iltutamish

shams-ud-deen iltutmish
Delhi ka sultaan
badaayun ka raajyapaal
naasir ameer-ul-mominin
Iltutmish Tomb Delhi in 1860.jpg
iltutamish ka makabara
shaasan 1210-30 April, 1236
poora naam shams-ud-deen iltutmish
samaadhi kutub meenaar parisar, maharauli, Delhi
poorvaadhikaari aaraam shaah
uttaraadhikaari ruknuddeen firoj
santaan naseer-ud-deen Mehmood, rukn-ud-deen firoj, rajiya sultaan, muij-ud-deen baharaam
raaj gharaana badaayun
raajavansh mamalook saltanat (Delhi)
dharm islaam

iltutamish Delhi saltanat mein gulaam vansh ka ek pramukh shaasak tha. vansh ke sansthaapak kutub-ud-deen aibak ke baad vo un shaasakon mein se tha jisse Delhi saltanat ki neenv majaboot hui. vah aibak ka daamaad bhi tha. usane 1211 isvi se 1236 isvi tak shaasan kiya. raajyaabhishek samay se hi anek turk ameer usaka virodh kar rahe the. khokharon ke viruddh iltutamish ki kaarya kushalata se prabhaavit hokar muhammad gori ne use “aameerool umaraa” naamak mahattvapoorn pad diya tha. akasmaat mutyu ke kaaran kutubaddeen aibak apne kisi uttaraadhikaari ka chunaav naheen kar saka tha. at: Lahore ke turk adhikaariyon ne kutubaddeen aibak ke vivaadit putr aaraamashaah (jise itihaasakaar naheen maanate) ko Lahore ki gaddi par baithaaya, parantu Delhi ke turko saradaaron evam naagrikon ke virodh ke falasvaroop kutubaddeen aibak ke daamaad iltutamish, jo us samay badaayooain ka soobedaar tha, ko Delhi aamantrit kar raajyasinhaasan par baithaaya gaya. aaraamashaah evam iltutamish ke beech Delhi ke nikat jad naamak sthaan par sangharsh hua, jismein aaraamashaah ko bandi banaakar baad mein usaki hatya kar di gayi aur is tarah aibak vansh ke baad ilbaari vansh ka shaasan praarambh hua.

anukram

pratidvandi

iltutamish ke do pramukh pratidvandi the - taajudadeen yaldauj tatha naasiruddeen kubaacha. ye donon Gauri ke das the. yaldauj Delhi ke raajya ko gjni ka ang bhar maanata tha aur use gajni mein milaane ki bharpoor koshish karta rahata tha jabki aibak tatha uske baad iltutamish apne aapko svatantr maanate the. yaldauj ke saath taraain ke maidaan mein yuddh kiya jismein yaldauj paraajit hua. usaki haar ke baad gajani ke kisi shaasak ne Delhi ki satta par aapana daava pesh naheen kiya.

kubaacha ne Punjab tatha uske aaspaas ke kshetron par apni sthiti majaboot kar li thi. san 1217 mein usane kubaacha ke virooddh kooch kiya. kubaacha bina yuddh kiye bhaag gaya. iltutamish usaka peechha karte hue mansoora naamak jagah par pahuaincha jahaaain par usane kubaacha ko paraajit kiya aur Lahore par usaka kabja ho gaya. par sindh, multaan, uchh tatha sindh saagar doaab par kubaacha ka niyantran bana raha.

isi samay mangolon ke aakraman ke kaaran iltutamish ka dhyaan kubaacha par se tatkaal hat gaya par baad mein kubaacha ko ek yuddh mein usane paraast kiya jiske falasvaroop kubaacha sindhu nadi mein doob kar mar gaya. changej khaaain ke aakraman ke baad usane poorv ki or dhyaan diya aur Bihar tatha Bengal ko apne adheen ek baar fir se kar liya.

vah ek kushal shaasak hone ke alaava kala tatha vidya ka premi bhi tha.

kathinaaiyon se saamana

iltutamish ke adheen Delhi saltanat ka vistaar

sultaan ka pad praapt karne ke baad iltutamish ko kuchh kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna pada. iske antargat iltutamish ne sarvapratham 'kulbi' arthaat kutubaddeen aibak ke samay sardaar tatha 'muijji' arthaat muhammad gori ke samay ke saradaaron ke vidroh ka daman kiya. iltumish ne in vidrohi saradaaron par vishvaas na karte hue apne 40 gulaam saradaaron ka ek gut ya sangathan banaaya, jise 'turkaan-A-chihaalagaani' ka naam diya gaya. is sangathan ko 'charagaan' bhi kaha jaata hai. iltutimish ke samay mein hi avadh mein pirthoo vidroh hua.

1215 se 1217 E. ke beech iltutimish ko apne do prabal pratidvanddhi 'eldauj' aur 'naasiruddeen kbaacha' se sangharsh karna pada. 1215 E. mein iltutimish ne eldauj ko taraain ke maidaan mein paraajit kiya. 1217 E. mein iltutimish ne kubaacha se Lahore chheen liya tatha 1228 mein uchh par adhikaar kar kubaacha se bina shart aatmasamarpan ke liye kaha. ant mein kubaacha ne sindhu nadi mein koodakar aatmahatya kar li. is tarah in donon prabal virodhiyon ka ant hua.

mangolon se bachaav

mangol aakramanakaari changej khaaain ke bhaya se bhayabheet hokar khvaarijm shaah ka putr 'jalaaluddeen mugabarni' vahaan se bhaag kar Punjab ki or aa gaya. changej khaaain usaka peechha karta hue lagbhag 1220-21 E. mein sindh tak aa gaya. usane iltutamish ko sandesh diya ki vah mangabarni ki madad na karein. yeh sandesh lekar changej khaaain ka doot iltutamish ke darbaar mein aaya. iltutamish ne mangol jaise shaktishaali aakramanakaari se bachane ke liye mangabarni ki koi sahaayata naheen ki. mangol aakraman ka bhaya 1228 E. mein mangabarni ke Bhaarat se vaapas jaane par tal gaya. kutubuddeen aibak ki mrutyu ke baad Ali mardaan ne Bengal mein apne ko svatantr ghoshit kar liya tatha 'alaauddeen' ki upaadhi grahan ki. do varsh baad usaki mrutyu ho gayi. iske baad usaka putr 'hisaamuddeen ivaaj' uttaraadhikaari bana. usane 'gyaasuddeen aajim' ki upaadhi grahan ki tatha apne naam ke sikke chalaae aur khutaba (upadesh ya prashansaatmak rachana) padhvaaya.

vijay abhiyaan

1225 mein iltutamish ne Bengal mein svatantr shaasak 'hisaamuddeen ivaaj' ke viruddh abhiyaan chheda. ivaaj ne bina yuddh ke hi usaki adheenata mein shaasan karna sveekaar kar liya, par iltutamish ke pun: Delhi lautate hi usane fir se vidroh kar diya. is baar iltutamish ke putr naseerooddeen Mehmood ne 1226 E. mein lagbhag use paraajit kar lakhanauti par adhikaar kar liya. do varsh ke uparaant naasiruddeen Mehmood ki mrutyu ke baad malik ikhtiyaaruddeen balka khlaji ne Bengal ki gaddi par adhikaar kar liya. 1230 E. mein iltutamish ne is vidroh ko dabaaya. sangharsh mein balka khlaji maara gaya aur is baar ek baar fir Bengal Delhi saltanat ke adheen ho gaya. 1226 E. mein iltutamish ne ranathanbhaur par tatha 1227 E. mein paramaron ki rajdhani mandaur par adhikaar kar liya. 1231 E. mein iltutamish ne gvaaliyr ke kile par ghera daalkar vahaaain ke shaasak mangaladev ko paraajit kiya. 1233 E. mein chandelon ke viruddh evam 1234-35 E. mein ujjain evam bhilsa ke viruddh usaka abhiyaan safal raha.

vaidh sultaan evam upaadhi

iltutamish ke naagada ke guhilauton aur Gujarat chaalukyon par kiye gaye aakraman vifal hue. iltutamish ka antim abhiyaan baamiyaan ke viruddh hua. fravari, 1229 mein bagdaad ke khleefa se iltutamish ko sammaan mein 'khilat' evam pramaan patra praapt hua. khleefa ne iltutamish ki pushti un saare kshetron mein kar di, jo usane jeete the. saath hi khleefa ne use 'sultaan-A-aajam' (mahaan shaasak) ki upaadhi bhi pradaan ki. pramaan patra praapt hone ke baad iltutamish vaidh sultaan evam Delhi saltanat ek vaidh svatantr raajya ban gayi. is sveekruti se iltutamish ko sultaan ke pad ko vanshaanugat banaane aur Delhi ke sinhaasan par apni santaanon ke adhikaar ko surakshit karne mein sahaayata mili. khilat milne ke baad iltutamish ne 'naasir ameer ul momineen' ki upaadhi grahan ki.

sikkon ka prayog

iltutamish pehla turk sultaan tha, jisne shuddh arabi sikke chalavaaye. usane saltanat kaaleen do mahattvapoorn sikke 'chaaaindi ka taka' (lagbhag 175 gren) tatha 'taanbe' ka 'jeetal' chalavaaya. iltutamish ne sikkon par takasaal ke naam ankit karavaane ki parampara ko aarambh kiya. sikkon par iltutamish ne apna ullekh khleefa ke pratinidhi ke roop mein kiya hai. gvaaliyr vijay ke baad iltutamish ne apne sikkon par kuchh gauravapoorn shabdon ko ankit karavaaya, jaise “ashaktishaali sultaan”, “asaamraajya va dharm ka soorya”, “adharmanishthon ke naayak ke sahaayaka”. iltutamish ne 'ikta vyavastha' ka prachalan kiya aur rajdhani ko Lahore se Delhi sthaanaantarit kiya.

mrutyu

bayaana par aakraman karne ke liye jaate samay maarg mein iltutamish beemaar ho gaya. antat: April 1236 mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. iltutamish pratham sultaan tha, jisne doaab ke aarthik mahattv ko samjha tha aur usamein sudhaar kiya tha.

rajiya ko uttaraadhikaar

rajiya sultaan iltutamish ki putri tatha Bhaarat ki pehli muslim shaasika thi. apne antim dinon mein iltutamish apne uttaraadhikaar ke savaal ko lekar chintit tha. iltutamish ke sabse bade putr naseerooddeen Mehmood ki, jo apne pita ke pratinidhi ke roop mein Bengal par shaasan kar raha tha, 1229 E. ko April mein mrutyu ho gayi. sultaan ke shesh jeevit putr shaasan kaarya ke kisi bhi prakaar se yogya naheen the. at: iltutamish ne apni mrutyu shaiyya par se apni putri rajiya ko apna uttaraadhikaari niyukt kiya.

nirmaan kaarya

sthaapatya kala ke antargat iltutamish ne kutubuddeen aibak ke nirmaan kaarya ko poora karavaaya. Bhaarat mein sambhavat: pehla makbara nirmit karavaane ka shreya bhi iltutamish ko diya jaata hai. iltutamish ne badaayooain ki jaama masjid evam naagaur mein ataarakin ke daravaaja ka nirmaan karavaaya. 'Ajmer ki masjid' ka nirmaan iltutamish ne hi karavaaya tha. usane Delhi mein ek vidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki. iltutamish ka makbara Delhi mein sthit hai, jo ek kaksheeya makbara hai.

poorvaadhikaari
aaraam shaah
mamalook vansh
1206–1290
uttaraadhikaari
rookunuddeen feerojshaah
poorvaadhikaari
aaraam shaah
Delhi ke sultaan
1206–1290
uttaraadhikaari
rookunuddeen feerojshaah


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