ibraani bhaasha

bhaasha ka naam
boli jaati hai
kshetr
kul bolne vaale
bhaasha parivaar
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bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
hibroobhaashi kshetr

ibraani (hibroo: עaaִaaבaaְaaרaaִaaיaaת‎, Ivrit) saami-haami bhaasha-parivaar ki saami shaakha mein aane waali ek bhaasha hai. ye Israel ki mukhya- aur raashtrabhaasha hai. iska puraatan roop biblikl ibraani yahoodi dharm ki dharmabhaasha hai aur baaibil ka puraana niyam isi mein likha gaya tha. ye ibraani lipi mein likhi jaati hai ye daayein se baayein padhi aur likhi jaati hai. pashchim ke vishvavidyaalayon mein aajkal ibraani ka adhyayan apekshaakrut lokapriya hai.

pratham mahaayuddh ke baad filisteen (yahoodiyon ka ijraayal naamak naya raajya) ki raajabhaasha aadhunik ibraani hai. san 1925i. mein jeroosalam ka ibraani vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit hua jiske sabhi vibhaagon mein ibraani hi shiksha ka maadhyam hai. ijraayal raajya mein kai dainik patra bhi ibraani mein nikalte hain.

hibroo ko antararaashtreeya star ke bhaasha vaigyaaniko ne bhaashaaon ki mrut soochi mein daal diya tha. 1948 mein jab Israel svatantr hua to usane Turkey ki tarah hi apni bhaasha hibroo mein shiksha aur shaasan-prashaasan se judi gatividhiyon ko kaaryaanvit karne ka nirnaya liya. aaj yahaan sabhi shaikshik, prashaasanik, vaigyaanik aur takaneeki upalabdhiyon ke lakshya hibroo mein garima ke saath praapt kar liye hain. yahaan vigyaan aur takaneek se jude shreshthatam aavishkaaron ki shabdaavali hibroo mein hai.

anukram

parichay

ibraani bhaasha saami parivaar ((semetik femili) ki bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. yeh yahoodadiyon ki praacheen saanskrutik bhaasha hai. isi mein unka dharmagranth (baaibil ka poorvaardh) likha hua hai; at: ibraani ka gyaan mukhyataya baaibil par nirbhar hai.

vyutpatti ki drushti se 'saami' shabd nauh ke putr sem se sambandh rakhata hai. saami bhaashaaon ki poorvi upashaakha ka kshetr mesopotemiya tha. vahaaain pehle sumeriyn bhaasha boli jaati thi; falasvaroop sumer ki bhaasha ne poorvi saami bhaashaaon ko bahut kuchh prabhaavit kiya hai. praacheenatam saami bhaasha akkaadeeya ki do upashaakhaaeain hain, arthaat asoori aur baabuli. saami parivaar ki dakshini upashaakha mein arabi, habshi (ithopiyaai) tatha saaba ki bhaashaaeain pradhaan hain. saami varg ki pashchimi upashaakha ki mukhya bhaashaaeain is prakaar hain: ugaariteeya, kanaaneeya, aarameeya aur ibraani. inmein se ugaariteeya bhaasha (1500 E. poo.) sabse praacheen hai; iska tatha kanaaneeya bhaasha ka gahra sambandh hai.

jab yahoodi log pehle pahal kanaan desh mein aakar basane lage tab ve kanaaneeya se milti julati ek aarameeya upabhaasha bolte the; usase unki apni ibraani bhaasha ka vikaas hua hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki 'ibraani' shabd hapiroo se nikla hai; hapiroo (shabdaarth 'videshi') uttari arabi marubhoomi ki ek yaayaavar jaati thi, jiske saath yahoodiyon ka sambandh maana jaata tha. baabeelon ke nirvaasan ke baad (539 E. poo.) yahoodi log dainik jeevan mein ibraani chhodkar aarameeya bhaasha bolne lage. is bhaasha ki kai boliyaaain prachalit theen. isa bhi aarameeya bhaasha bolte the, kintu is mool bhaasha ke bahut kam shabd surakshit rah sake.

anya saami bhaashaaon ki tarah ibraani ki nimnalikhit visheshataaeain hain. dhaatueain praaya: trivyanjanaatmak hoti hain. dhaatuon mein svar hote hi naheen aur saadhaaran shabdon ke svar bhi praaya: naheen likhe jaate. pratyaya aur upasarg dvaara purush tatha vachan ka bodh karaaya jaata hai. kriyaaon ke roopaantar apekshaakrut kam hain. saadhaaran arth mein kaal naheen hote, keval vaachya hote hain. vaakyavinyaas atyant saral hai, vaakyaansh praaya: 'aur' shabd se sahaare jode jaate hain. ibraani mein arth ke sookshm bhed vyakt karna du:saadhya hai. vaastav mein ibraani bhaasha daarshanik vivechana ki apeksha kathaasaahitya tatha kaavya ke liye kaheen adhik uparyukt hai.

pratham shataabdi E. mein yahoodi shaastriyon ne ibraani bhaasha ko lipibddh karne ki ek nai pranaali chalaai jiske dvaara bolachaal mein shataabdiyon se aprayukt ibraani bhaasha ka svaroop tatha usaka uchchaaran bhi nishchit kiya gaya. aathaveen-dasveen sadi mein unhonne samast ibraani baaibil ka isi pranaali ke anusaar sanpaadan kiya hai. yeh masora ka paramparaagat paath batalaaya jaata hai aur pichhli das shataabdiyon se ibraani baaibil ka yeh sabse prachalit paath hai. iska sarvaadhik prasiddh sanskaran ben hyeem ka hai jo 1524 E. mein venis mein prakaashit hua tha. san 1947 E. mein filisteen ke kumaraam naamak sthaan par ibraani baaibil tatha anya saahitya ki atyant praacheen hastalipiyaaain mil gain. inka lipikaal praaya: doosari shataabdi E.poo. maana jaata hai. vidvaanon ko yeh dekhkar aashcharya hua ki baaibil ki ye praacheen pothiyaaain masora ke paath se adhik bhinn naheen hain.

madhyakaal mein ek vishesh ibraani boli ki utpatti hui thi jise Germany ke ve yahoodi bolte the jo Poland aur roos mein jaakar bas gaye the. is boli ko 'yahoodi jarman' athva 'yiddish' kehkar pukaara jaata hai. vaastav mein yeh ek jarman boli hai jo ibraani lipi mein likhi jaati hai or jismein bahut se aarameeya, polish tatha roosi shabd bhi sammilit hain. iska vyaakaran asthir hai, kintu iska saahitya samruddh hai.

lipi

ibraani bhaasha, ibraani lipi mein likhi jaati hai jo daaeain se baaeain likhi-padhi jaati hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain