iliyaad

iliyaad ka praacheen joonaani nidrsh chitr

iliyd (praach. yoon. Ἰaaλaaιaaάaaς Iliáas) — praacheen yoonaani shaastreeya mahaakaavya, jo kavi homar ki maani jaati hai. iliyd Europe ke aadikvi homar dvaara rachit mahaakaavya. iska naamakaran iliyn nagar (traaya) ke yuddh ke varnan ke kaaran hua hai. samagr rachana 24 pustakon mein vibhkt hai aur ismein 15,693 panktiyaaain hain. iliyaad E.poo. teesari tatha doosari shataabdiyon mein praacheen yoonaani veeron ke bahusankhyak itivrutton ke aadhaar par rachi gayi hai. iliyd mein traaya raajya ke saath greek longo ke yuddh ka varnan hai. is mahaakaavya mein traaya ke vijay aur dhvans ki kahaani tatha yunaani veer ekalis ke veeratv ki gaathaaen hain.

kathaavastu

sankshep mein is mahaakaavya ki kathaavastu is prakaar hai : iliyn ke raaja priym ke putr peris ne spaarta ke raaja menelaaus ki patni param sundari helen ka uske pati ki anupasthiti mein apaharan kar liya tha. helen ko pun: praapt karne tatha iliyn ko dand dene ke liye menelaaus aur uske bhaai aagaamemnan ne samast greek raajaaon aur saamanton ki sena ekatr karke iliyn ke viruddh abhiyaan aarambh kiya. parantu is abhiyaan ke uparyukt kaaran aur uske antim parinaam, arthaat iliyn ke vidhvans ka pratyaksh varnan is kaavya mein naheen hai. iska aarambh to greek shivir mein kaavya ke naayak ekileej ke rosh se hota hai. agaamemnan ne sooryadev Apollo ke pujaari ki putri ko balaatkaarapoorvak apne paas rakh chhoda hai. parinaamat: greek shivir mein mahaamaari faili hui hai. bhavishyadrashta kaalkas ne batalaaya ki jab tak pujaari ki putri ko naheen lautaaya jaaega tab tak mahaamaari naheen rukegi. agaamemnan badi kathinaai se iske liye prastut hota hai par iske saath hi vah badle mein ekileej ke paas se ek doosari beti briseis ko chheen leta hai. ekileej is apamaan se kshubdh aur rusht hokar yuddh mein na ladne ki pratijnyaa karta hai. vah apni meeramidn (pipeelika) sena aur apne mitr paatroklas ke saath apne deron mein chala jaata hai aur kisi bhi manuhaar ko naheen sunata. parinaamat: yuddh mein agaamemnan ke paksh ki kirkiri hone lagti hai. greek sena bhaagakar apne shivir mein sharan leti hai. paristhitiyon se vivsh hokar agaamemnan ekileej ke paas apne doot bhejata hai aur uske rosh ke nivaaran ke liye bahut kuchh karne ko taiyaar ho jaata hai. parantu ekileej ka rosh door naheen hota aur vah doosare din apne ghar laut jaane ki ghoshana karta hai. par vaastav mein vah agaamemnan ki sena ki durdasha dekhne ke liye thahara rahata hai. kintu usaka mitr paatroklas apne paksh ki is durdasha ko dekhkar ko dekhkar kheejh uthata hai aur vah ekileej se yuddh mein ladne ki aajnyaa praapt kar leta hai. ekileej usako apna kavach bhi de deta hai aur apne meeramidn sainikon ko bhi uske saath yuddh karne ke liye bhej deta hai. paatroklas iliyn ki sena ko khaded deta hai par swayam ant mein vah iliyn ke mahaarathi hektar dvaara maar daala jaata hai. paatroklas ke nidhan ka samaachaar sunakar ekileej shok aur krodh se paagal ho jaata hai aur agaamemnan se sandhi karke naveen kavach dhaaran kar hektar se apne mitr ka badla lene yuddh kshetr mein pravisht ho jaata hai. ekileej se yuddh aarambh karte hi paasa palat jaata hai. vah hektar ko maar daalata hai aur uske pair ko apne rath ke pichhle bhaag se baaaindhakar uske shareer ko yuddhakshetr mein ghaseetata hai jisse usaka sir ghool mein ludhkata chalta hai. iske pashchaat paatroklas ki antyeshti bade thaat baat ke saath ki jaati hai. ekileej hektar ke shav ko apne shivir mein le aata hai aur nirnaya karta hai ki usaka shareer khand-khand karke kutton ko khila diya jaae. hektar ka pita iliyn raaja priym uske shivir mein apne putr ka shav praapt karne ke liye upasthit hota hai. uske vilaap se ekileej ko apne pita ka smaran ho aata hai aur usaka krodh door ho jaata hai aur vah karuna se abhibhoot hokar hektar ka shav uske pita ko de deta hai aur saath hi saath 12 din ke liye yuddh bhi rok diya jaata hai. hektar ki antyeshti ke saath iliyd ki samaapti ho jaati hai.

kuchh hastalikhit pratiyon mein iliyd ke ant mein ek pankti is aashay ki milti hai ki hektar ki antyeshti ke baad amejn (nistani) naamak naari yoddhaaon ki raani painthesiliya priym ki sahaayata ke liye I. isi sanket ke aadhaar par smarna ke kvintus naamak kavi ne 14 pustakon mein iliyd ka poorak kaavya likha tha. aadhunik samay mein shri Arvind ghosh ne bhi apne jeevan ki sandhya mein maatrik vrutt mein iliyn naamak iliyd ko poorn karanevaali rachana ka angreji bhaasha mein aarambh kiya tha jo poori naheen ho saki. navam pustak ki rachana ke madhya mein hi unki chirsamaadhi ki upalabdhi ho gayi.

iliyd mein jis yug ki ghatnaaon ka ullekh hai usako veerayug kehte hain. shleemaan aur defailt ko traaya nagar ki khudaai ke pashchaat is yug ki satyata nirvivaad siddh ho chuki thi. E.poo. 13veen aur 13 shataabdiyaaain is yug ka kaal maani jaati hain. par iliyd ke rachanaakaal ki seemaaeain E.poo. naveen aur saataveen shataabdiyaaain hain. homar ki rachanaaon se sambandh rakhanevaali samasyaaeain atyant jatil hain. ek samay homar ke astitv tak par sandeh kiya jaane laga tha. par ab sthiti adhik anukool ho chali hai, yadyapi ab bhi homar ke mahaakaavya ek vikaasakram ki charam parinti maane jaate hain jinmein ek lokottar pratibha ka kaushal spasht lakshit hota hai.

iliyd mein mahaakaavya ki drushti se saralata aur kavikrm ka abhootapoorv saamanjasya hai. neeti ki drushti se asaadhaaran kaam aur krodh ke vidhvansakaari parinaam ka pradarshan jaisa is kaavya mein hua he vaisa anyatr mushkil se milega. iske purush paatron mein agaamemnan, ekileej, paatroklas, menelaaus, priym, peris aur hektar ullekhaneeya hain. stri paatron mein helen, hekuba, aandromaako ityaadi mahaan hain. yuddh mein manushya aur devata sabhi bhaag lete hain, kaheen manushya gunon mein devataaon se ooainche uth jaate hain to kaheen devata log maanaveeya durbalataaon ke shikaar hote drushtigochar hote hain evam parihaas ke paatr bante hain. bhaarateeya mahaakaavyon ke saath iliyd ki anek baatein mel khaati hain, jinmein helen ka apaharan aur iliyn ka dahan seeta-haran aur lankaadahan se spasht saadrushya rakhate hain. sambhavat: isi kaaran megasthaneej ko Bhaarat mein homar ke mahaakaavyon ke astitv ka bhram hua tha.

homar ke anuvaad bahut hain parantu usaka anuvaad, jaisa pratyek uchch koti ki maulik rachana ka anuvaad hua karta hai, ek samasya hai. yadi anuvaadak saralata par drushti rakhata hai to homar ke kavitv ko gainva baithata hai aur kavitv ko pakadna chaahata hai to saralata kaafoor ho jaati hai.

gailari

inhein bhi dekhein