ijraail ka itihaas

ijaraail ka dhvaj

ijraail sansaar ke yahoodi dharmaavalanbiyon ke praacheen raashtra ka naya roop hai. ijraayal ka naya raashtra 14 May san 1948 ko astitv mein aaya. ijraayal raashtra, praacheen filisteen athva pailestaain ka hi bruhat bhaag hai.

anukram

aadi kaal

yahoodiyon ke dharmagranth "puraana ahadanaama" ke anusaar yahoodi jaati ka nikaas paiganbar hajrat abaraaham (islaam mein Ibrahim, isaaiyat mein Abraham) se shuroo hota hai. abaraaham ka samay isa se lagbhag do hajaar varsh poorv hai. abaraaham ke ek bete ka naam isahaak aur pote ka yaakoob (isaaiyat mein Jacob) tha. yaakoob ka hi doosra naam ijraayal tha. yaakoob ne yahoodiyon ki 12 jaatiyon ko milaakar ek kiya. in sab jaatiyon ka yeh sammilit raashtra ijraayal ke naam ke kaaran "ijraayal" kahalaane laga. aage chalakar ibaraani bhaasha mein ijraayal ka arth ho gaya-"aisa raashtra jo ishvar ka pyaara ho".

yaakoob ke ek bete ka naam yahooda athva jooda tha. yahooda ke naam par hi uske vanshaj yahoodi (jooda-jyooj) kahalaae aur unka dharm yahoodi dharm (judaaijm) kahalaaya. praarambh ki shataabdiyon mein yaakoob ke doosare beton ki santaanein ijraayal ya "bani ijraayal" ke naam se prasiddh rahi. filisteen aur arab ke uttar mein yaakoob ki in santatiyon ki "ijrayal" aur "jooda" naam ki ek doosari se mili hui kintu alag-alag do chhoti-chhoti saltanatein theen. donon mein shataabdiyon tak gahari shatruta rahi. ant mein donon milkar ek ho gain. is sammiln ke parinaamasvaroop desh ka naam ijraayal pada aur jaati ka yahoodi.

yahoodiyon ke praarambhik itihaas ka pata adhiktar unke dharmagranthein se milta hai jinmein mukhya baaibil ka vah poorvaardh hai jise "puraana ahadanaama" (old testaameint) kehte hain. puraane ahadanaame mein teen granth shaamil hain. sabse praarambh mein "tauret" (ibaraani thora) hai. tauret ka shabdik arth vahi hai jo "dharm" shabd ka hai, arthaat dhaaran karne ya baaaindhanevaala. doosra granth "yahoodi paiganbaron ka jeevanacharit" aur teesara "pavitra lekh" hai. in teenon granthon ka sangrah "puraana ahadanaama" hai. puraane ahadanaamein mein 39 khand ya pustakein hain. iska rachanaakaal E.poo. 444 se lekar E.poo. 100 ke beech hai. puraane ahadanaame mein srushti ki rachana, manushya ka janm, yahoodi jaati ka itihaas, sadaachaar ke uchch niyam, dhaarmik karmakaand, pauraanik kathaaeain aur yahve ke prati praarthanaaeain shaamil hain.

Abraham aur moosa

isaai dharm, islaam tatha yahoodi dharm ko sanyukt roop se ibraahimi dharm bhi kehte hain kyonki ibraaham teenon dharm ke mool mein hain.

yahoodi jaati ke aadi sansthaapak abaraaham ko apne svatantr vichaaron ke kaaran dar-dar ki khaak chhaanani padi. apne janmasthaan oor (sumer ka praacheen nagar) se saikadon meal door nirvaasan mein hi unki mrutyu hurh. abaraaham ke baad yahoodi itihaas mein sabse bada naam moosa ka hai. moosa hi yahoodi jaati ke mukhya vyavasthaakaar ya smrutikaar maane jaate hain. moosa ke upadeshon mein do baatein mukhya hain : ek-anya devi devataaon ki pooja ko chhodkar ek niraakaar ishvar ki upaasana aur doosari- sadaachaar ke das niyamon ka paalan. moosa ne anekon kasht sahakar ishvar ke aajnyaaanusaar jagah-jagah bainti hui atyaachaarapeedit yahoodi jaati ko milkaar ek kiya aur unhein filisteen mein laakar basaaya. yeh samay isa se praaya: 1,500 varsh poorv ka tha. moosa ke samay se hi yahoodi jaati ke vikhre hue samooh sthaayi taur par filisteen mein aakar base aur use apna desh samajhne lage. baad mein apne is nae desh ka unhonne "ijraayal" ki sanjnyaa di.

abaraaham ne yahoodiyon ka uttari arab aur oor se filisteen ki or sankraman karaaya. yeh unka pehla sankraman tha. doosari baar jab unhein misr chhod filisteen bhaagna pada tab unke neta hajrat moosa the (praaya: 16veen sadi E.poo.). yeh yahoodiyon ka doosra sankraman tha jo mahaan bahiraagaman (great egjodas) ke naam se prasiddh hai.

abaraaham aur moosa ke baad ijraayal mein jo do naam sabse adhik aadaraneeya maane jaate hain ve Dawood (isaaiyat mein David) aur uske bete sulemaan (isaaiyat mein Solomons) ke hain. sulemaan ke samay doosare deshon ke saath ijraayal ke vyaapaar mein khoob unnati hui. sulemaan ne samudragaami jahaajon ka ek bahut bada beda taiyaar karaaya aur door-door ke deshon ke saath tijaarat shuru ki. arab, Asia kochak, Africa, Europe ke kuchh deshon tatha Bhaarat ke saath ijraayal ki tijaarat hoti thi. sona, chaaaindi, haatheedaaaint aur mor Bhaarat se hi ijraayal aate the. sulemaan udaar vichaaron ka tha. sulemaan ke hi samay ibaraani yahoodiyon ki raashtrabhaasha bani. 37 varsh ke yogya shaasan ke baad san 937 E.poo. mein sulemaan ki mrutyu hui.

830 isa poorv mein ijaraail aur jooda (yahooda) raajya

sulemaan ki mrutyu se yahoodi ekta ko bahut bada dhakka laga. sulemaan ke marate hi ijraayali aur jooda (yahooda) donon fir alag-alag svaadheen riyaasatein ban gain. sulemaan ki mrutyu ke baad 50 varsh tak ijraayal aur jooda ke aapasi jhagade chalte rahe. iske baad lagbhag 884 E.poo. mein umari naamak ek raaja ijraayal ki gaddi par baitha. usane fir donon shaakhon mein premasanbandh sthaapit kiya. kintu umari ki mrutyu ke baad yahoodiyon ki ye donon shaakhein sarvanaashi yuddh mein ulajh gain.

yahoodiyon ki is sthiti ko dekhkar asuriya ke raaja shulamaanu asharid pancham ne san 722 E.poo. mein ijraayal ki rajdhani samariya par chadhaai ki aur usapar apna adhikaar kar liya. asharid ne 27,290 pramukh ijraayali saradaaron ko kaid karke aur unhein gulaam banaakar asuriya bhej diya aur ijraayal ka shaasanaprabandh asoori afsaron ko sapurd kar diya. san 610 E.poo. mein asuriya par jab khaldiyon ne aadhiptya kar liya tab ijraayal bhi khaldi satta ke adheen ho gaya.

hakhaamani raajavansh

san 550 E.poo. mein Iran suprasiddh hakhaamani raajavansh ka samay aaya. is kul ke samraat kurush ne jab baabul ki khaldi satta par vijay praapt ki tab ijraayal aur yahoodi raajya bhi Irani satta ke antargat aa gaye. aaspaas ke deshon mein us samay Irani sabse adhik prabuddh, vichaaravaan aur udaar the. apne adheen deshon ke saath Irani samraaton ka vyavahaar nyaaya aur udaarata ka hota tha. praja ke udyog dhandhon ko ve sanraksha dete the. samruddhi unke peechhe-peechhe chalti thi. unke dhaarmik vichaar udaar the. iraaniyon ka shaasanakaal yahoodi itihaas ka kadaachit sabse adhik vikaas aur utkarsh ka kaal tha. jo hajaaron yahoodi baabul mein nirvaasit aur daasata mein pade the unhein Irani samraat kuru ne mukt kar apne desh laut jaane ki anumati di. kuru ne jeroosalam ke mandir ke puraane purohit ke ek pautr yoshuna aur yahoodi baadshah Dawood ke ek nirvaasit vanshaj jerubbaabal ko jaroosalam ki vah sampatti dekar, jo lootakar baabul laai gayi thi, vaapas jeroosalam bheja aur apne kharch par jeroosalam ke mandir ka fir se nirmaan karaane ki aajnyaa di. ijraayal aur yahooda ke hajaaron gharon mein khushiyaaain manaai gain. shataabdiyon ke pashchaat ijraayaliyon ko saaains lene ka avsar mila.

yahi vah samay tha jab yahoodiyon ke dharm ne apna paripakva roop dhaaran kiya. isse poorv unke dharmashaastr ek peedhi se doosari peedhi ko jabaani praapt hote rahate the. ab kuchh smruti ke sahaare, kuchh ullekhon ke aadhaar par dharm granthon ka sangrah praarambh hua. inmein se thora ya tauret ka sankalan 444 E.poo. mein samaapt hua.

donon samay ka havan, jismein lohabaan jaisi sugandhit cheejein, khaadya padaarth, tel ityaadi ke atirikt kisi memane, bakare, pakshi ya anya pashu ki aahuti di jaati thi, yahoodi ishvaropaasana ka avashyak ang tha. rigved ke "aahitaagni" purohiton ke samaan yahoodi purohit is baat ka vishesh dhyaan rakhate the ki vedi par ki aag chaubees ghante kisi tarah bujhane na paae.

ijraayali dharmagranthon mein shaayad sabse sundar pustak "Dawood ke bhajan" hain. puraane ahadanaame ki yeh sabse adhik prabhaavotpaadak pustak samajhi jaati hai. jis prakaar Dawood ke bhajan bhaktibhaavana ke sundar udaaharan hain usi prakaar sulemaan ki adhikaansh kahaavatein har desh aur har kaal ke liye keemati hain aur sachaai se bhari hain. ek teera yahoodi dharmagranth "prachaarak" (eklajiyestes) in granthon ke baad ka likha hua hai.

hakhaamani saamraajya ka ant

san 330 E.poo. mein sikandar ne Iran ko jeetkar vahaaain ke hakhaamani saamraajya ka ant kar diya. san 320 E.poo. mein sikandar ke senaapati tolemi pratham ne ijraayal aur yahooda par aakraman kar usapar apna adhikr kar liya. baad mein san 198 E.poo. mein ek doosare yoonaani parivaar selyookas raajavansh ka antiokas chaturth yahoodiyon ke desh ka adhiraaj bana. jeroosalam ke balave se rusht hokar antiokas ne uske yahoodi mandir ko loot liya aur hajaaron yahoodiyon ka vadh karva diya, shahar ki chahaaradeevaari ko giraakar jameen se mila diya aur shahar yoonaani sena ke sapurd kar diya.

antiokas ne yahoodi dharm ka paalan karna ijraayal aur yahooda donon jagah kaanooni aparaadh ghoshit kar diya. yahoodi mandiron mein yoonaani moortiyaaain sthaapit kar di gain aur tauret ki jo bhi pratiyaaain mileen aag ke sapurd kar di gain.

yeh sthiti san 142 E.poo. tak chalti rahi. san 142 E.poo. mein ek yahoodi senaapati Simon ne yoonaaniyon ko haraakar raajya se baahar nikaal diya aur yahooda tatha ijraayal ki raajaneetik svaadheenata ki ghoshan kar di. yahoodiyon ki yeh svaadheenata 141 E.poo. se 63 E.poo. tak baraabar bani rahi.

yeh vah samay tha jab Bhaarat mein bauddh bhikshu aur bhaarateeya mahaatma apne dharm ka prachaar karte hue pashchimi Asia ke deshon mein fail gaye. in bhaarateeya prachaarakon ne yahoodi dharm ko bhi prabhavit kiya. isi prabhaav ke parinaamasvaroop yahoodiyon ke andar ek nae "esseni" naamak sanpradaaya ki sthaapana hui. har esseni braahm muhoort mein uthata tha aur sooryodaya se pehle praat: kriya, snaan, dhyaan, upaasana aadi se nivrut ho jaata tha. subah ke snaan ke atirikt donon samay bhojan se pehle snaan karna har esseni ke liye aavashyak tha. unka sabse mukhya siddhaant tha-ahinsa. har esseni har tarah ki pashubali, maansabhakshan ya madiraapaan ke viruddh the. har esseni ko deeksha ke samay pratijnyaa karni padti thi :

"main yahve arthaat paramaatma ka bhakt rahooainga. main manushya maatr ke saath sada nyaaya ka vyavahaar karooainga. main kabhi kisi ki hinsa na karooainga aur na kisi ko haani pahuainchaaooainga. manushya maatr ke saath main apne vachanon ka paalan karooainga. main sada satya se prem karooainga." aadi.

usi samay ke nikat hindu darshan ke prabhaav se ijraayal mein ek aur vichaarashaili ne janm liya jise kbbaalah kehte hain. kbbaalah ke thode se siddhaant ye hain-

"ishvar anaadi, anant, aparimit, achintya, avyakt aur anirvachaneeya hai. vah astitv aur chetna se bhi pare hai. us avyakt se kisi prakaar vyakt ki utpatti hui aur achintya se chintya ki. manushya parameshvar ke keval is doosare roop ka hi manan kar sakta hai. isi se srushti sambhav hui."

kbbaalah ki pustakon mein yog ki vividh shreniyon, shareer ke bheetar ke chakron aur abhyaas ke rahasyon ka varnan hai.

yahoodiyon ki raajaneetik svaadheenata ka ant

yahoodiyon ki raajaneetik svaadheenata ka ant us samay hua jab san 66 E.poo. mein rom ke general paanpe ne teen maheene ke ghere ke pashchaat jeroosalam ke saath-saath saare desh par adhikaar kar liya. itihaasalekhakon ke anusaar hajaaron yahoodi ladaai mein maare gaye aur 12,000 yahoodi katl kar diye gaye.

iske baad san 135 E. mein rom ke samraat haadriyn ne jeroosalam ke yahoodiyon se rusht hokar ek-ek yahoodi nivaasi ko katl karva diya. vahaaain ki ek-ek int girva di aur shahar ki samast jameen par hal chalavaakar use baraabar karva diya. iske pashchaat apne naam eliyaas haadriyaanal par ainliya kaavitolina naamak naya romi nagar usi jagah nirmaan karaaya aur aajnyaa de di ki koi yahoodi is nae nagar mein kadam na rakhe. nagar ke mukhya dwaar par rom ke pradhaan chinh suar ki ek moorti kaayam kar di gayi. is ghatna ke lagbhag 200 varsh baad rom ke pehle isaai samraat konstaanteen ne nagar ka jeroosalam naam fir se prachalit kiya.

arabon ka adhikaar

chhathi E. tak ijraayal par rom aur uske pashchaat poorvi romi saamraajya beejonteen ka prabhutv kaayam raha. khaleefa aboobakr aur khaleefa umar ke samay arab aur romi (Bizantine) senaaon mein takkar hui. san 636 E. mein khaleefa umar ki senaaon ne rom ki senaaon ko poori tarah paraajit karke filisteen par, jismein ijraayal aur yahooda shaamil the, apna kabja kar liya. khaleefa umar jab yahoodi paiganbar Dawood ke praarthanaasthal par bane yahoodiyon ke praacheen mandir mein gaye tab us sthaan ko unhonne kooda karkat aur gandagi se bhara hua paaya. umar aur unke saathiyon ne swayam apne haathon se us sthaan ko saaf kiya aur use yahoodiyon ke sapurd kar diya.

jerusalam par isaaiyon ka adhikaar

pratham kroosayuddh ke samay yerusalam ki gheraabandi (1099)

ijraayal aur usaki rajdhani jeroosalam par arabon ki satta san 1099 E. tak rahi. san 1099 E. mein jeroosalam par isaai dharm ke jaaainnisaaron ne apna kabja kar liya aur bolon ke gaadafre ko jeroosalam ka raaja bana diya. yerusalam raajya ki sthaapana hui jo roman Catholic raajya tha. isaaiyon ke is dharmayuddh mein 5,60,000 sainik kaam aae. is yuddh mein musalmaanon evam yahoodiyon donon ki nirmam hatya ki gayi ya unhein das ke roop mein bech diya gaya. kintu 88 varshon ke shaasan ke baad yeh satta samaapt ho gayi.

kroosed ya kroos yuddh

iske pashchaat san 1147 E. se lekar san 1204 tak isaaiyon ne dharmayuddhon (kroosedon) dvaara ijraayal par kabja karna chaaha kintu unhein safalta naheen mili. san 1212 E. mein isaai mahanton ne 50 hajaar kishoravayask baalak aur baalikaaon ki ek sena taiyaar karke paaainchavein dharmayuddh ki ghoshana ki. inmein se adhikaansh bachche bhoomadhyasaagar mein doobkar samaapt ho gaye. iske baad is pavitra bhoomi par aadhiptya karne ke liye isaaiyon ne chaar asafal dharmayuddh aur kiye.

13veen aur 14veen shataabdi mein hulaakoo aur uske baad taimoor lang ne jeroosalam par aakraman karke use nestanaabood kar diya. iske pashchaat 19veen shataabdi tak ijraayal par kabhi misri aadhiptya raha aur kabhi turk. san 1914 mein jis samay pehla vishvayuddh hua, ijraayal Turkey ke kabje mein tha.

Britain ke adheenata evam naye raashtra ka udaya

baalafor tatha unki ghoshana (1917)
sanyukt raashtrasangh ki filisteen ke vibhaajan ki yojana (1947)

san 1917 mein british senaaon ne is par adhikaar kar liya. 2 November san 1917 ko british videsh mantri baalafor ne yeh ghoshana ki ki ijraayal ko british sarkaar yahoodiyon ka dharmadesh banaana chaahati hai jismein saare sansaar ke yahoodi yahaaain aakar bas sakein. mitraraashtron ne is ghoshan ki pushti ki. is ghoshana ke baad se ijraayal mein yahoodiyon ki janasankhya nirantar badhti gayi. lagbhag 21 varsh (doosare vishvayuddh) ke pashchaat mitraraashtron ne san 1948 mein ek ijraayal naamak yahoodi raashtra ki vidhivt sthaapana ki.

5 July san 1950 ko ijraayal ki paarlaameint ne ek naya kaanoon banaaya jiske anusaar sansaar ke kisi kone se yahoodiyon ko ijraayal mein aakar basane ki svatantrata mili. yeh kaanoon ban jaane ke saat varshon ke andar ijraayal mein saat lakh yahoodi baahar ke deshon se aakar base.

ijraayal mein janatantri shaasan hai. vahaaain ekasansadeeya paarlaameint hai jise "senet" kehte hain. ismein 120 sadasya saanupaatik pratinidhaan ki chunaav pranaali dvaara prati chaar varshon ke liye chune jaate hain. ijraayal ka naya jantantra ek or aadhunik vaigyaanik saadhanon ke dvaara desh ko unnat banaane mein laga hua hai to doosari or puraani paranparaaon ko bhi usane punarjeevan diya hai, jinmein se ek hai shanivaar ko saare kaamkaaj band kar dena. is praacheen niyam ke anusaar aadhunik ijraayal mein shanivaar ke pavitra "saibath" ke din relagaadiyaaain tak band rahati hain.

yahoodiyon ne hi pashchimi dharmon mein nabiyon aur paiganbaron tatha ilahaami shaasanon ka aarambh aur prachaar kiya. unke nabiyon ne, visheshakar chhathi sadi E.poo. ke nabiyon ne jis saahas aur nirbheekata se shreemaanon aur asoori samraaton ko dhikkaara hai aur jo baaibil ki puraani pothi mein aaj bhi surakshit hai, usaka sansaar ke itihaas mein saani naheen. unhonne hi nebukhadanejjaar ki apni baabuli kaid mein baaibil ke puraane paaainch khand (peintutukh) prastut kiye. isi se baabul ke sanbadh se hi sambhavat: baaibil ka yeh naam pada.

svatantrata

san‌ 1948 E. se pehle filisteen Britain ke aupaniveshik prashaasan ke antargat ek adhishthit (mainadeted) kshetr tha. yahoodi log ek lambe arase se filisteen kshetr mein apne ek niji raashtra ki sthaapana ke liye prayatnasheel the. isi uddeshya ko lekar sansaar ke vibhinn bhaagon se aakar yahoodi filisteeni ilaake mein basane lage. arab raashtra bhi is sthiti ke prati satark the. falat: 1947 E. mein arabon aur yahoodiyon ke beech yuddh praarambh ho gaya. 14 May 1948 E. ko adhivesh (mainadet) samaapt kar diya gaya aur ijraayal naamak ek nae desh athva raashtra ka udaya hua. yuddh January, 1949 E. tak jaari raha. na to kisi prakaar ki shaantisandhi hui, na hi kisi arab raashtra ne ijraayal se raajanayik sambandh sthaapit kiye.

san‌ 1957 mein ijraayal ne pun: Britain tatha France se milkar svej ki ladaai mein gaaja kshetr mein adhikaar kar liya, parantu sanyukt raashtrasangh ke aajnyaaanusaar use is bhaag ko antat: chhodna pada. pratham yuddh ek prakaar se samaapt ho gaya, lekin apratyaksh tanaatani bani rahi.

1967 E. mein sthiti bahut kharaab ho gayi aur ijraayal-Syria-seemaakshetr mein hui jhadpon ke baad misr ne ijraayal ki seema par apni sena badi sankhya mein tainaat kar di. raashtrasangheeya paryavekshak dal ko nishkaasit kar diya gaya aur rakt saagar mein ijraayal ki jahaajaraani par misr dvaara rok laga di gayi. 5-6 June ki raatri ko ijraayal ne misr par jameeni aur havaai aakraman shuroo kar diye. Jordan bhi ijraayal ke viruddh yuddh mein sammilit ho gaya aur Syria ki seemaaon par bhi ladaai jaari ho gayi. 11 June ko raashtrasangh dvaara ki gayi yuddhaviraam ki appeal lagbhag sabhi yuddharat raashtron ne sveekaar kar li. lekin is samay tak ijraayal gaaja patti, svej nahar ke tat tak sinaai praayadveep ke bhoobhaag, Jordan ghaati tak Jordan ke bhoobhaag, jeroosalam tatha gailili saagar ke poorv mein sthit Syria ke gaalan naamak parvateeya bhaag (jismein kyoonetra naamak nahar bhi hai) par adhikaar kar chuka tha. jeroosalam ko tatkaal ijraayal ka abhinn ang ghoshit kar diya gaya, lekin shesh vijit ilaake ko 'adhikrut kshetr' ke roop mein hi rakha gaya.

golada mayor

February, 1969 E. mein levi eshkol ki mrutyu ho jaane par shreemati golada maayar ijraayal ki pradhaanamantri niyukt huin aur October, 1969 E. ke chunaav mein unhein pun: pradhaanamantri chun liya gaya. yuddh-viraam-rekha par aur vishesh roop se adhikrut svej kshetr mein ijraayaliyon tatha arab raashtron evam filisteeni gurilla sangathan ke beech chhoti-moti jhadpein chalti raheen jinka ant August, 1970 E. mein hue yuddhaviraam samjhaute ke baad hi hua.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain