homi jahaangeer bhaabha

homi jahaangeer bhaabha

homi jahaangeer bhaabha (1909-1966)
janm 30 October 1909
Mumbai, Bhaarat
mrutyoo 24 January 1966
mont blaank, France
nivaas Bhaarat
raashtreeyata bhaarateeya
kshetr parmaanu vaigyaanik
sansthaaeain Cavendish Laboratories
bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan
tata moolabhoot anusandhaan sansthaan
parmaanu oorja aayog (Bhaarat)
maatrusanstha Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya
dauktaret salaahakaar paul diraak
raulf H faaular
dauktaret chhaatr bi bhi shreekaantan
prasiddh kaarya bhaabha skaitering
Signature

homi jahaangeer bhaabha (30 October, 1909 - 24 January, 1966) Bhaarat ke ek pramukh vaigyaanik aur svapnadrushta the jinhonne Bhaarat ke parmaanu oorja kaaryakram ki kalpana ki thi. unhone mutthi bhar vaigyaaniko ki sahaayata se March 1944 mein naabhikeeya urja par anusandhaan aarambh kiya. unhonne naabhikeeya vigyaan mein tab kaarya aarambh kiya jab avichhinn shrunkhala abhikriya ka gyaan naheen ke baraabar tha aur naabhikeeya urja se vidyut utpaadan ki kalpana ko koi maanane ko taiyaar naheen tha. unhein 'aarkitekt of Indian etaumik enarji program' bhi kaha jaata hai. bhaabha ka janm mumbai ke ek sabhraant paarasi parivaar mein hua tha. [1] unki keerti saare sansaar mein faili. Bhaarat vaapas aane par unhonne apne anusandhaan ko aage badhaaya. Bhaarat ko parmaanu shakti banaane ke mission mein pratham pag ke taur par unhonne 1945 mein moolabhoot vigyaan mein utkrushtata ke kendra tata Institute of fandaameintal research (teeaaiefaaar) ki sthaapana ki. da. bhaabha ek kushal vaigyaanik aur pratibaddh engineer hone ke saath-saath ek samarpit vaastushilpi, satark niyojak, evam nipun kaaryakaari the. ve lalit kala va sangeet ke utkrusht premi tatha lokopakaari the. 1947 mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara gathit parmaanu oorja aayog ke pratham adhyaksh niyukt hue.[2] 1953 mein jeneva mein anushthit vishv paramaanuvik vaigyaaniko ke mahaasammelan mein unhonne sabhaapatitv kiya. bhaarateeya parmaanu oorja kaaryakram ke janak[3] ka 24 January san 1966 ko ek vimaan durghatana mein nidhan ho gaya tha.[4]

anukram

shiksha

unhonne Mumbai se kaithadral aur John kenan school se padhaai ki. fir elfistan college Mumbai aur royaal Institute of science se BSC paas kiya. Mumbai se padhaai poori karne ke baad bhaabha varsh 1927 mein England ke kaias college, Cambridge engineering ki padhaai karne gaye. Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya mein rahakar san 1930 mein snaatak upaadhi arjit ki. san 1934 mein Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya se unhonne daaktaret ki upaadhi praapt ki. Germany mein unhonne kaasmik kirnon par adhyayan aur prayog kiye. haalaanki engineering padhne ka nirnaya unka naheen tha. yeh parivaar ki khvaahish thi ki ve ek honahaar engineer banein. homi ne sabki baaton ka dhyaan rakhate hue, engineering ki padhaai jaroor ki, lekin apne priya vishay fijiks se bhi khud ko jode rakha. nyookliyr fijiks ke prati unka lagaav junooni star tak tha. unhonne Cambridge se hi pita ko patra likh kar apne iraade bata diye the ki fijiks hi unka antim lakshya hai.

upalabdhiyaan

jeneva mein 'parmaanu oorja ke shaantipoorn upayog' par antararaashtreeya sangoshthi mein Dr bhaabha (20 August 1955)

desh aajaad hua to homi jahaangeer bhaabha ne duniya bhar mein kaam kar rahe bhaarateeya vaigyaaniko se appeal ki ki ve Bhaarat laut aaen. unki appeal ka asar hua aur kuchh vaigyaanik Bhaarat laute bhi. inheen mein ek the Manchester ki inpeeriyl kaimikl company mein kaam karne vaale homi nausheravaanji sethana. America ki Michigan university se post grejueshan karne vaale sethana mein bhaabha ko kaafi sambhaavnaaen dikhaai Dean. ye donon vaigyaanik Bhaarat ko parmaanu shakti sampann banaane ke apne kaaryakram mein jut gaye. yeh kaaryakram mool roop se Dr. bhaabha ki hi den tha, lekin yeh sethana hi the, jinki vajah se Dr. bhaabha ke nidhan ke baavajood na to yeh kaaryakram ruka aur na hi ismein koi baadha I.

