humaayooain ka makabara

humaayooain ka makabara
Humayun's Tomb, Mausoleum.jpg
हुमायूँ का मकबरा is located in नई दिल्ली
Delhi bheetar sthaan
saamaanya vibran
prakaar makabara
vaastukala shaili mugal vaastukala
sthaan nijaamuddeen poorv, nai Delhi, Bhaarat
nirdeshaank 28°a35′a36″aN 77°a15′a02″aE / 28.593264°aN 77.250602°aE / 28.593264; 77.250602Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 28°a35′a36″aN 77°a15′a02″aE / 28.593264°aN 77.250602°aE / 28.593264; 77.250602
nirmaanakaarya suru 1565
nirmaan sampann 1572
yojana evam nirmaan
vaastukaar miraak mirja ghiyaas

humaayooain ka makabara imaarat parisar mugal vaastukala se prerit makabara smaarak hai. yeh nai Delhi ke deenaapanaah arthaat puraane kile ke nikat nijaamuddeen poorv kshetr mein Mathura maarg ke nikat sthit hai. gulaam vansh ke samay mein yeh bhoomi kilokari kile mein hua karti thi aur naseeruddeen (1268-1287) ke putr tatkaaleen sultaan kekoobaad ki rajdhani hua karti thi. yahaaain mukhya imaarat mugal samraat humaayooain ka makabara hai aur ismein humaayooain ki kabr sahit kai anya raajasi logon ki bhi kabrein hain. yeh samooh vishv dharohar ghoshit hai[1], evam Bhaarat mein mugal vaastukala ka pratham udaaharan hai. is makbare mein vahi chaarabaag shaili hai, jisne bhavishya mein Tajmahal ko janm diya. yeh makabara humaayooain ki vidhva begam hameeda baano begam ke aadeshaanusaar 1562 mein bana tha. is bhavan ke vaastukaar Sayyed mubaarak ibn miraak ghiyaathuddeen evam uske pita miraak ghuiyaathuddeen the jinhein Afghanistan ke heraat shahar se vishesh roop se bulavaaya gaya tha. mukhya imaarat lagbhag aath varshon mein bankar taiyaar hui aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein chaarabaag shaili ka pratham udaaharan bani. yahaan sarvapratham laal baluaa patthar ka itne bade star par prayog hua tha.[2][3][4] 1993 mein is imaarat samooh ko yunesko dvaara vishv dharohar sthal ghoshit kiya gaya.

is parisar mein mukhya imaarat mugal samraat humaayooain ka makabara hai. humaayooain ki kabr ke alaava usaki begam hameeda baano tatha baad ke samraat shaahajahaan ke jyeshth putr daara shikoh aur kai uttaraadhikaari mugal samraat jahaandar shaah, farrukhshiyaar, rafi ul-darjat, rafi ud-daulat evam aalamgeer dviteeya aadi ki kabrein sthit hain.[5][6] is imaarat mein mugal sthaapatya mein ek bada badlaav dikha, jiska pramukh ang chaarabaag shaili ke udyaan the. aise udyaan Bhaarat mein isse poorv kabhi naheen dikhe the aur iske baad anek imaaraton ka abhinn ang bante gaye. ye makabara mugalon dvaara isse poorv nirmit humaayun ke pita baabar ke Kabul sthit makabare baag A baabar se ekdam bhinn tha. baabar ke saath hi samraaton ko baag mein bane makabaron mein dafn karne ki parampara aarambh hui thi.[7][8] apne poorvaj taimoor lang ke samarakand (ujbekistaan) mein bane makabare par aadhaarit ye imaarat Bhaarat mein aage aane waali mugal sthaapatya ke makabaron ki prerana bana. ye sthaapatya apne charam par Tajmahal ke saath pahuncha.[9][10][11]

anukram

sthal

yamuna nadi ke kinaare makabare ke liye is sthaan ka chunaav iski hajarat nijaamuddeen (dargaah) se niktata ke kaaran kiya gaya tha. sant nijaamuddeen Delhi ke prasiddh soofi sant hue hain va inhein Delhi ke shaasakon dvaara kaafi maana gaya hai. inka tatkaaleen aavaas bhi makabare ke sthaan se uttar-poorv disha mein nikat hi chilla-nijaamuddeen auliya mein sthit tha. baad ke mugal itihaas mein mugal samraat bahaadur shaah jfr ne teen anya raajakumaaron sahit 1857 ke pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke dauraan yahaan sharan li thi. baad mein unhein british sena ke kaptaan haudasan ne yaheen se giraftaar kiya tha aur fir unhein rangoon mein mrutyuparyant kaid kar diya gaya tha.[12] Delhi se apne vida hone ko bahaadur shaah jfr ne in shabdon mein baandha hai:

jalaaya yaar ne aisa ki ham vatan se chale

bataur shama ke rote is anjuman se chale...

—abahaadur shaah jfr, [13] [14][15]


gulaam vansh ke shaasan mein yeh kshetr kilokari kile mein sthit thi, jo naseeruddeen (1268-1287) ke putr tatkaaleen sultaan kekoobaad ki rajdhani hua karti thi.

baabar ke makabare ke peechhe humaayun ka makabara, 1858 ka chhaayaachitr

20 January 1556 ko, humaayooain ki mrutyu uparaant use pehle to Delhi mein hi dafnaaya gaya aur baad mein 1558 mein khanjarabeg dvaara Punjab ke sarahind le jaaya gaya. kaalaantar mein mugal samraat Akbar ne apne pita ki samaadhi ke darshan 1571 mein kiye.[16][17][18] makabare ka nirmaan hameeda baano begam ke aadeshaanusaar 1562 mein humaayun ki mrutyu ke 9 varsh uparaant aarambh hua tha. tab iski laagat 15 lakh rupaye aayi thi.[14] kai baar hameeda baanu begam se humaayun ki pehli patni haaji begam ka bhram bhi hota hai, haalaanki 16veen shataabdi mein likhe byaurevaar aain-A-akabari ke anusaar ek anya haaji begam bhi theen, jo humaayun ki mameri bahan thi aur baad mein usaki begam bani; usako makabare ka daayitv saunpa gaya tha.[19]

abd-al-kaadir badaanyuni, ek samakaaleen itihaasakaar ke anusaar is makabare ka sthaapatya faarasi vaastukaar miraak mirja ghiyaas (mirja ghiyaathuddeen) ne kiya tha, jinhein heraat, bukhaara (vartamaan ujbekistaan mein) se vishesh roop se is imaarat ke liye bulavaaya gaya tha. inhonne heraat ki aur Bhaarat ki bhi kai imaaraton ki abhiklpana ki thi. is imaarat ke poora hone se pehle hi ve chal base, kintu unke putr Sayyed muhammad ibn miraak ghiyaathuddeen ne apne pita ka kaarya poorn kiya aur makabara 1571 mein bankar poorn hua.[16][17]

sthaapatya

pravesh ke ivaan aur shvet sangamarmar ke mukhya gumbad ko gherati hui chhoti meenaaron aur chhatariyon par baluaa patthar ke jyaamiteeya aur sangamarmar ke peetra dyoora pachcheekaari ke namoone.

baahari roop

paashaan nirmit vishaal imaarat mein pravesh ke liye do 16 meter oonche dumanjile praveshadvaar pashchim aur dakshin mein bane hain. in dvaaron mein donon or kaksh hain evam oopari tal par chhote praangan hai. mukhya imaarat ke ivaan par bane sitaare ke samaan hi ek chh: kinaaron wala sitaara mukhya praveshadvaar ki shobha badhaata hai. makabare ka nirmaan moolaroop se pattharon ko gaare-choone se jodkar kiya gaya hai aur use laal baluaa patthar se dhanka hua hai. iske oopar pachcheekaari, farsh ki satah, jharokhon ki jaaliyon, dwaar-chaukhaton aur chhajjon ke liye shvet sangamarmar ka prayog kiya gaya hai. makabare ka vishaal mukhya gumbad bhi shvet sangamarmar se hi dhanka hua hai. makabara 8 meter oonche mool chabootare par khada hai, 12000 varg meter ki oopari satah ko laal jaaleedaar munder ghere hue hai. is vargaakaar chabootare ke konon ko chhaantakar ashtakoneeya aabhaas diya gaya hai. is chabootare ki neenv mein 56 kothariyaan bani hui hain, jinmein 100 se adhik kabrein banaayi hui hain. yeh poora nirmaan ek kuchh seedhiyon oonche chabootare par khada hai.[16]

faarasi vaastukala se prabhaavit ye makabara 47 mi. ooncha aur 300 feet chauda hai. imaarat par faarasi balbuas gumbad bana hai, jo sarvapratham sikandar lodhi ke makabare mein dekha gaya tha. yeh gumbad 42.5 meter ke oonche gardan roopi belan par bana hai. gumbad ke oopar 6 meter ooncha peetal ka kireet kalash sthaapit hai aur uske oopar chandrama laga hua hai, jo taimoor vansh ke makabaron mein milta hai. gumbad dohari part mein bana hai, baahari part ke baahar shvet sangamarmar ka aavaran laga hai aur androoni part gufa roopi bani hai. gumbad ke shuddh aur nirmal shvet roop se alag shesh imaarat laal baluaa patthar ki bani hai, jispar shvet aur kaale sangamarmar tatha peele baluaa patthar se pachcheekaari ka kaam kiya gaya hai. ye rangon ka sanyojan imaarat ko ek alag aabha deta hai.

aantarik banaavat

mukhya kendreeya kaksh sahit nau vargaakaar kaksh bane hain. inmein beech mein bane mukhya kaksh ko ghere hue shesh aath dumanjile kaksh beech mein khulate hain.

baahar se saral dikhne waali imaarat ki aantarik yojana kuchh jatil hai. ismein mukhya kendreeya kaksh sahit nau vargaakaar kaksh bane hain. inmein beech mein bane mukhya kaksh ko ghere hue shesh aath dumanjile kaksh beech mein khulate hain. mukhya kaksh gumbadadaar (hujra) evam duguni oonchaai ka ek-manjila hai aur ismein gumbad ke neeche ekdam madhya mein aath kinaare vaale ek jaaleedaar ghere mein dviteeya mugal samraat humaayun ki kabr bani hai. ye imaarat ki mukhya kabr hai. iska pravesh dakshini or ek ivaan se hota hai, tatha anya dishaaon ke ivaanon mein shvet sangamarmar ki jaali lagi hain. samraat ki asli samaadhi theek neeche aantarik kaksh mein bani hai, jiska raasta baahar se jaata hai. iske theek oopar dikhaavati kintu sundar pratikruti banaayi hui hai. neeche tak aam paryatakon ko pahunch naheen di gayi hai. poori imaarat mein peetra dyoora naamak sangamarmar ki pachcheekaari ka prayog hai aur is prakaar ke kabr ke niyojan bhaarateeya-islaamik sthaapatyakala ka mahattvapoorn ang hain, jo mugal saamraajya ke baad ke makabaron, jaise Tajmahal aadi mein khoob prayog hue hain.[20]

mukhya kaksh mein sangamarmar ki jaaleedaar ghere ke theek oopar meharaab bhi bana hai, jo pashchim mein makka ki or bana hai. yahaan aamtaur par praveshadvaaron par khude kuraaan ke soora 24 ke bajaay soora- an-noor ki ek rekha bani hai, jiske dvaara prakaash kibla (makka ki disha) se andar pravesh karta hai. is prakaar samraat ka star unke virodhiyon aur pratidvandiyon se ooncha devatv ke nikat ho jaata hai.[16]

pradhaan kaksh ke chaar konon par chaar ashtakoneeya kamre hain, jo meharaabadaar deergha se jude hain. pradhaan kaksh ki bhujaaon ke beech beech mein chaar anya kaksh bhi bane hain. ye aath kamre mukhya kabr ki parikrama banaate hain, jaisi soofeevaad aur kai anya mugal makabaron mein dikhti hai; saath hi islaam dharm mein jannat ka sanket bhi karte hain. in pratyek kamron ke saath 8-8 kamre aur bane hain, jo kul milaakar 124 kaksheeya yojana ka ang hain. in chhote kamron mein kai mugal navaabon aur darabaariyon ki kabron ko samay samay par banaaya hua hai. inmein se pramukh hain hameeda baano begam aur daara shikoh ki kabrein. pratham tal ko milaakar is mukhya imaarat mein lagbhag 100 se adhik kabrein bani hain, jinmein se adhikaansh par pehchaan na khudi hone ke kaaran dafn hue vyakti ka pata naheen hai, kintu ye nishchit hai ki ve mugal saamraajya ke raaj parivaar ya darabaariyon mein se hi the, at: imaarat ko mugalon ka kabristaan sanjnyaa mili hui hai.[5][17]

is imaarat mein laal baluaapatthar par shvet sangamarmar ke sanyojan ka sarvapratham prayog kiya gaya tha. iske saath hi ismein bahut se bhaarateeya sthaapatyakala ke ghatak dekhne ko milte hain, jaise mukhya gumbad ko ghere hue raajasthaani sthaapatyakala ki chhoti chhatariyaan, jo mool roop se neeli taails se dhanki hui theen.[5][17][21]

chaar-baag udyaan

kendra se niklati chaar jal naalikaaen chaarabaag ke vargaakaar khaake ki rekha banaati hain.

mukhya imaarat ke nirmaan mein aath varsh lage, kintu iski poorn shobha isko ghere hue 30 ekad mein faile chaarabaag shaili ke mugal udyaanon se nikhrati hai. ye udyaan Bhaarat hi naheen varan dakshin Asia mein apni prakaar ke pehle udaaharan the. ye uchch shreni ki jyaamiti ke udaaharan hain. jannat roopi udyaan chahaaradeevaari ke bheetar bana hai. ye udyaan chaar bhaagon mein paidal pathon (khiyaabaan) aur do vibhaajak kendreeya jal naalikaaon dvaara banta hua hai. ye islaam ke jannat ke baag mein bahne waali chaar nadiyon ke parichaayak hain. is prakaar bane chaar baagon ko fir se patthar ke bane raaston dvaara chaar-chaar chhote bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. is prakaar kul milaakar 36 bhaag bante hain. kendreeya jal naalika mukhya dwaar se makabare tak jaati hui uske neeche jaati aur doosari or se fir niklati hui prateet hoti hai, theek jaisa kuraaan ki aayaton mein 'jannat ke baag' ka varnan kiya gaya hai.[7][17]

makabare ko ghere hue chaarabaag hain, va unhein ghere hue teen or oonchi patthar ki chahaaradeevaari hai va teesari or kabhi nikat hi yamuna nadi baha karti thi, jo samay ke saath parisar se door chali gayi hai. kendreeya paidal path do dvaaron tak jaate hain: ek mukhya dwaar dakshini deevaar mein aur doosra chhota dwaar pashchimi deevaar mein. ye donon dwaar dumanjila hain. inmein se pashchimi dwaar ab prayog kiya jaata hai, va dakshini dwaar mugal kaal mein prayog hua karta tha aur ab band rahata hai. poorvi deevaar se judi hui ek baaraadari hai. ismein naam ke anusaar baarah dwaar hain aur ismein thandi bahti khuli hava ka aanand liya jaata tha. uttari deevaar se laga hua ek hammaam hai jo snaan ke kaam aata tha.

makabare parisar mein chaarabaag ke andar hi dakshin-poorvi disha mein 1590 mein bana naai ka gumbad hai. iski mukhya parisar mein upasthiti dafnaaye gaye vyakti ki mahatta darshaati hai. vah shaahi naai hua karta tha. yeh makabara ek oonche chabootare par bana hai jis pahunchane ke liye dakshini or se saat seedhiyaan bani hain. yeh vargaakaar hai aur iske akele kaksh ke oopar ek dohara gumbad bana hai.[22] andar do kabron par kuraaan ki aayatein khudi hui hain. inmein se ek kabr par 999 ank khude hain, jiska arth hijri ka varsh 999 hai jo 1590-91 E. bataata hai.

anya smaarak

humaayooain ke makabare ke mukhya pashchimi praveshadvaar ke raaste mein anek anya smaarak bane hain. inmein se pramukh smaarak isa Khan niyaaji ka makabara hai, jo mukhya makabare se bhi 20 varsh poorv 1547 mein bana tha. isa Khan niyaaji mugalon ke viruddh ladne wala soor vansh ke shaasak sherashaah soori ke darbaar ka ek afgaan navaab tha. yeh makabara isa Khan ke jeevanakaal mein hi bana tha aur uske baad uske poore parivaar ke liye hi kaam aaya. makabare ke pashchim mein ek teen aangan chaudi laal baluaa patthar ki masjid hai. yeh athamukha makabara soor vansh ke lodhi makabare parisar sthit anya makabaron se bahut mel khaata hai.

is parisar mein mukhya chahaaradeevaari ke baahar sthit anya smaarakon mein pramukh hai: boo haleema ka makabara aur uske baag. ye makabara ab dhvans ho chuka hai aur avasheshon se gyaat hota hai ki ye kendra mein sthit naheen tha. isse aabhaas hota hai ki sanbhavat: ye baad mein joda gaya hoga.[23] iske baad aati hai arab saraaya jise hameeda begam ne mukhya makabare ke nirmaan mein lage kaareegaron ke liye banavaaya tha. is parisar mein hi afsaravaala makabara bhi bana hai, jo Akbar ke ek navaab ke liye bana tha. iske saath hi iski masjid bhi bani hai. poore parisar ke baahar bana hai neela burj naamak makabara. iska ye naam iske gumbad ke oopar lagi neeli glejd taailon ke kaaran pada hai. ye makabara Akbar ke darabaari bairam Khan ke putr abdul raheem khaanekhaana dvaara apne sevak miyaan fheem ke liye banavaaya gaya tha. fheem miyaan inke bete feeroj Khan ke sang hi pale badhe the aur uske saath hi 1625/26 mein jahaangeer ke samay mein hue ek mugal senaapati mahaabat Khan ke vidroh mein ladte hue kaam aaye the.[24] ye makabara apne sthaapatya mein anootha hai. ye baahar se ashtakoneeya hai jabki andar se vargaakaar hai. iski chhat apne samay ke prachalit dohare gumbad se alag gardanadaar gumbad aur andar hue plaastar par bahut hi sundar chitrakaari va pachcheekaari ke kaaran vishesh ullekhaneeya hai. is parisar se kuchh aur door hi mugal kaaleen anya smaarakon mein bada bataashevaala mahal, chhote bataashevaala mahal aur baaraapula naamak ek pul hai jismein 12 khambhe unke beech 11 meharaab hain. iska nirmaan jahaangeer ke darbaar ke ek hinjade mihr baanu aaga ne 1621 mein karavaaya tha.[25]

durgati

1860 mein chaarabaag shaili ke vargaakaar kendreeya sarovaron ka sthaan angreji shaili ke gol chakkaron ne le liya.

ek angrej vyaapaari, William finch ne 1611 mein makabare ka bhraman kiya. usane likha hai ki kendreeya kaksh ki aantarik sajja aaj ke khaaleepan se alag badhiya kaaleenon va galeechon se paripoorn thi. kabron ke oopar ek shuddh shvet shaamiyaana laga hota tha aur unke saamane hi pavitra granth rakhe rahate the. iske saath hi humaayooain ki pagadi, talavaar aur joote bhi rakhe rahate the.[18] yahaan ke chaarabaag 13 hekteyar kshetr mein faile hue the. aane vaale varshon mein ye sab teji se badalta gaya. iska mukhya kaaran rajdhani ka Agra sthaanaantaran tha. baad ke mugal shaasakon ke paas itna dhan naheen raha ki ve in baagon aadi ka manhaga rakharakhaav kar sakein. 18veen shataabdi tak yahaan sthaaneeya logon ne chaarabaagon mein sabji aadi ugaana aarambh kar diya tha. 1860 mein mugal shaili ke chaarabaag angreji shali mein badalate gaye. inmein chaar kendreeya sarovar gol chakkaron mein badal gaye va kyaariyon mein ped ugane lage. baad mein 20veen shataabdi mein Lord karjn jab Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya bane, tab unhonne ise vaapas sudhaara. 1903-1909 ke beech ek vruhat udyaan jeernoddhaar pariyojana aarambh hui, jiske antargatt naaliyon mein bhi baluaa patthar lagaaya gaya. 1915 mein paudhaaropan yojana ke tahat kendreeya aur vikrneeya akshon par vrukshaaropan hua. iske saath hi anya sthaanon par foolon ki kyaariyaan bhi vaapas banaayi gain.[7]

Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke samay, August, 1947 mein puraana kila aur humaayun ka makabara Bhaarat se naveen sthaapit Pakistan ko liye jaane vaale sharanaarthiyon ke liye sharanaarthi camp mein badal gaye the. baad mein inhein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara apne niyantran mein le liya gaya. ye camp lagbhag paanch varshon tak rahe aur inse smaarakon ko atyadhik kshati pahunchi, khaaskar inke bageechon, paani ki sundar naaliyon aadi ko. iske uparaant is dhvans ko rokane ke liye makabare ke andar ke sthaan ko inton se dhank diya gaya, jise aane vaale varshon mein bhaarateeya puraataatvik sarvekshan vibhaag ne vaapas apne puraane roop mein sthaapit kiya. haalaanki 1985 tak mool jaleeya pranaali ko sakriya karne ke liye chaar baar asafal prayaas kiye gaye.[7][26] March 2003 mein aaga Khan saanskrutik trast dvaara iska jeernoddhaar kaarya sampann hua tha. is jeernoddhaar ke baad yahaan ke baagon ki jal-naaliyon mein ek baar fir se jal pravaah aarambh hua.[27] is kaarya hetu poonji aaga Khan chaturth ki sanstha ke dvaara upahaar svaroop pradaan ki gayi thi.

jeernoddhaar

humaayun ke makabare par jeernoddhaar kaarya ke liye 3000 truck (12,000 ghan meter) ka mitti aur malaba hataana pada tha.

punaruddhaar kaarya ke aarambh hone se pehle atyadhik dhvans aur asamvaidhaanik atikraman yahaan aam baat the. is kaaran is bahumoolya sanpada ke astittv ko khatra bana hua tha. makabare ke mukhya dwaar ke nikat anek chhoradaariyaan aur tent lage the jo gair-kaanooni tareeke se yahaan lagaaye gaye the. neele gumbad ki taraf yahaan ki badi jhonpad-patti sthaapit theen, jinhein vote ki raajaneeti ke chalte bharpoor raajaneetik samarthan milta raha tha. in sab ke kaaran dargaah hajrat nijaamuddeen ka bhi bura haal tha. vahaan ka pavitra kund ek gande naabadaan mein badal gaya tha. yahaan ka jeernoddhaar kaarya aaga Khan saanskrutik trast dvaara bhaarateeya puraataattvik sarvekshan vibhaag ke se 1997 mein aarambh hue sarvekshan ke baad 1999 ke lagbhag aarambh hua aur March, 2003 mein poorn hua. iske antargatt 12 hekteyar laun mein anek paudhon aur vrukshon ka paudhaaropan hua, jismein aam, neenboo, neem, gulamohar aur chameli ke ped the. paidal raaston ke saath-saath bahate jal ki naaliyon ki pranaali banaayi gayi. ye jal 12 hekteyar (30 ekad) bhoomi mein praakrutik bal se bina kisi haaidraulik pranaali ke bahata rahata hai. iske liye jal-naaliyaan 1 sein.mi. prati 40 meter (1:4000 paimaane) ki dhaal par banaayeen gain theen. is vyavastha se udyaanon mein sinchaai hetu jal-pravaah hua aur saath hi sookhe favvaare ek baar pun: jeevit ho uthe. iske alaava ek bada kaarya tha yahaan varsha jal sanchayan ki vyavastha. iske antargatt 128 bhoomi jal punarbharan taal banaaye gaye aur anek puraane mile sookhe kuon ki safaai kar unhein pun: prayoganeeya banaaya gaya.[28][29] is poore kaarya ko pehle to bhaarateeya puraatattv sarvekshan vibhaag ke raashtreeya saanskrutik nidhi (N.si.ef) dvaara niji vitt se vahan kiya gaya tha. is kaarya ka kharcha lagbhag $6,50,000 aaga Khan chaturth ke aaga Khan saanskrutik trast dvaara Oberoi hotel samooh ke sahayog se vahan kiya gaya tha.[30][31][32][33]

makabare ke udyaanon mein 3000 ki॰mee॰ ke paidal path aur naaliyon ke kinaare ke nirmaan hetu lagbhag 60 paashaan-shilpi aur 2000 meter laal baluaa-patthar ki silliyon ki aavashyakta thi.

iske saath hi A.ke.ti.si. Kabul sthit, humaayun ke pita baabar makabare ka bhi punaroddhaar kaarya mein bhi sanlagn raha hai. punaruddhaar kaarya ke baad is parisar mein aur niktavarti sthaanon par jameen-aasmaan ka badlaav aa gaya. sabhi khokhe, gumatiyaan va anya atikraman hataaye gaye the aur smaarak ke kinaare hariyaali vaapas laut aayi thi. smaarak ko ghere hue shaanadaar udyaan ek baar fir iski shobha mein chaar chaand laga rahe the. iske baad raatri prakaash vyavastha aarambh hui jiske saath is smaarak ki shobha dekhte hi banti thi.

2009 mein punaroddhaar kaarya ke adheen hi, A.S.I aur A.ke.ti.si ne makabare ki chhat se maheenon ki mehnat se cement kaaainkreet ki moti part hataayi gayi, jo chhat par 1102 tan ka dabaav daal rahi thi. ye kaunkreet 1920 mein jal-risaav aur seelan se bachaane ke liye lagaayi gayi thi. iske sthaan par cement ki 40 se.mi moti taaji part lagaayi gayi hai. isne makabare ki mool choone ki part ka sthaan le liya hai. agale charan mein makabare ke chabootare par bhi aisa hi kaam kiya gaya. ye mool roop se kvaartajaait patthar ki badi badi silliyon se bani thi jinmein se kuchh to 1000 ki.gra se bhi bhaari the. 1940 mein nichle chabootare mein asamaan bhaagon ko kaunkreet ki samaan rangon ki part se sudhaara gaya tha, jo pashchim dwaar ke mool mugal farsh se milte julate the.[34]

vartamaan sthiti

chaarabaag udyaan ke beech bane kendreeya taal mein makabare ka pratibimb

prakaash vyavastha

Delhi mein aayojit hone vaale raashtramandal khelon ke dauraan paryatakon ki sankhya mein vruddhi hone ka anumaan hai. makabare ki prakaash vyavastha haalaanki pehle se hai, kintu fir bhi ise vishvastareeya paryatan sthal banaane ki yojana ke adheen iski behtar prakaash vyavastha ki taiyaari ho raheen hain. bhaarateeya puraataatvik sarvekshan vibhaag eesaaai ki aa॓r se raashtramandal khelon tak kul 46 smaarakon ka kaayaapalat kiya jaana nishchit hua hai. inmein marammat, land skeping, janasuvidhaaen, ughaanon ka vikaas aur prakaash vyavastha shaamil hain. kul 33 smaarakon ko vibhaag ne prakaash ke liye chinhit kiya hai. in smaarakon mein elaidi takaneek ke dvaara vyavastha ki jaaegi, jisse bijli ka kharch kai guna kam ho jaaega. in smaarakon mein humaayun ka makabara oopar ke teen pramukh sthalon mein aata hai.[35] smaarak mein naagrik suvidhaaen badhaane par bhi bal diya ja raha hai, jinmein peene ke paani ki vyavastha, taayalet aur kaifeteriya aadi ki vyavastha ki ja rahi hai.[36][37]

dhvans aashanka

vartamaan samay mein is smaarak ko aatankvaadiyon dvaara vidhvans se khatra nirantar hi bana rahata hai. iske alaava gair-kaanooni nirmaan, atikraman evam nishiddh sthaanon mein failaaya hua plastic kooda-karkat yahaan bane rahate niyamit khataron mein se hain. aatankvaadiyon ke hamle ki sambhaavana se yahaan aane vaale paryatakon ki sankhya nirantar girti rahi hai, jiske kaaran smaarak ke rakharakhaav hetu milne vaale raajasv ki bhi haani hoti hai.

haal hi mein Mumbai mein hue aatanki hamle ke kaaran humaayun ke makabare mein aane vaale paryatakon ki sankhya 2 maah mein 6000 se adhik giri hai. Delhi sarkaar ki 2006/2007 mein poorvi Delhi ko dakshini Delhi ke javaaharalaal neharu stadium se seedhe jodne hetu 2010 mein Delhi mein aayojit hone vaale raashtramandal khelon hetu banaayi jaane waali surang ke prastaav evam smaarak ke nikat hi raashtreeya raajamaarg 24 ki sadak ke chaudeekaran evam uske lodhi maarg se jodne ke prastaav se smaarak ko gambhir khatre ki aashanka bani thi. antat: bhaarateeya puraataattvik sarvekshan vibhaag ke prayaason se donon hi yojanaaen ruk paayeen.[38][39]

chitr deergha


sandarbh

  1. vishv dharohar sthal (18 April) par vishesh- abhivyakti. 17 April 2010.
  2. humaayooj taumb, delhi vishv dharohar samiti, yunesko.
  3. humaayoon ka makabara Bhaarat sarkaar portal
  4. humaayun ke makabare sthal par shilaalekh.
  5. a aa i delhi- humaayunj taumb end edjeseint bildings delhi thru ejej. S.aar.bakhshi. prakaashak:anmol prakaashan pra.li.. 1995.ISBN 81-7488-138-7. prushth:29-35 sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "del" defined multiple times with different content
  6. masoliym of humaayun, Delhi british pustakaalaya.
  7. a aa i E A taumb braut too laaif: rateesh nanda hist'orik garden rivyu number 13, London:histaurik garden faaudeshan, 2003 sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "gar" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "gar" defined multiple times with different content
  8. humaayunj Tom end getave british pustakaalaya.
  9. humaayun ka makabara archnet.org par
  10. humaayun ka makabara fraumars India, pippa de bruyn, keeth ben, neelofr Venkatraman, shonaar Joshi. prakaashak:fraumars, 2008.ISBN 0-470-16908-7. prushth 316
  11. the maunyumeints ait delhi world heritej maunumeints end rileted edifisheej in India. Ali jaaved, tabassum jaaved. prakaashak: algora pablishing. 2008.ISBN 0-87586-482-1. prushth.105-106
  12. baage vafa. bahaadur shaah jfra_ بaaہaaاaaدaaرaaشaaاaaہ طaaَaaفaaَ.
  13. :jalaaya yaar ne aisa ki ham vatan se chale
    bataur shama ke rote is anjuman se chale...
    na baagbaan ne ijaajt di sair karne ki
    khushi se aae the rote hue chaman se chale
    jaayegaa_ agyaat
    na maalo hakumat na dhan jaayega.
    tere saath bas ek kafan jaayega.
    bacha bhi na koi ki noha kare
    paaraayon ke kaandhe badan jaayega.
    jilaavatani odhe tu sota raha,
    yaadon mein lipta gagan jaayega
    mulak ki matti ki chaadar kahaan,?
    jafar too to ab be vatan jaayega.
    do gaj jameen ke liye tadapate khaatemunashahenashaahe mughaliya bahaadurashaah jameen ka aakhri maskan.
  14. a aa humaayunj taumb bhaarateeya puraataatvik sarvekshan vibhaag.
  15. Hansard 11 December 1857 bhaag-148, pru.557
  16. a aa i E humaayunj Tom mukarnaaj: ain enual on islaamik Arts end aarkitekchar, oleg graibar. prakaashak: bril pablishrs. 1988.ISBN 90-04-08155-0. pru.133-140
  17. a aa i E u humaayooj Tom the new kaimbrij history of India. jeraaldaain forbs, gaurdan Johnson, bi aar taumlisn. kaimbrij yunivrsiti press. 1988.ISBN 0-521-26728-5. pru.45-47
  18. a aa humaayuj taumb speeking stons: world kalcharal heritej saaits in indiya. bill aitaken. paryatan vibhaag. praka>:aayashar gud-arth li.. 2001.ISBN 81-87780-00-2. pru.45-47
  19. haaji begam aain-A-akabari "He (Qa´asim 'Ali´ Khan) was employed to settle the affairs of Háají Begum, daughter of the brother of Humáayúan's mother (tagháaaí záaadah i wáaalidah i Jannat-áastáaní), who after her return from Makkah had been put in charge of Humáayúan's tomb in Dihlí, where she died."
  20. world hairitej saaits - humaayuj taumb: kairektaristiks of indo-islaamik aarkitekchar bhaarateeya puraatattv sarvekshan
  21. humaayunj taumb Washington vishvavidyaalaya.
  22. world hairitej saaits. bhaarateeya puraataattvik sarvekshan vibhaag
  23. boo haleema ka baag aur makabare ka shilaalekh
  24. miyaan fheem aain-A-akabari.
  25. "brij too the paast". Indian ekspres. 12 July 2009. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Bridge-to-the-past/488135/. abhigman tithi: 3 August 2009.
  26. jmeenadaar, vajeera faajila-yaakoob Ali (2007). the laung paarteeshan end the meking of modern south Asia: refyoojeej, baaundreej, histreej. Columbia yunivrsiti press. pa॰ 34. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 023113846. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=EfhqQLr96VgC&pg=PA34&dq=Purana+Qila#v=onepage&q=Purana%20Qila&f=false.
  27. riylaaijeshan of humaayun'za taumb gardens
  28. humaayun ke makabare par praayogik taur par hue vikaas ka shilaalekh, Delhi, 2002-03.
  29. humaayun ke makabare ke udyaanon ka punaroddhaar- A.ke.ti.si aaga Khan saanskrutik trast jaalasthal
  30. ...aaga Khan saanskrutik trast end Oberoi hotels group the hindu, 29 January 2004
  31. trast's research on humaayun'za taumb over, project too bigen Indian ekspres, 18 November 1999
  32. humaayun taumb gardens reevaaitalaaijeshan, 2000 Archnet.org.
  33. A mugal spleindar reegend dvaara: seeliya dablyu dagar, new yaurk times, 29 September 2002
  34. "ऍt humaayoo taumb vet ij of". the times of India. 9 July 2009. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Delhi/At-Humayuns-tomb-weight-is-off/articleshow/4754636.cms. abhigman tithi: 3 August 2009.
  35. laaits to lag jaaengi par bill kaise bhareinge|raashtreeya sahaara. 25 April 2010
  36. khaasamakhaas honge Delhi ke khaas dharohar|deshabandhu. 13 fravari 2010
  37. 21 karod kharch, par smaarakein jeern-sheern-dainik bhaaskar. 15 January 2010
  38. "humaayunj taumb fesej tvin threts". the hindu. 13 June 2007. http://www.hindu.com/2007/06/13/stories/2007061307570400.htm. abhigman tithi: 3 August 2009.
  39. "delhi gavarnmeint paasej Commonwealth road project". bijnes staindard. 18 August 2008. http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?tp=on&autono=44854. abhigman tithi: 3 August 2009.

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