ibn-batoota

madhyakaaleen musalmaan anveshi

ibn battoota arab yaatri, viddhaan tatha lekhak. uttar Africa ke morakko pradesh ke prasiddh nagar taanjiyr mein 14 rajab, 703 hi. (24 fravari 1304 E.) ko iska janm hua tha. isak poora naam tha muhammad bin abdulla ibn battoota. ibn batoota musalmaan yaatriyon mein sabse mahaan tha. anumaanat: usane lagbhag 75,000 meal ki yaatra ki thi. itna lamba bhraman us yug ke shaayad hi kisi anya yaatri ne kiya ho. apni yaatra ke dauaan Bhaarat bhi aaya tha.

jeevani

iske poorvajon ka vyavasaaya kaajiyon ka tha. ibn battoota aarambh se hi bada dharmaanuraagi tha. use makke ki yaatra (haj) tatha prasiddh musalmaanon ka darshan karne ki badi abhilaasha thi. is aakaanksha ko poora karne ke uddeshya se vah keval 21 baras ki aayu mein yaatra karne nikal pada. chalte samay usane yeh kabhi na socha tha ki use itni lambi desh deshaantaron ki yaatra karne ka avsar milega. makke aadi teerthasthaanon ki yaatra karna pratyek musalmaan ka ek aavashyak katrtavya hai. isi se saikadon musalmaan vibhinn deshon se makka aate rahate the. in yaatriyon ki lambi yaatraaon ko sulabh banaane mein kai sansthaaeain us samay muslim jagat mein utpann ho gayi theen jinke dvaara in sabko har prakaar ki suvidhaaeain praapt hoti theen aur unka paryatan bada rochak tatha aanandadaayak ban jaata tha. inhon sansthaaon ke kaaran daridr se daridr "haaji" bhi door-door deshon se aakar haj karne mein samarth hote the.

ibn battoota ne in sansthaaon ki baar-baar prashansa ki hai. vah unke prati atyant krutajnya hai. inmein sarvotam vah sangathan tha jiske dvaara bade se bade yaatri dalon ki har prakaar ki suvidha ke liye har sthaan par aage se hi poori-poori vyavastha kar di jaati thi evam maarg mein unki suraksha ka bhi prabandh kiya jaata tha. pratyek gaaainv tatha nagar mein khaanakaahein (math) tatha saraaeain unke thaharane, khaane peene aadi ke liye hoti theen. dhaarmik netaaon ki to vishesh aavabhagat hoti thi. har jagah shekh, kaaji aadi unka vishesh satkaar karte the. islaam ke bhraatrutv se siddhaant ka yeh sanstha ek jvalant udaaharan thi. isi ke kaaran deshadeshaantaron ke musalmaan bekhatake tatha bade aaraam se lambi lambi yaatraaeain kar sakte the. doosari suvidha madhyakaal ke musalmaanon ka yeh praapt theen ki Africa aur bhaarateeya samudramaargo ka samoocha vyaapaar arab saudaagaron ke haathon mein tha. ye saudaagar bhi musalmaan yaatriyon ka utana hi aadar karte the.

bhramanavruttaant

Handmade oil painting reproduction of Ibn Battuta in Egypt, a painting by Hippolyte Leon Benett.

ibn battoota damishk aur filisteen hota ek kaaravaaain ke saath makka pahuaincha. yaatra ke dinon mein do saadhuon se usaki bheint hui thi jinhonne usase poorvi deshon ki yaatra ke sukh saundarya ka varnan kiya tha. isi samay usane un deshon ki yaatra ka sankalp kar liya. makke se ibn battoota Iraq, Iran, mosul aadi sthaanon mein ghoomkar 1329 (729 hi.) mein dubaara makka lauta aur vahaaain teen baras thaharakar adhyayan tatha bhagavanadabhakti mein laga raha. baad mein usane fir yaatra aarambh ki aur dakshin arab, poorvi Africa tatha faaras ke bandargaah hurmuj se teesari baar fir makka gaya. vahaaain se vah kreemiya, kheeva, bukhaara hota hua Afghanistan ke maarg se Bhaarat aaya. Bhaarat pahuainchane par ibn battoota bada vaibhavashaali evam sampann ho gaya tha.

Bhaarat pravesh - Bhaarat ke uttar pashchim dwaar se pravesh karke vah seedha Delhi pahuaincha, jahaaain tugalak sultaan muhammad ne usaka bada aadar satkaar kiya aur use rajdhani ka kaaji niyukt kiya. is pad par poore saat baras rahakar, jismein use sultaan ko atyant nikat se dekhne ka avsar mila, ibn battoota ne har ghatna ko bade dhyaan se dekha suna. 1342 mein muhammad tugalak ne use cheen ke baadshah ke paas apna raajadoot banaakar bheja, parantu Delhi se prasthaan karne ke thode din baad hi vah badi viptti mein pad gaya aur badi kathinaai se apni jaan bachaakar anek aapattiyaaain sahata vah kaaleekat pahuaincha. aisi paristhiti mein saagar ki raah cheen jaana vyarth samajhakar vah bhoobhaarg se yaatra karne nikal pada aur lanka, Bengal aadi pradeshon mein ghoomta cheen ja pahuaincha. kintu shaayad vah mangol Khan ke darbaar tak naheen gaya. iske baad usane pashchim Asia, uttar Africa tatha Spain ke muslim sthaanon k bhraman kiya aur ant mein tinbakat aadi hota vah 1354 ke aarambh mein morakko ki rajdhani "phase" laut gaya. iske dvaara arabi bhaasha mein likha gaya usaka yaatra vrutaant jise rihrula kaha jaata hai, 14veen shataabdi mein bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke saamaajik tatha saanskrutik jeevan ke vishay me bahut hi rochak jaanakaariyaaain deta hai.

vaapas morakko mein - ibn batoota musalmaan yaatriyon mein sabse mahaan tha. anumaanat: usane lagbhag 75,000 meal ki yaatra ki thi. itna lamba bhraman us yug ke shaayad hi kisi anya yaatri ne kiya ho. "phase" lautakar usane apna bhramanavruttaant sultaan ko sunaaya. sultaan ke aadeshaanusaar uske sachiv muhammad ibn jujaiya ne use lekhabaddh kiya. ibn batoota ka baaki jeevan apne desh mein ho beeta. 1377 (779 hi.) mein usaki mrutyu hui. ibn battoota ke bhramanavruttaant ko "tuhaftaal najjaar fi garaayab al amasaar va ajaayab al afsaar" ka naam diya gaya. iski ek prati peris ke raashtreeya pustakaalaya mein surakshit hain. uske yaatraavruttaant mein tatkaaleen bhaarateeya itihaas ki atyant upayogi saamagri milti hai.

yaatraaen