unki isi lagan ka nateeja tha ki 1974 mein sethana ne tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ko bataaya ki unhonne shaantipoorn parmaanu visfot ki taiyaariyaan poori kar li hai. yeh bhi poochha ki kya ve is system ko shuroo kar sakte hain? iske saath hi unhonne yeh bhi bata diya ki ek baar system shuroo hone ke baad ise rokana sambhav naheen hoga, aise mein agar ve mana kar deingi to use naheen suna ja sakega kyonki tab visfot hokar hi rahega. indira Gandhi ki hari jhandi milte hi taiyaariyaan shuroo ho gayi. agale hi din, 18 May ko sethana ne code vard mein indira Gandhi ko sandesh bheja- buddh muskaraae. Bhaarat ka yeh parmaanu visfot itna gopaneeya tha ki America ke samvedansheel upagrah tak usaki thaah naheen pa sake the. is visfot se kuchh mahaashaktiyaan aur padosi desh jaroor baichen hue. lekin dau sethana ki soch bilkul spasht thi ki hamaara desh parmaanu shakti sanpannn ho. ve naheen chaahate the ki Bhaarat apne aage badhne ki raah samjhauton se banaae.

dau homi bhaabha ne dau sethana ko Bhaarat lautane ke baad bahut soch-samajh kar Kerala ke alavaae sthit Indian reyar arths limited ka pramukh banaaya tha, jahaan unhaane monojaait ret se durlabh naabhikeeya padaartho ke ansh nikaale. us dauraan ve Canada-Bhaarat reactor (Cyrus) ke praujekt manager bhi rahe. iske baad dau sethana ne 1959 mein traanbe sthit parmaanu oorja pratishthaan mein pramukh vaigyaanik adhikaari pad ka kaaryabhaar sambhaala. yeh pratishthaan aage chal kar bhaabha parmaanu anusandhaan kendra bana. vahaan unhaane naabhikeeya gred ka Uranium taiyaar karne ke liye thoriym sanyantr ka nirmaan karaaya. unke athak prayaas aur kushal netrutv se 1959 mein bhaabha parmaanu anusandhaan kendra mein Plutonium pruthak karne ke pratham sanyantr ka nirmaan sambhav ho saka. iske design aur nirmaan ka poora kaam bhaarateeya vaigyaaniko aur injeeniyron ne hi kiya. ullekhaneeya hai ki aage chal kar isi sanyantr mein pruthak kiye gaye Plutonium se vah parmaanu yukti taiyaar ki gayi jiske visfot se 18 May 1974 ko pokharan mein 'budgh muskaraae'. dau sethana ke maargadarshan mein hi 1967 mein jaadooguda (Jharkhand) se Uranium haasil karne ka sanyantr laga. dau sethana ne taaraapur ke parmaanu riaiktaron ke liye Uranium indhan ke vikalp ke roop mein mishr-oksaaid indhan ka bhi vikaas kiya. pokharan mein parmaanu visfot ke baad America ne Uranium ki aapoorti par rok laga di thi, haalaanki ye riaiktar America nirmit hi the. vah to bhala ho France ka ki usane aade samay par Uranium dekar hamaari madad kar di anyatha dau sethana to mishr-oksaaid se taaraapur ke parmaanu riaiktar ko chalaane ki taiyaari kar chuke the. dau sethana svaavalanban mein vishvaas rakhate the aur kisi bhi kaam ko poora karne ke liye kisi ke ehsaan ki jaroorat mahasoos naheen karte the. vaigyaanik kaam mein unhein raajanaitik dakhal katai pasand naheen thi.

ve parmaanu oorja ke shaantipoorn istemaal ke prabal himaayati the. ve parmaanu oorja ke shaantipoorn upayog par 1958 mein sanyukt raashtra dvaara jeneva mein aayojit antararaashtreeya sammelan ke up-sachiv rahe. ve sanyukt raashtra ki vaigyaanik salaahakaar samiti ke sadasya the aur 1966 se 1981 tak antararaashtreeya parmaanu oorja agency ki vaigyaanik salaahakaar samiti ke bhi sadasya rahe. dau sethana anek sansthaanon ke adhyaksh aur nideshak bhi rahe. ve 1966 mein bhaabha parmaanu anusandhaan kendra ke nideshak niyukt hue aur 1972 se 1983 tak parmaanu oorja aayog ke adhyaksh rahe. is pad par homi bhaabha ke baad ve hi sabse adhik samay tak rahe. is dauraan unhaane bhaarateeya parmaanu oorja kaaryakram ko nai gati pradaan ki. unhein padmashri, padmabhooshan aur padmavibhooshan jaise tamaam bade alankaranon se navaaja gaya. aaj agar Bhaarat ko ek parmaanu shakti ke roop mein duniya bhar mein maanyata mili hai, to ismein Dr. bhaabha ke baad sabse jyaada yogadaan Dr. sethana ka hi hai. Doctor bhaabha ke netrutv mein Bhaarat mein etaumik enarji commission ki sthaapana ki gayi. unke etaumik enarji ke vikaas ke liye samarpit prayaason ka hi parinaam tha ki Bhaarat ne varsh 1956 mein traanbe mein Asia ka pehle etomik reactor ki sthaapana ki gayi. keval yahi naheen, Doctor bhaabha varsh 1956 mein jeneva mein aayojit yooen kaufreins on etaumik enarji ke Chairman bhi chune gaye the.

teeka tippani

(k) vishv mein agrani bhoomika nibhaane ki aakaanksha rakhane wala koi bhi desh shuddh athva deerghakaaleen anusandhaan ki upeksha naheen kar sakta. --- homi bhaabha.
(kh) mera vivaah rachanaatmakata se ho chuka hai. --- homi bhaabha.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain