar

lambi doori ke liye inton ke samaan bhavan saamagri ko bhaari maatra mein bhejana naharon, railway, sadak aur bhaari vaahanein ke yug se durlabh tha. is samay ke pehle intein saamaan‍aayat: apne upayog kiye jaane ke s‍aathaan ke paas banti theen. yeh anumaan[kiske dvaara?] lagaaya gaya hai ki ingalaind mein athaarahaveen shataab‍aadi mein ghodon aur gaadiyon dvaara into ki dhulaai kharaab sadak par das meal (16 kimi) tha jo unki keemat ka doguna tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

gati aur arthav‍aayavas‍aatha ke kaaran inton ko aksar un kshetron mein upayog kiya jaata tha jahaan patthar upalabdh the. Britain mein audyogik kraanti ke bhavan v‍aayaapak roop se int aur lakdi se maang ke kaaran banaae gaye the. is kaaran se udaaharan ke liye, bos‍aatan aur n‍aayooyaark ke samudra tateeya shaharon mein un‍aaneesavi sadi ke bhavan nirmaan kraanti ke dauraan, bhoore pat‍aatharon ki pradhaanata ki jagah s‍aathaaneeya nirmit intein n‍aayoojarsi aur kanek‍aateekat mein ak‍aasar upayog kiye gaye.

19veen shataab‍aadi mein praarambh hui kaaryaalayon ke liye unche bhavanon ke nirmaan ki pravruti ne saanche aur raut aayaran aur baad mein s‍aateel aur kankreet ke kaaran int ko vis‍aathaapit kar diya. kuchh praarambhik unchi imaaraton ki chinaai ki gayi aur un‍aahonne saamagri ki seemaaon ko darshaaya - udaaharan ke liye, Chicago ka monaadanauk bhavan (1896 mein khola gaya) chinaai se bana hai aur yeh maatr satrah tal uncha hai, satah ki deevaarein lagabhaga6 fut (1.8 mi) moti hain, s‍aapash‍aat roop se adhik uncha bhavan banaana nim‍aan tal par aantarik satah kshetr ke adhiktam kshati ki or un‍aamukh hoga. s‍aavis Federal ins‍aateech‍aayoot of tek‍aanolauji aur vautaford UK mein bilding research is‍aataibalishmeint ka anusaran kar 1950 ke dashak mein unche bhavanon mein into ka prayog pun: praarambh hua. is paddhati ne vahan karne waali deevaar ke ekal int (150-225 mimi) se adhik moti naheen athaarah talon ki sanrachanaaon ko ut‍aapan‍aan kiya. yeh sambhaavana bhavan mein an‍aaya saamagri ke saath aasaani aur gati ke kaaran poori tarah vikisit naheen ho saki, 20veen sadi ke ant mein madh‍aayam ya nim‍aan sanrachanaaon tak simat gaya ya kankreet aur s‍aateel ke bhavano ke upar patale sajaavati aavaran ya aantarik bhaar heen deevaaron tak simat gayi.

nirmaan ke tareeke

20veen sadi ke shuruaat mein int nirmaan ka praarambh.

inton ko mitti, ek prakaar ki sheest, mulaayam slet, kailshiym siliket kankreet ya utkhanit patthar ke aakaar se banaaya ja sakta hai.

mitti hi sabse saamaan‍aaya saamagri aadhunik mitti ki into ko banaane ki hai jo teen mein se ek prakriya hai - naram mitti, sookha dabaaya hua, ya nisraavit.

mitti ki intein

naram mitti ki vidhi sabse aam hai, kyonki yeh sabse kifaayati hai. yeh kachchi mitti ke saath shuroo hota hai, jo adhimaanat: 25-30% ret ke saath dabaav ko kam karne ke liye mishrit kiya jaata hai. mitti ko pehle jameen par rakhakar ichhit sthirta ke liye paani ke saath mishrit kiya jaata hai. tab mitti ko s‍aateel ke saanchon mein haaidrolik dabaav se dabaaya jaata hai. aakaarit mitti tab ('pakaana') shak‍aati praap‍aat karne ke liye 900-1000 degree sel‍aasiys par jalaai jaati hai.

rel bhatthe

2007 mein poorv traans‍aakei mein nakoba ke nikat bhatatha mein joaa int nirmaata.

aadhunik int nirmaan mein, yeh saamaan‍aayat: nirantar jalate aag ke suranganuma bhatthon mein kiya jaata hai, jismein inton ko bhatthon ke kan‍aaveyar, rel ya bhatatha car mein sabhi inton ko shak‍aati praapt karne ke liye le jaaya jaata hai. inton mein ak‍aasar choona, raakh aur jaivik saamagri ko pakaane ki gati tej karne ke liye milaaya jaata hai.

bail ki gart bhatton

Bhaarat mein int banaane ki prakriya aam taur par ek maanaveeya prakriya hai. upayog mein sarvaadhik saamaan‍aaya prakaar ka int bhattha bul‍aas treinch k‍aalin (BTK) hai jo ek un‍aaneesaveen sadi ke ant mein ek british injiniyr dab‍aal‍aayoo. bul dvaara viksit kiya gaya tha.

ek andaakaar ya golakaar khaai, 6-9 meter chaudi, 2-2.5 meter gahari aur 100-150 meter ki paridhi mein khodi jaati hai. ek lamba nikaas chimni ko beech mein nirmit kiya jaata hai. aadhi ya aadhi se adhik khaai "hari" (bina paki) inton se bhari jaati hai jo ek khule jaalak paddhati mein eyaraflo ko anumati dene ke liye ikattha ki jaati hai. jaali ko pak chuki inton ki ek paratadaar chhat se band kiya jaata hai.

kaaryavaahi mein, nai hari intein, paatan inton ke saath, int ek chhor par int ke saath ikattha ki jaati hain, sheetal paki hui intein an‍aaya chhor se parivhan ke liye hata di jaati hain. beech mein int ke shramik indhan (koyala, [lakdi], tel, malava) ke dvaara treinch ke upar chhat par chhedon mein pahunchate hain.

rosakilde, Denmark mein kaithedral rausakile ka pashchim bhaag.

BTK design ka laabh yeh hai ki yeh k‍aalainp ya s‍aakov bhatthon ki tulana mein adhik urja ka bachat karta hai. sheet dhaatu ya board int ki jaali ke maadh‍aayam se eyaraflo ko raas‍aata dene ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai taaki taaji hava sabse pehle nai paki inton ko mile, hava ko garm kar sakriya ag‍aani kshetr mein pravesh kare. hava hari int ke kshetr (pakaane ke poorv aur tab sookhane par) mein bahti rahati hai aur antat: chimni se baahar ho jaati hai jahaan uthane waali gaison ka kendra chooshan pranaali ke maadh‍aayam se hava ko kheenchati hai. garm hava ka purnaupayog indhan laagat ko kam karta hai.

uparokt rel prakriya ke saath, BTK prakriya jaari rahati hai. chaubeeson ghante kaaryarat kareeb aadha darjan majadoor lagbhag 15000-25000 iton ko ek din mein paka sakte hain. rel ki prakriya ke vipreet, BTK prakriya mein inton ko le naheen jaata hai. iske bajaay, jin sthaanon par into ko lod kiya, pakaaya aur analond kiya jaata hai vah dheere dheere khaai ke maadh‍aayam se ghoomaae jaate hain.[11]

sookhi prakriya ki intein

sookhi prakriya paddhati keechad int ke samaan hai lekin ek adhik moti mitti ke pes‍aat ke mishran se praarambh hoti hai, isliye yeh adhik sunish‍aachit, teekhe kinaaron waali inton ko banaati hai. dabaav mein adhik bal aur adhik samay tak pakaana is prakriya ko adhik kharcheeli banaati hai.

ni:sraavit intein

ni:sraavit inton ke saath mitti ko 10-15 pratishat paani (kade sraav ke liye) ya 25 pratishat paani (mulaayam sraav ke liye) ko milaaya jaata hai. yeh uchit chaudaai aur gaharaai waali saamagri ke lambe kebal ko banaane ke liye ek daai ke maadh‍aayam se dabaaya jaata hai. yeh tab taaron ki deevaar se ich‍aachhit lanbaai ki inton mein kaata jaata hai. sarvaadhik sanrachit intein is paddhati se banaai jaati hai k‍aayonki kade ghanat‍aav waali intein aur chhidr ya an‍aaya kaarya is daai ke dvaara ut‍aapan‍aan kiye ja sakte hain. chhidron ka praarambh, laagat mein parinaami kami ke saath, poori prakriya ke maadh‍aayam se mitti ki aavash‍aayak maatra ko kam karta hai. intein hal‍aki aur sambhaalne mein aasaan hoti hain aur thos into ki tulana mein bhin‍aan taapeeya gun hote hain. kati intein pakaane ke pehle 50-150 degree sel‍aasiys par 20 se 40 ghanto ke liye sukha kar kadi ki jaati hain. sukhaane ke liye taap ak‍aasar bhatathe ki bekaar hui taap hoti hai.

kailshiym siliket intein

kailshiym siliket inton ke liye kach‍aache maalon mein choona mishrit kvaartj, chakamak pat‍aathar ya toda gaya silisiys chattaan ek saath khaneejeeya kalareint shaamil kiya jaata hai. saamagriyaan milaai jaati hain aur tab tak chhod di jaati hain jab tak choona poori tarah jalayojit na ho jaae, mishran tab saanche mein dabaaya jaata hai or raasaanik kadepan ko tej karne ke liye do se teen ghanton ke liye ek otok‍aalev mein upachaarit kiya jaata hai. nirmit intein bahut parishuddh aur samaan hoti hain, haalaanki teekhe kinaaron ko kshati se bachaane ke liye saavadhaani poorvak dekhbhaal karne ki aavash‍aayakata hoti hai. inton ko kai rangon mein banaaya ja sakta hai, safed rang saamaan‍aaya hai lekin pes‍aatal rang bhi praap‍aat kiya ja sakta hai.

yeh s‍aaveeden mein bahut saamaan‍aaya hai, vishesharoop se 70 ke dashak mein nirmit gharon ya iske punanirmaan mein. yahaaain ise "maik‍aaseeteingal (Mexitegel)" (yaani: Mexi [sakana] int kar sakte hain [) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

Bhaarat mein ise fly aish inton ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jo flaig prakriya ke dvaara banaaya jaata hai.

paki inton par prabhaav

mitti ki inton par pak‍aak‍ae rango ka prabhaav kach‍aachi saamagri ke rasaayan aur khanij saamagri, pakane ka taapamaan aur bhatthe ke paryaavaran par hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, gulaabi rangon waali intein adhik aayaran saamagri ka parinaam hoti hain, safed ya peeli inton mein uch‍aach choone ki saamagri hoti hai. adhikaansh intein vibhin‍aan prakaar ke laal rang mein pakaai jaati hain, yadi taapamaan badhta hai to rang gahre laal, baingani aur tab bhoora ya dhoosar ho jaata hai.1,300 °ase (2,372 °afai) . kailshiym siliket ki inton ke paas, upayog kiye gaye rang varnakon ke aadhaar par rangon aur chhaayaaon ki v‍aayaapak shrrunkhala hai. inton ke naam unki ut‍aapatti aur rang mein dikhaai de sakte hain, jaise, London s‍aatauk brik aur kainbrijshaayar v‍aahaait.

kankreet se bani intein saamaan‍aayat: b‍aalauk kahi jaati hain aur vishesharoop se rang mein peele rang ki hoti hain. ve ek sookhi, ekeekrut kankreet se banaae jaate hain jo kanpan aur sanghanan dvaara s‍aateel ke saanche mein ya to egaleyar ya s‍aathir machine mein banaae jaate hain. nirmit intein nim‍aan-daab ke vaash‍aap ka upayog kar pakaane ke bajaay dekhbhaal ki jaati hain. kankreet ke b‍aalauk mitti ki inton ki tulana mein adhik v‍aayaapak aakaaron aur aakrutiyon mein banaai jaati hain aur v‍aayaapak prakaar ki shreni ke agrabhaag ke roop mein upalab‍aadh hain - jinmein se adhikaansh mitti ke inton ke prakatan ka nakal karne ke liye hain .

ek abhedya aur alankrut satah inton par ya to namak ke mishran, jismein namak ko pakaane ki prakriya ke dauraan milaaya jaata hai, ya s‍aalip ke upayog se, jo ek chamak badhaane ki saamagri hai jismein inton ko dubaaya jaata hai, se banaaya jaata hai. parinaamat: bhatthon mein pun: pakaana s‍aalip ko int ki satah ke saath ekeekrut satah par mishrit ho jaata hai.

praakrutik patthar intein apne v‍aayaapak tulanaat‍aamak bhaar, parinaami neenv ki aavash‍aayakataaen aur adhik samay lene waali aur unke nirmaan aur vis‍aataaran mein prashikshit shram ke kaaran seemit aadhunik upayogita mein hain. ve kuchh logon ke dvaara mitti ki inton ki tulana mein bahut tikaau aur adhik sundar maani jaati hain. keval kuchh hi pat‍aathar inton ke liye upayuk‍aat maane jaate hain. saamaan‍aaya saamagri grenaait, choona patthar aur baaloo ke chattaan hain. anya pattharon ka bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai (jaise sangamaramar, slet, kvaartajaait, aadi), lekin ye sab vishesh ilaakon me hi seemit maane jaate hain.

ut‍aakrush‍aat aayaam, visheshataaen aur shakti

saamaan‍aaya intein

kushal rakharakhaav aur vis‍aataaran ke liye inton ko paryaap‍aat chhota aur hal‍aaka hona aavash‍aayak hai taaki ve ek haath se hi uthaae ja sakein (anya haath ko karani chalaane ke liye khaali chhodkar). inte saamaan‍aayat: sapaat rakhi jaati hain aur inton ki chaudaai seemit hone ke parinaamas‍aavaroop ise ek haath ke angoothe aur ungaliyon ke beech pakada ja sakta hai, saamaan‍aayat: kareeb chaar inch (lagbhag 100 mimi). adhikaansh maamalon mein, int ki lanbaai chaudaai se doguni hoti hai kareeb aath inch (kareeb 200 mimi) ya thodi adhik. yeh inton ko iski s‍aathirta aur shak‍aati ko badhaane ke liye ek baanded saanche mein rakhane ki anumati deta hai (udaaharan ke liye, ing‍aalish baand mein rakhe gaye inton ke rekhaankan ko iske sheersh par dekhein). yeh deevaar lambi aur khadi aur samaanaantar rakhi gayi vaikal‍aapik lanb ka upayog kar banaai gayi hai. sheersh deevaar ko ek saath iski chaudaai se jodte hain.

chitr:Loosebrickslyingwithoutcement.jpg
ek bhaarateeya shahar mein cement ya mitti ka upayog kiye bina ek bekaar inton se nirmit deevaar. sirf satahi prakaar ke inton ka Bhaarat mein upayog kiya jaata hai. is tarah ke nirmaan aksar jokhim bhare hote hain

ek badi int ek moti deevaar (aur is prakaar aur adhik aavaaran ke liye) banaata hai. aitihaasik roop se, iska matlab hai ki bade intein aavash‍aayak roop se thande jalavaayu mein hoti hain (udaaharan ke liye thodi badi roosi inton ko taalika mein dekhein), jabki chhoti intein garm kshetron mein paryaap‍aat aur adhik kifaayati hoti hain. is sahasabandh ka ul‍aalekhaneeya udaaharan aayaatit dach inton se 1571 mein nirmit jeenaas‍aak mein nirmit green gate hai, jo iski thandi jalavaayu ke liye bahut chhota hai, yeh thithuraane vaale aur havaadaar aavaas ke liye kukh‍aayaat tha. aajkal ab yeh samas‍aaya naheen hai, k‍aayonki aadhunik deevaarein vishesharoop se vishesheekrut insuleshan saamagri se banaai jaati hain..

ek kaam ke liye sahi int rang, satah, banaavat, ghanatv, bhaar, avashoshan aur sanrachana, taap visheshataaon, taap aur nami ki gati ag‍aani pratirodhakata se chuna ja sakta hai.

int ka agrabhaag ("ghareloo int") aakaar, [12] (varnaanukram)
maanak shaahi meetrik
Flag of Australia.svg Australia 9 × 4⅓ × 3 inch 230 × 110 × 76 mimi
Flag of India.svg Bhaarat 9 × 4¼ × 2¾ inch 228 × 107 × 69 mimi
Flag of Russia.svg roos 250 × 120 × 65 mimi
Flag of South Africa.svg dakshin Africa 8¾ × 4 × 3 inch 222 × 106 × 73 mimi
Flag of Sweden.svg sveedan 250 × 120 × 62 mimi
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK 8½ × 4 × 2½ inch 215 × 65 mimi × 102.5
Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America 8 × 4 × 2¼ inch 203 × 102 × 57 mimi

England mein, saamaan‍aaya inton ki lanbaai aur chaudaai sadiyon se ke nirantar samaan bani rahi hai, lekin aadhunik samay mein, gaharaai mein kareeb dhaai inch (lagbhag 63 mimi) ka antar haal mein aaya hai. sanyukt raajya America mein, aadhunik intein aamtaur par lagbhag 8 × 4 × 2.25 inch (203 × 102 × 57 mimi) ki hain. United kingadam mein, saamaan‍aayat: ("kaam") aadhunik int ka aakaar 215 × 65 mimi × 102.5 (kareeb 8.5 × 4 × 2.5 inch) hai, jo n‍aayoonatam 10 mimi gaara ke jod ke saath ek "samanvaya" ya 225 × 112.5 mimi × 75mimi, 06:03:02 ke anupaat ke liye banaate hain.

kuchh int nirmaata p‍aalaas‍aatar (isliye drush‍aayamaan naheen) ke liye upayog karne ke liye Abhinav aakaar aur aakruti ke inton ko banaate hain jahaan unki nihit yaantrik gun drush‍aayamaan ki tulana mein adhik hai.[13] ye intein aamtaur par thodi badi hoti hain, lekin block ke roop mein bada naheen aur nimn laabh ki peshakash karti hain:

  • ek thodi badi int ko kam gaara aur rakharakhaav (kam inton) ki aavash‍aayakata hoti hai jo laagat ko kam kar deti hai
  • dhaareedaar baahari eds palaas‍aatar
  • shak‍aati ko banaae rakhane ke dauraan, adhik jatil aantarik chhidr behtar rodhan ki anumati dete hain.

blaukon ke paas aakaaron ki v‍aayaapak shrrunkhala hai. lanbaai aur oonchaai mein samanvaya maanak aakaar (mimi) mein shaamil hain 400 × 200, 450 × 150, 450 × 200, 450 × 225, 450 × 300, 600 × 150, 600 × 200 aur 600 × 225; gaharaai (kaam aakaar, mimi) 60, 75, 90, 100, 115, 140, 150, 190, 200, 225 aur 250. ve is shrrunkhala mein prayog karne yogya hain kyonki ve mitti ki inton ki tulana mein halka rahe hain. thos mitti ki inton ka ghanatv 2,000 kilo/m³ ke aaspaas hai, yeh daaduri, khokhali inton aadi se kam hai, lekin vaatit, s‍aavat:chhidrit aur thos int, thos int ke samaan, 450–850 kg/m³ ki shreni mein ho sakti hain.

inton ko thos (aayatan mein 25 pratishat se kam chhedon ki kataar, haalaanki int "daaduri" ho sakti hain, chhote agrabhaag ke nishaan ke saath), chhidrit (25 pratishat se kam aayatan ko nikaalate hue chhoti chhidron vaalo pratimaan), selular (20 pratishat se adhik aayatan ko nikaalate hue chhidro ke pratimaan sahit) ya (khokhale (int ke aayatan ke 25 pratishat se adhik ko nikaal kar bade chhidron ko shaamil karne wala pratimaan). block thos, selular ya khokhale ho sakte hai

int ke ek bistar par indeinteshan ke liye shabd "melfrog jo aksar apne mool roop mein jijnyaaasa uttejit karta hai. sabse adhik sambhaavit vivran hai ki int nirmaata bhi kehte hain, ki block ek medhk ko chhidrit karne ke liye saanche ke aakaar mein rakha jaata hai. aadhunik intanirmaata saamaan‍aayat: p‍aalaas‍aatik ke medhk ka upayog karte hain lekin pehle lakdi ke banaae jaate the. jab ve bheeg jaate the aur un par mitti rakhi jaati thi to ve em‍aafeebiya prakaar ke medhk dikhte the aur isi se inaak naamakaran hua. samay is shabd ka upayog bhi unke dvaara chhod gaye nishaan ke sandarbh me hota hai. Matthew 2006]

roman snaan mein snaan ka bol‍aat- England
puraane diksi raajamaarg, sanyukt raajya America ke int ka ek anubhaag

sanyukt raajya America mein nirmit inton ki daabi taakat 1000 lbf/in² se lekar 15,000 lbf/in² (7-105 MPA ya N/mm²) hai, jo upayog karne par bhin‍aan rahi hai jis par intein rakhi jaati hain. ig‍aalaind mein mitti ki inton ki taakat 100MPA tak ho sakti hai, haalaanki ek saamaan‍aaya ghar ki intein sambhavat: 20-40MPA dikhti hain.

upayog

inton ka upayog bhavanon aur futapaath ke nirmaan ke liye kiya jaata hai. sanyukt raajya America mein, inton ke futapaath ko bhaari yaataayaat ke liye ayogya paaya gaya tha, lekin yeh yaataayaat mein sudhaar ya paidal yaatri ke parisar ke satah ki sajaavati upayog ke roop mein vaapas aa rahi ek paddhati hai. udaaharan ke liye, 1900 ke praarambh mein, Michigan ke grand raipids ke shahar ki adhikaansh galiyaan inton se pak‍aki ki gayi theen. aaj, vahaan keval kareeb 20 pratishat int ke b‍aalauk se pak‍aki galiyaan shesh hain (shahar ke sabhi galiyon ki 0.5 pratishat se bhi kam ki kul maatra).[14]

intein dhaatukarm or astar bhatthi ke liye kaanch udyog ke liye bhi upayog kiya jaata hai. inke kai upayog hain, vishesh roop se silika, maignishiya, kaimaute aur tatas‍aath (kromomaig‍aanesaait) durdam‍aaya intein. int ka prakaar ach‍aachha taap pratirodhi, bhaar ke andar durdam‍aaya, uch‍aach galan bindu aur santoshaprad aur santoshajanak sanrandhr wala hona aavash‍aayak hai. United kingadam, Japan aur sanyukt raajya mein vishesh roop se durdam‍aaya int udyog hain.

United kingadam mein, inton ka upayog sadiyon se nirmaan ke liye kiya jaata raha hai. haal tak kareeb sabhi ghar sampoorn roop se banaae gaye the. haalaanki UK mein kai ghar ab kankreet b‍aalauk aur an‍aaya saamagriyon ke mishran se ban rahe hain, kai ghar aakarshak appeal ke liye inton ki parat se dhanke jaate hain.

Britain mein redabrik vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana viktoriyn yug mein takaneeki college ke roop mein ki gayi thi. yeh shab‍aad adhik puraane, adhik k‍aalaasik-aadhaarit vish‍aavavidyaalayon se bhed karne mein kiya jaata hai.

gailari

yeh bhi deinkhe

  • int rangaai
  • int kaarya
  • int ka bhatatha
  • cheeni mitti
  • thos chinaai ikaai (raakh block)
  • agnirodhi int
  • chinaai
  • milvaul int
  • gaara
  • keechad int
  • roman int
  • taail
  • vinbarjar

tippaniyaaain

  1. a aa [3] ^ brik- his‍aatri
  2. a aa [5] ^ his‍aatri of brikmeking
  3. [10] ^ Brooke, 19-20
  4. [11] ^ araliyes‍aat chaaineej bil‍aading brik epiyrd in jiyaan (中aa国aa最aa早aa砖aa类aa建aa材aa在aa西aa安aa现aa身)
  5. [12] ^ chaainaaj araliyes‍aat bil‍aiding materiyl
  6. [13] ^ chaainaaj first brik, pausibl araliyes‍aat brik in China (蓝aa田aa出aa土"中aa华aa第aa一aa砖aa的aa砖"最aa早aa疑aa似aa我aa国")
  7. [14] ^ araliyes‍aat faayard brik dis‍aakavard in jiyaan (西aa安aa发aa现aa全aa球aa最aa早aa烧aa制aa砖)
  8. [15] ^ Brooke, 20-21.
  9. [16] ^ Brooke, 22.
  10. [17] ^ Brooke, 22-23.
  11. [21] ^ Pakistan enavaayaranameintal protek‍aashan aijeinsibrik il‍aan yoonits (peedeeef file)
  12. [23] ^ http://www.crammix.co.za/export_info.htm Crammix, niryaat soochana - utpaad vikalp
  13. [31] ^ siraamik‍aas maik‍aaseelaait maik‍aaseelaait
  14. [32] ^ Michigan | sak‍aases s‍aatoreej | prijrv America. office of the sekreti of traansaporteshan. yooes dipaartameint of traansarpoteshan

sandarbh

  • Aragus, Philippe (2003) (French mein), Brique et architecture dans l'Espagne méaadiéaavale, Bibliothèaque de la Casa de Velazquez, 2, Madrid
  • Badstüabner, E; Schumann, D, san. (since 1997) (German mein), Studien zur Backsteinarchitektur, 7, Berlin
  • Brook, Timothy (1998), The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China, Berkeley: University of California Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-520-22154-0
  • Campbell, James W.; Pryce, Will, photographer (2003), Brick: a World History,, London & New York: Thames & Hudson
  • Coomands, Thomas; VanRoyen, Harry, san. (2008), "Novii Monasterii, 7", Medieval Brick Architecture in Flanders and Northern Europe, Koksijde: Ten Duinen
  • Cramer, J.; Sack, D., san. (since 2004) (German mein), Berliner Beiträage zur Bauforschung und Denkmalpflege, 5, Petersberg
  • Kornmann, M. (2007), Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles, Manufacturing and Properties, Paris: Lasim, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 2-9517765-6-X
  • Plumbridge, Andrew; Meulenkamp, Wim (2000), Brickwork. Architecture and Design, London: Seven Dials, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-84188-039-6

atirikt paath

  • Dobson, E. A. (1850) (2 pt.), Rudimentary Treatise on the Manufacture of Bricks and Tiles, London: John Weale
  • hadasan, keneth (1972) bil‍aading meteriyl‍aas, adh‍aayaaya. : 3 brik end taail‍aas. London: laangamain, peepi 28-42.
  • Lloyd, N. (1925) History of English Brickwork. London: H. Greville Montgomery

baahya kadiyaaain