ilaiktrauniks

tal par judne vaale (sarafes mount) elektraanik avayav

vigyaan ke antargat electronics ya ilektrauniki vigyaan aur praudyogiki ka vah kshetr hai jo vibhinn prakaar ke maadhyamon (nirvaat, gas, dhaatu, ardhachaalak, naino-sanrachana aadi) se hokar aavesh (mukhyat: ilektraun) ke pravaah evam un par aadhaarit yuktion ka adhyayan karta hai. [1]

praudyogiki ke roop mein ilektrauniki vah kshetr hai jo vibhinn electronic yuktiyon (pratirodh, sandhaaritr, indaktar, ilektraun tube, daayod, traanjistar, ekeekrut paripth (IC) aadi) ka prayog karke upayukt vidyut paripth ka nirmaan karne evam unke dvaara vidyut sanketon ko vaanchhit tareeke se badalne (manipulation) se sambandhit hai. ismein tarah-tarah ki yuktiyon ka adhyayan, unamein sudhaar tatha nayi yuktiyon ka nirmaan aadi bhi shaamil hai.

aitihaasik roop se ilektrauniki evam vaidyut praudyogiki ka kshetr samaan raha hai aur dono ko ek doosare se alag nahi maana jaata tha. kintu ab nayi-nayi yuktiyon, paripthon evam unke dvaara sampaadit kaaryon mein atyadhik vistaar ho jaane se elektraaniks ko vaidyut praudyogiki se alag shaakha ke roop mein padhaaya jaane laga hai. is drushti se adhik vidyut-shakti se sambandhit kshetron (power system, vidyut machinery, power ilektrauniki aadi) ko vidyut praudyogiki ke antargat maana jaata hai jabki kam vidyut shakti evam vidyut sanketon ke bhaanti-bhaatin ke parivrtanon (pravardhan, filtaring, maudyulesh, enaalaag se digital kanvarshan aadi) se sambandhit kshetr ko ilektrauniki kaha jaata hai.

anukram

electronic praudyogiki ke bhaag

paripthon ke aadhaar par ilektaanik praudyogiki ko mukhyat: do bhaagon mein baantakar adhyayan kiya jaata hai:

enaalaag ilektrauniki

in paripthon mein vidyut sanket satat (anaalaug) hote hain aur unka prasanskaran karne ke baad bhi ve satat hi bane rahate hain. udaaharan ke liye traanjistar-pravardhak ek enaalaag system hai. operational emplifaayar ke vikaas evam I-si ke roop mein iski upalabdhata se enaalaag elektraaniks mein ek kraanti aa gayi.

digital ya ankeeya ilektrauniki

ismein vidyut sanket ankeeya hote hain. ankeeya sanket bahut tarah ke ho sakte hain kintu baainari digital sanket sabse adhik upayog mein aate hain. shoonya/ek, on/of, haaain/naheen, lo/haai aadi baainari sanketon ke kuchh udaaharan hain. jabase ekeekrut paripthon (inteegreted sarkit) ka praadurbhaav hua hai aur ek chhoti si chip mein laakhon karondon electronic yuktiyaaain bhari jaane lageen hain tab se digital electronic bahut mahatvapoorn ho gayi hai. aadhunik vyaktigat computer (PC) tatha sel-phone, digital camera aadi digital ilektrauniki ki den hain. ankeeya ilektrauniki ne signal-processing ko ek naya aayaam diya hai jise digital signal processing (ankeeya sanket prakraman) kehte hain. enaalaag signal processing ki tulana mein yeh bahut hi suvidhaajanak va prabhaavakaari hai.

ilektrauniki ka itihaas

ilektrauniki ka aadhunik roop radio evam dooradarshan ke vikaas ke roop mein saamane aaya. saath hi dviteeya vishv yuddh mein prayukt raksha upakaranon evam raksha-tantron se bhi iska mahatva ubharakar saamane aaya. kintu ilektrauniki ki neev bahut pehle hi rakhi ja chuki thi.

ilektrauniki ke vikaas ki mukhya ghatanaayein evam charan sankshep mein is prakaar hain:

  • 1883 - Thomas alva edisn ne paaya ki nirvaat mein ilektraan dhaatu ke ek chaalak se doosare chaalak mein pravaahit ho sakte hain. baad mein isi siddhaant par nirvaat daayod aur traayod bane.
  • 1893 mein nikolaai tesla dvaara radio sanchaar ka pradarshan
  • 1896 mein maarakoni ne radio sanchaar ka vyaavahaarik pradarshan karke dikhaaya.
  • 1904 mein John ambros fleming ne pehla daayod banaaya jise radio tube kaha gaya.
  • 1906 mein Robert baan leeben aur li di faarest ne svatantr roop se traayod ka nirmaan kiya jo pravardhak (emplifaayar) ka kaam karne mein saksham thi. isi ke saath ilektrauniki ke vikaas ka daur aarambh hua. ilektraan tyoobon ka pehla upayog radio sanchaar mein hua.
  • 1947 mein bail prayogashaala mein kaaryarat William shaakle ne traanjistar ka aavishkaar kiya. is aavishkaar ke falasvaroop ilektrauniki nirvaat-nalika par aadhaarit electronic yuktiyon se hatkar ek naye yug mein pravesh kar gayi. ab chhote-chhote radio aane lage.
  • 1959 mein ekeekrut paripth ka aavishkaar hua. iske pehle electronic paripth alag-alag electronic yuktiyon ko jodkar banaaye jaate the jisse adhik jagah gherate the, adhik savidyut shakti lete the, vishvasaneeyata kam thi. I-si ke padaarpan ne nayi sambhaavanaayein khol Dean. aadhunik PC, evam mobile aadi I-si ke aavishkaar ke bina itne chhote, saste evam itne kaaryaksham naheen ho sakte the.
  • 1968 me maaikroprosesar ka vikaas (intel mein kaaryarat maarsian hauf (Marcian Hoff) dvaara)

sandarbh

  1. [Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary, W & R Chambers, Edinburgh, 1972, page 417, ISBN 055010206X]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • shakti elektrauniki (power elektrauniks)
  • anuroop elektrauniki (enaalaug elektrauniks)
  • aankik elektrauniki (digital elektrauniki)
  • elektraunik avayav

baahari kadiyaaain