indr

indr (ya Indra) hindu dharm me sabhi devataaon ke raaja ka sabse uchch pad tha jiski ek alag hi chunaav paddhati thi. vaise is chunaav paddhati ke vishay mein adhik varnan to naheen hai parantu Bhagwat mein raaja bali ke dvaara 99 ashvamedh yagya hone ke baad Bhagwan vaaman ne 100 vein yagya ko isaliye hone se roka kyonki aisa karne se daityaraaj bali hi Indra ban jaata.[1] har manavantar mein alag Indra, saptarshi, anshaavataar, manu hote hain.[2]


anukram

rigved mein indr

Goswami tulaseedaas ji ne indr ke baare mein likha haiki - 'kaak samaan paap reetau chhaleemaleen katahoon na prateeto' arthaat indr ka taur tareekaakaale kaue ka sa hai, vah chhali hai. usaka hrudaya maleen hai tatha kisi par vah vishvaas naheen karta. vah ashvamedh ke ghodon ko churaaya karta tha. indr ne Gautam ki dharmapatni ahalya ka sateetv apaharan kiya tha. kahaani is prakaar hai- shacheepati indr ne aashram se indr ki anupasthiti jaanakar aur muni ka vesh dhaaran kar ahalya se kaha.. 17.. he ati sundari! kaameejan bhogavilaas ke liye ritukaal ki prateeksha naheen karte, arthaat is baat ka intajaar naheen karte ki jab stri maasik dharm se nivrut ho jaaetabhi unke saath samaagam karna chaahiye. at: he sundar kamar waali! main tumhaare saath prasang karna chaahata hoon.. 18.. vishvaamitr kehte hainki he raamachandr! vah moorkha muniveshadhaari indr ko pehchaan kar bhi is vichaar se ki dekhoon devaraaj ke saath rati karne mein kaisa divya aanand praapt hota hai, is paap karm ke karne mein sahamat ho gayi.. 19.. tadanantar vah vah krutaarth hrudaya se devataaon mein shreshth indr se boleeki he surottam! main krutaarth hrudaya se arthaat divya-rati ka aanandopabhog karne se mujhe apni tapasya ka fal mil gaya. ab, he premi! aap yahaan se sheegra chale jaaiye.. 20.. he sundar nitmbon waali! main poorn santusht hoon. ab jahaan se aaya hoon, vahaan chala jaaooainga. is prakaar ahalya ke saath sangam kar vah kutiya se nikal gaya.

dhaarmik granthon me chhaayaavaad, rahasyavaad ka prayog praacheenakaal se prachalit hai usapar vaidik shabdaavali sone pe suhaaga ka kaam karti thi at: uparokt kathan shabdaarth maatr hai vaastavik arth samajhne ke liye vishleshan aavashyak hai vishleshan karne par bhinn bhinn arth saamane aate hain vishleshan nimn hain-

vaidik shabdaavali mein ahilya ka matlab hota hai " bina hal chali " yaani banjar bhoomi. jaisa ki gyaat hi hai Indra dusare desho (asuro ke) par aakraman karta tha to parinaam svaroop hari bhari bhoomi banjar ho jaati thi (us samay log krushi par nirbhar rahate the aur kheti hi unka mukhya bhojan ka srot bhi tha.) Indra, is bhojan ke srot ya jungle ke srot jisse fal kand mool aadi milte the unhein nasht kar ke apne dushmanon ko nuksaan pahuchaata tha. kaalaantar mein vishvaamitr ne Ram se jab kaha ki ye ahilya hai, to ho sakta hai unka taatparya ho ki ye "bina hal chali" yaani banjar bhoomi hai ise upajaaoo banaao aur Ram ne us bhoomi ko fir se upajaaoo banaaya ho. doosra prasang 'brahmapuraan (87-59)" aur "aanand raamaayan " ke anusaar ho sakta hai, apabhransh mein 'sira '(shila) shabd ke do arth hain ek to patthar aur doosra sukhi nadi, ho sakta hai ki Indra ne jaisa ki mainne krushi ke roop mein vishleshan kiya hai usi tarah yeh bhi kah sakte hain ki vastut: koi nadi hogi jo Indra ke dushman desh mein jaati hogi aur uske mukhya paani ke srot ko Indra ne sukha diya hoga taaki dushman desh ko paani na mil sake aur baad mein Ram ne ise jalayukt banaaya hoga.

is prakaar dekhein to vaastav mein ahilya prasang prakruti ka maanaveekaran maatr hai, par Ram bhakt kaviyon ne ise stri maan liya taaki Ram ko ishvar ka avataar siddh kiya ja sake. kyon ki is prakaar saadhaaran jan maanas mein Ram ko ishvar ka avataar aasaani se manavaaya ja sakta tha kyon ki yadi ishvar chamatkaar na kare to unhein ishvar kaun maanega ? panditji se katha sunate samay bhakti bhaavana kaise paida hogi? bhakti bhaavana ke bagair dhyaan ekaagr hona asambhav naheen to kathin avashya hota hai. katha ke punya ki praapti ke liye bhakti bhaav se dhyaan ekaagr kar katha sunane ka praavadhaan pata hi hai.

parichay

indr ki charitaavali mein vrutravadh ka bada mahattv hai.

  • adhikaansh vaidik vidvaanon ka mat hai ki vrutr sookha (anaavrushti) ka daanav hai aur un baadalon ka prateek hai jo aakaash mein chhaaye rahane par bhi ek booaind jal naheen barasaate. indr apne vajr prahaar se vrutraroopi daanav ka vadh kar jal ko mukt karta hai aur fir pruthvi par varsha hoti hai. oldenavarg evam hilbraint ne vrutr-vadh ka doosra arth prastut kiya hai. unka mat hai ki paarthiv parvaton se jal ki mukti indr dvaara hui hai.
  • hilbraint ne soorya roopi indr ka varnan karte hue kaha hai: vrutr sheet (sardi) evam him ka prateek hai, jisse mukti keval soorya hi dila sakta hai. ye donon hi kalpanaaeain indr ke do roopon ko prakat karti hain, jinka pradarshan maidaanon ke jhanjhaavaat aur himaachhaadit parvaton par tapate hue soorya ke roop mein hota hai. vrutr se yuddh karne ki taiyaari ke vivran se prakat hota hai ki devon ne indr ko apna naayak banaaya tatha use shaktishaali banaane ke liye prabhoot bhojan-paan aadi ki vyavastha hui. indr prabhoot somapaan karta hai. indr ka astr vajr hai jo vidyut prahaar ka hi ek kaalpanik naam hai.
  • rigved mein indr ko jahaaain anaavrushti ke daanav vrutr ka vadh karne wala kaha gaya hai, vaheen use raatri ke andhakaar roopi daanav ka vadh karne wala evam prakaash ka janm dene wala bhi kaha gaya hai.
  • rigved ke teesare mandal ke varnanaanusaar vishvaamitr ke praarthana karne par indr ne vipaasha (vyaas) tatha shatadru nadiyon ke athaah jal ko sukha diya, jisse bharaton ki sena aasaani se in nadiyon ko paar kar gayi.

indr ki shaktiyaan

indr ke yuddh kaushal ke kaaran aaryon ne pruthvi ke daanavon se yuddh karne ke liye bhi indr ko sainik neta maan liya. indr ke paraakram ka varnan karne ke liye shabdon ki shakti aparyaapt hai. vah shakti ka svaami hai, usaki ek sau shaktiyaaain hain. chaalees ya isse bhi adhik uske shaktisoochak naam hain tatha lagbhag utane hi yuddhon ka vijeta use kaha gaya hai. vah apne un mitron evam bhakton ko bhi vaisi vijay evam shakti deta hai, jo us ko somaras arpan karte hain.

indr aur varun

nau sookton mein indras evam varun ka sanyukt varnan hai. donon ekta dhaaran kar som ka paan karte hain, vrutr par vijay praapt karte hain, jal ki naharein khodate hain aur soorya ka aakaash mein niyamit parichaalan karte hain. yuddh mein sahaayata, vijay pradaan karna, dhan ev unnati dena, dushton ke virooddh apna shaktishaali vajr bhejana tatha rajjurahit bandhan se baaaindhana aadi kaaryon mein donon mein samaanata hai. kintu yeh samaanata unke srushti vishyak gunon mein kyon na ho, unamein maulik chh: antar hai:

  1. varun raaja hai.
  2. asuratv ka sarvotkrusht sattaadhaari hai tatha usaki aajnyaaao ka paalan devagan karte hain.
  3. jabki indr yuddh ka premi evam vair-dhooli ko failaane wala hai.
  4. indr vajr se vrutr ka vadh karta hai, jabki varun saadhu (vinmr) hai aur vah sandhi ki raksha karta hai.
  5. varun shaanti ka devata hai, jabki indr yuddh ka Dave hai evam marooton ke saath sammaan ki khoj mein rahata hai.
  6. indr shatrutaavash vrutr ka vadh karta hai, jab ki varun apne vraton ki raksha karta hai.

pauraanik mat

pauraanik devamandal mein indr ka vah sthaan naheen hai jo vaidik devamandal mein hai. pauraanik devamandal mein trimoorti-brahma, vishnu aur Shiv ka mahatva badh jaata hai. indr fir bhi devaadhiraaj maana jaata hai. vah Dave-lok ki rajdhani amaraavati mein rahata hai, sudharma usaki raajasabha tatha sahastr mantriyon ka usaka mantrimndal hai. shachi athva indraani patni, airaavat haathi (vaahan) tatha astr vajr athva ashani hai. jab bhi koi maanav apni tapasya se indrapad praapt karna chaahata hai to indr ka sinhaasan sankat mein pad jaata hai. apne sinhaasan ki raksha ke liye indr praaya: tapasviyon ko apsaraaon se mohit kar pathabhrasht karta hua paaya jaata hai. puraanon mein is sambandh ki anek kathaaeain milti hain. pauraanik indr shaktimaan, samruddh aur vilaasi raaja ke roop mein chitrit hai.

katha

ek baar anaavrushti ke kaaran akaal pada. rishign jeevit the, tatha tapasyaarat the. unhein nishchint dekhkar indr vahaan par prakat hue aur unase poochhane lage ki ve kis prakaar jeevit hai? rishign bole-'maatr vrushti hi manushya ke jeevan ka saadhan naheen hai. prakruti har sthiti aur ritu ke anukool manushya ke jeevit rahane ka prabandh kar deti hai. udaaharan ke liye maroobhoomi mein bhi kuchh na kuchh khaadya upalabdh hota hi hai tathaapi anaavrushti kashtakar avashya rahati hai.' rishign pun: tap rat ho gaye.

prajaapati ki ukti thi ki paaparahit, jaraashoonya, mrutyu-shok aadi vikaaron se rahit aatma ko jo koi jaan leta hai, vah sampoorn lok tatha sabhi kaamanaaon ko praapt kar leta hai. prajaapati ki ukti sunakar devata tatha asur donon hi us aatma ko jaanane ke liye utsuk ho uthe, at: devataaon ke raaja indr tatha asuron ke raaja virochan paraspar irshyaabhaav ke saath haathon mein samidhaaen lekar prajaapati ke paas pahunche. donon ne battees varsh tak brahmacharya paalan kiya, taduparaant prajaapati ne unke aane ka prayojan poochha. unki jijnyaaasa jaanakar prajaapati ne unhein jal se aapoorit sakore mein dekhne ke liye kaha aur kaha ki vahi aatma hai. donon sakoron mein apna-apna pratibinb dekhkar, santusht hokar chal pade. prajaapati ne socha ki Dave hon ya asur, aatma ka saakshaatkaar kiye bina usaka paraabhav hoga. virochan santusht man se asuron ke paas pahunche aur unhein bataaya ki aatma (deh) hi poojaneeya hai. usaki parichrya karke manushya donon lok praapt kar leta hai.

devataaon ke paas pahunchane se poorv hi indr ne socha ki sakore mein aabhooshan pahanakar sajjit roop dikhta hai, khandit deh ka khandit roop, andhe ka andha roop, fir yeh ajar-amar aatma kaise hui? ve pun: prajaapati ke paas pahunche. prajaapati ne indr ko pun: battees varsh apne paas rakha taduparaant bataaya-'jo svapn mein poojit hota hua vichrata hai, vahi aatma, amrut, abhaya tatha brahm hain.' indr pun: shanka lekar prajaapati ki seva mein prastut hue. is prakaar teen baar battees-battees varsh tak tatha ek baar paanch varsh tak (kul 101 varsh tak) indr ko brahmacharya rakhakar prajaapati ne unhein aatma ke svaroop ka poorn gyaan in shabdon mein karavaaya-

  • yeh aatma svaroop sthit hone par avidyaakrut deh tatha indriyaan man se yukt hain. sarvaatmabhaav ki praapti ke uparaant vah aakaash ke samaan vishuddh ho jaata hai. aatma ke gyaan ko praapt kar manushya kartavya-karm karta hua apni aayu ki samaapti kar brahmalok ko praapt hota hai aur fir naheen lautata.

raamaayan mein indr

devataaon ka raaja indr kahalaata tha. use meshavrushan bhi kehte hain. Ram-raavan yuddh dekhkar kinnaron ne kaha ki yeh yuddh samaan naheen hai kyonki raavan ke paas to rath hai aur Ram paidal hain. at: indr ne apna rath Ram ke liye bheja, jismein indr ka kavach, bada dhanush, baan tatha shakti bhi the. vineet bhaav se haath jodkar maatali ne raamachandr se kaha ki ve rathaadi vastuon ko grahan karein. yuddh-samaapti ke baad Ram ne maatali ko aajnyaa di ki vah indr ka rath aadi lautaakar le jaaya. raamaayan mein ye varnit hai ki indr Ram ke pita dasharath ke mitr the.

durvaasa rishi ka shraap

ek baar indr madiraapaan kar unmatt ho gaye. ve ekaant mein ranbha ke saath kreeda kar rahe the, tabhi durvaasa muni apne shishyon ke saath unke yahaan pahunche. indr ne atithistkaar kiya. durvaasa ne aasheervaad ke saath ek paarijaat pushp indr ko diya. vah pushp vishnu se upalabdh hua tha. indr ko aishvarya ka itna mad tha ki unhonne vah pushp apne haathi ke mastak par rakh diya. pushp ke prabhaav se haathi alaukik garimaayukt hokar jungle mein chala gaya. indr use sambhaalne mein asamarth rahe. durvaasa ne unhein shreeheen hone ka shraap diya. amaraavati bhi atyant bhrasht ho chali. indr pehle bruhaspati ki aur fir brahma ki sharan mein pahunche. samast devata vishnu ke paas gaye. unhonne lakshmi ko saagar-putri hone ki aajnyaa di. at: lakshmi saagar mein chali gayi. vishnu ne lakshmi ke parityaag ki vibhinn sthitiyon ka varnan karke unhein saagar-manthan karne ka aadesh diya. manthan se jo anek ratn nikle, unamein lakshmi bhi thi. lakshmi ne Narayan ko varamaala dekar prasann kiya.

sahastraar naamak raaja ki patni maanas sundari jab garbhavati hui to udaas rahane lagi. raaja ke poochhane par usane bataaya ki indr ka vaibhav dekhne ki usaki utkat abhilaasha thi. raaja ne use turant indr ki riddhi ke darshan karaaye. falasvaroop usaki kokh se jis baalak ne janm liya usaka naam indr hi rakha gaya. vaanareindr indr ke vaibhav ke vishay mein sunakar lanka ke adhipti maali ne apne chhote bhaai sumaali ke saath indr par aakraman kiya. anek sainikon ke saath maali maara gaya. sumaali ne bhaagakar paataal lankaapoori mein pravesh kiya. tadanantar indr vaastav mein 'indravat' ho gaya.

  1. vijay ka vaidik prateek: devaraaj Indra, abhivyakti.
  2. Bhagwat tatha vishnu puraan