hom rool aandolan

akhil bhaarateeya hom rool league ka dhvaj

hom rool aandolan akhil bhaarateeya hom rool league, ek raashtreeya raajaneetik sangathan tha jiski sthaapana 1916 mein baal gangaadhar tilk dvaara Bhaarat mein svashaasan ke liye raashtreeya maang ka netrutv karne ke liye "hom rool" ke naam ke saath ki gayi thi. Bhaarat ko british raaj mein ek dominiyn ka darja praapt karne ke liye aisa kiya gaya tha. us samay british saamraajya ke bheetar Australia, Canada, dakshin Africa, New Zealand aur nyoofaaundalaind dominiyn ke roop mein sthaapit the.[1]

pratham vishvayuddh ki aarambh hone par bhaarateeya raashtreeya bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke naramapanthiyon ne Britain ki sahaayata karne ka nishchaya kiya. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke is nirnaya ke peechhe sanbhavat: ye kaaran tha ki yadi Bhaarat Britain ki sahaayata karega to yuddh ke pashchaat Britain Bhaarat ko svatantr kar dega. parantu sheegra hi bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ko ye anumaan ho gaya ki Britain aisa kadaapi naheen karega aur isliye bhaarateeya neta asantusht hokar koi doosra maarg khojane lage. yahi asantushtata hi hom rool aandolan ke janm ka kaaran bani. 1915 E. se 1916 E. ke madhya do hom rool leegon ki sthaapana hui. 'Pune hom rool league' ki sthaapana baal gangaadhar tilk ne aur 'Madras hom rool league' ki sthaapana eni beseint ne ki. hom rool league bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ki sahaayak sanstha ki bhaanti kaaryarat ho gayi. is aandolan ka uddeshya sv-raajya ki praapti tha parantu is aandolan mein shastron ke prayog ki anumati naheen thi.

hom rool aandolan ke dauraan baal gangaadhar tilk aur eni beseint ne 1917 mein ek dhvaj banaaya. is dhvaj par paanch laal aur chaar hari tirkshi pattiyaaain bani thi. saat taaron ko bhi is par ankit kiya gaya tha, kintu yeh dhvaj logon ke beech jyaada prasiddh naheen hua.[2]

1920 mein, akhil bhaarateeya hom rool league ne mahaatma Gandhi ko iske adhyaksh ke roop mein nirvaachit kiya | ek varsh mein ye sangathan ek sanyukt bhaarateeya raajaneetik morche ke liye bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress mein vilay ho gaya aur iska swayam ka astitv khatm ho gaya.

anukram

parichay

shreemati aini besent Ireland ki rahanevaali thi. ve Bhaarat mein thiyosofikl society ki sanchaalika thi. ve bhaarateeya sabhyata tatha sanskruti se bahut prabhaavit thi. isliye Ireland ko chhodkar vah Bhaarat mein bas gayi theen aur Bhaarat ko apni maatrubhoomi maanane lag gayi thi. is samay Ireland mein aayaris neta redamaand ke netrutv mein homarool league ki sthaapana hui thi jo vaidhaanik tatha shaantimya upaayon se Ireland ke liye homarool tatha svashaasan praapt karna chaahati thi. 1913 mein jab aini besent inglaind gain to Ireland ki homarool league ne unako sujhaav diya ki Bhaarat ko svatantra karaane ke liye homarool aandolan praarambh karein. shreemati aini besent Bhaarat ko usi tarah ka Swaraj dilaana chaahati thi, jaisa ki british saamraajya ke doosare upaniveshon mein tha arthaat Bhaarat ko adhiraajya sthiti (dominiyn staitas) dilaane ki ichhuk thi. isi uddeshya se Bhaarat lautane par Congress mein shaamil huin aur udaaravaadiyon tatha ugravaadiyon ko ekataabaddh kar homarool aandolan chalaaya.

homarool aandolan ke uddeshya

homarool aandolan ek vaidhaanik aandolan tha. is aandolan ke pramukh uddeshya nimnalikhit the-

  • (1) iska sarvapratham uddeshya Bhaarat ke liye svashaasan praapt karna tha. aini besent Bhaarat ko usi tarah ka svaraajya dilaana chaahati thi jaisa ki british saamraajya ke doosare upaniveshon mein tha. shreemati aini besent ne homarool aandolan ka aashay spasht karte hue apne saaptaahik patra 'kaaman veel' ke pratham ank mein likha tha ki, ''raajaneetik sudhaaron se hamaara abhipraaya gram panchaayaton se lekar jila bordon aur nagarapaalikaaon, praanteeya vidhaan sabhaaon, raashtreeya sansad ke roop mein svashaasan ki sthaapana karna hai. is raashtreeya sansad ke adhikaar svashaasit upaniveshon ki dhaara sabhaaon mein samaan hi honge. unhein naam chaahe jo bhi diya jaae aur jab british saamraajya ki sansad mein svashaasit raajyon ke pratinidhi liye jaaeain to Bhaarat ka pratinidhi bhi us sansad mein pahuainche.''
  • (2) is aandolan ka uddeshya na to angrejon ko Bhaarat se baahar nikaalna tha aur na hi unke yuddh ke prayatnon mein baadha daalna tha. iske vipreet unka kehna tha ki svashaasit Bhaarat angrejon ke liye yuddh se adhik sahaayak siddh hoga. bhaarateeya yuddh mein angrejon ko isliye sahaayata de rahe the kyonki unhein yeh ummeed thi ki yuddh ki samaapti ke baad angrej unhein svashaasan deinge. aini besent ka maanana tha ki yadi british sarkaar yuddh ke dauraan hi svashaasan dekar use santusht kar de to bhaarateeya adhik tanmayata tatha saadhan se angrejon ki yuddh mein sahaayata kareinge.
    aini besent ka vichaar tha ki ek paraadheen Bhaarat british saamraajya ke liye utana sahaayak naheen ho sakta jitna ki svatantra Bhaarat. is prakaar is aandolan ka uddeshya yuddh mein paroksh roop se Britain ko sahaayata dena tha.
  • (3) homarool ka ek uddeshya bhaarateeya raajaneeti ko ugradhaara ki or jaane se rokana tha. shreemati aini besent ne bhaarateeya raajaneetik pravrutti ka dhyaanapoorvak adhyayan kiya ve is nishkarsh par pahunchi thi ki yadi shaantipoorvak tatha vaidhaanik tareekon se aandolan naheen chalaaya gaya to bhaarateeya raajaneeti par kraantikaariyon tatha aatankvaadiyon ka aadhiptya ho jaaega. is uddeshya ki poorti hetu unhonne shaantipoorn tatha vaidhaanik aandolan ka praarambh shreyakar samjha. dau0 jakaariya ke anusaar, ''unki yojana ugr raashtreeya vyaktiyon ko kraantikaariyon ke saath ikattha hone se rokane ki thi. ve bhaarateeyon ko british saamraajya ke antargat svaraajya dilvaakar santusht rakhana chaahati thi.'' isi uddeshya ki poorti ke liye usane homarool aandolan chalaaya jisse ki bhaarateeya raajaneeti mein kraantikaariyon ke prabhaav ko roka ja sake.
  • (4) yuddh kaal mein bhaarateeya raajaneeti shithil pad gayi thi aur sakriya kaaryakram tatha prabhaavashaali netrutv ke abhaav mein raashtreeya aandolan ki pragati ka maarg avaruddh ho gaya tha. at: bhaarateeya janta ki sushuptaavastha se jaagna aavashyak tha. is uddeshya ki poorti hetu aini besent ne homarool aandolan praarambh kiya. shreemati aini besent ka kehna tha, ''main ek bhaarateeya Tom-Tom hoon jiska kaarya soe hue bhaarateeyon ko jagaana hai, taaki ve uthein aur apni maatrubhoomi ke liye kuchh kaarya karein. homarool aandolan udaaravaadi aandolan se bhinn tha. vah Bhaarat ke liye svashaasan ki yaachana naheen, apitu adhikaarapoorn maaaing ki abhivyakti tha arthaat svashaasan ki praapti bhaarateeyon ka janmasiddh adhikaar tha. tilk ne kaha tha ki, ''homarool mera janmasiddh adhikaar hai, main ise lekar hi rahooainga.'' shreemati aini besent ka kehna tha ki- homarool Bhaarat ka adhikaar hai aur raajabhakti ke puraskaar ke roop mein use praapt karne ki baat kehna moorkhataapoorn hai. Bhaarat raashtra ke roop mein apna nyaayik adhikaar british saamraajya se maaaingata hai. Bhaarat ise yuddh se poorv maaaingata tha, Bhaarat ise yuddh ke beech maaaing raha hai aur yuddh ke baad maaaingega. parantu yeh is nyaaya ko puraskaar ke roop mein naheen varan adhikaar ke roop mein maaaingata hai, is baare mein kisi ko koi galat dhaarana naheen honi chaahiye.

aandolan ki prushthabhoomi, praarambh evam pragati

baal gangaadhar tilk ki chh: maas ki lambi saja kaatne ke baad 16 June 1914 ko jail se chhoote. kaid ka adhikaansh samay maandale (barma) mein beeta tha. Bhaarat laute to unhein laga ki vah jis desh ko chhodkar gaye the, vah kaafi badal gaya hai. svadeshi aandolan ke kraantikaari neta aravind ghosh ne sanyaas le liya tatha paandicheri mein rahane lage the. laala laajapat rai America mein the. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress soorat ke vibhaajan, aandolanakaariyon par angrejon ke damanakaari prahaaron aur 1890 ke samvaidhaanik sudhaaron ke kaaran naramapanthi raashtravaadiyon ki niraasha ke sammilit sadme se abhi Uber naheen pai thi.

tilk ne socha ki sabse pehle to Congress hokar baaki garamapanthiyon ko bhi ismein shaamil karavaaya jaae. tilk ko yeh vishvaas ho chala tha ki bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress, bhaarateeya raashtreeya aandolan ka paryaaya ban chuki hai aur bina iski ijaajat ke koi bhi raashtreeya aandolan safal naheen ho sakta. naramapanthiyon ko samajhaane-bujhaane, unka vishvaas jeetne tatha bhavishya mein angreji hukoomat daman ka raasta na akhtiyaar kare, is uddeshya se usane ghoshana ki ''main saaf-saaf kehta hooain ki ham log Hindustan mein prashaasan vyavastha ka sudhaar chaahate hain jaisa ki Ireland mein vahaaain ke aandolanakaari maang kar rahe hain. angreji hukoomat ko ukhaad feinkane ka hamaara koi iraada naheen hai. is baat ko kehne mein mujhe koi hichk naheen ki Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon mein jo hinsaatmak ghatanaaeain hui hain, na keval meri vichaaradhaara ke vipreet hai, balki unke kaaran hamaare raajaneetik vikaas ki prakriya bhi dheemi hui hai.'' unhonne angreji hukoomat ke prati apni nishtha doharaai aur bhaarateeya janta se appeal ki ki vah sankat ki ghadi mein angreji hukoomat ka saath de.

naramapanthi kheme ke tamaam neta ab mahasoos karne lage the ki 1907 mein soorat mein jo kuchh unhonne kiya, vah galat tha. ye Congress ki akarmanyata se bhi kshubdh the. inhein tilk ki appeal bahut bhaayi. iske alaava in par aini besent ka lagaataar dabaav pad raha tha ki desh mein raashtravaadi raajaneetik aandolan ko fir se tej karo. aini besent abhi haal hi mein Congress mein shaamil hui thi. 1914 mein vah 66 varsh ki thi, unke raajaneetik jeevan ki shuruaat inglaind mein hui thi jahaaain unhonne svatantra chintan (free thaut) ugr sudhaaravaad (rediklijm) faibiynavaad aur brahmavidya (thiyosaufi) ke prachaar mein hissa liya. 1893 mein ve Bhaarat I, uddeshya tha thiyosaafeekal society ke liye kaam karna. unhonne Madras ke ek upanagar aadiyaar mein apna daftar khola aur 1907 mein thiyosaafi ka prachaar karne lagi. thode samay mein hi unhonne samarthakon ki ek badi sankhya kar li. jinmein jyaadaatar un samudaayon ke shikshit vyakti shaamil hue the, jinmein abhi tak saanskrutik punarjaagaran naheen hua tha. 1914 mein aini besent ne apni gatividhiyon ka daayara badhaane ka nirnaya kiya aur Ireland ki homarool league ki tarah Bhaarat mein bhi svashaasan ki maaaing ko lekar aandolan chalaane ki yojana banaai. unhein laga ki iske liye Congress ki anumati aur garamapanthi aandolanakaariyon ka sahayog lena jaroori hai. garamapanthiyon ka sahayog paane ke liye unhein Congress mein shaamil karna jaroori tha. aini besent Congress ke garamapanthi netaaon ko samajhne lagi ki ve tilk va uske garamapanthi sahayogiyon ko Congress mein shaamil hone ki ijaajat de de. lekin 1914 ke Congress adhiveshan ne usaki koshishon par paani fer diya. Ferozshah Mehta aur Mumbai ke unke naramapanthi samarthakon ne gokhale aur Bengal ke naramapanthiyon ko, garamapanthiyon ko baahar rakhane ke liye mana liya. iske baad tilk aur aini besent khud apne boote par raajaneetik aandolan chalaane ka faisala kiya aur saath-hi-saath ve Congress par dabaav bhi daalati rahi ki garamapanthiyon ko pun: apna sadasya bana le.

1915 ke shuroo mein aini besent ne do akhbaaron 'new India' aur 'kaaman veel' ke maadhyam se aandolan chhed diya. janasabhaaeain tatha sammelan aayojit kiye. unki maaaing thi ki jis tarah se gore upaniveshon mein vahaaain ki janta ko apni sarkaar banaane ka adhikaar diya gaya hai, bhaarateeya janta ko bhi svashaasan ka adhikaar mile. April 1915 ke baad aini besent ne aur bhi kada aur jujhaaroo rukh akhtiyaar kiya.

isi beech lokamaanya tilk ne apni raajaneetik gatividhiyaaain shuroo kar di. lekin ve kaafi satark the ki Congress ka naramapanthi khema naaraaj na ho ya Congress ko yeh na lage ki tilk ki gatividhiyaaain Congress ki neeti se mel naheen khaati. unki dili khvaahish Congress mein kisi tarah shaamil hone ki thi. tilk ne 1915 mein poona mein apne samarthakon ka ek sammelan bulaaya, jismein yeh faisala kiya ki graameen janta ko Congress ke uddeshyon aur usaki gatividhiyon se parichit karaane ke liye ek sansthaan ka gathan kiya jaae. is faisale ke baad usi varsh August aur sitmbar mein Maharashtra ke vibhinn nagaron mein jo sthaaneeya sangathan bane, ve raajaneetik gatividhiyon ko tej karne ke bajaay saari oorja Congress mein ekta sthaapit karne ke liye kharch karte rahe. ve baraabar jor dete rahe ki kisi bhi raashtreeya aandolan ke liye Congress mein ekta bahut jaroori hai. naramapanthi Congress ke kuchh roodhivaadiyon par dabaav daalne ke liye tilk ne kabhi-kabhi dhamaki ka bhi sahaara liya, par unhein vishvaas tha ki adhiktar naramapanthi netaaon ko vah samjha-bujhaakar mana leinge.

December 1915 mein Congress ka vaarshik adhiveshan hua aur tilk tatha aini besent ke prayaason ko safalta mili. garamapanthiyon ko Congress mein vaapas lene ka faisala kiya gaya. Ferozshah Mehta ke nidhan ke baad Mumbai ke naramapanthiyon ka virodh beasar saabit hua. gokhale ka nidhan ho chuka tha. garamapanthiyon ko Congress mein laane mein to aini besent safal rahi par homarool league ke gathan ke apne prastaav par Congress aur muslim league ki manjoori naheen le saki. lekin sthaaneeya star par Congress samitiyon ko punarjeevit karne ke liye prachaar kaaryon ke unke prastaavon ko Congress ne maan liya lekin unhein us samay ki Congress ka charitra aur usaki taakat ka pata tha. ve jaanti thi ki Congress ne in kaaryakramon ko manjoori to de di hai, lekin vah is par amal naheen karegi. isliye unhonne apne prastaav ke saath yeh shart bhi rakhi thi ki yadi sitmbar 1916 tak Congress in kaaryakramon par amal naheen karegi to vah khud apna sangathan bana legi.

tilk ko kaagreins mein vaapas aane ka adhikaar mil gaya tha aur unhonein kaagreins se kisi tarah ka vaada bhi naheen kiya tha, isliye unhonein April 1916 mein belagaav mein hue praanteeya sammelan mein 'homarool league' ke gathan ki ghoshana ki. eni besent ke samarthak bhi ab kasamasaane lage. ve sitmbar tak intajaar karne ko taiyaar naheen the. unhonne eni besent par dabaav daalkar homarool group ki sthaapana karne ki ijaajat le li. jamanaadaas dvaarakaadaas, shankaralaal bekar aur indulaal yaajnyaanik ne Mumbai mein ek akhbaar 'yang indiya' ka prachalan shuroo kiya aur angreji tatha kshetraaya bhaasha mein parache nikaalne ke liye desh ke kone-kone se chanda ikattha karne lage. eni besent ne sitmbar tak intajaar kiya. Congress poori tarah nishkriya thi. unhonein bhi homarool league ki sthaapana ki ghoshana kar di aur apne samarthak George arundel ko sangathan sachiv niyukt kiya. tilk aur eni besent ne apni-apni league ke liye kaaryakshetron ka baintavaara bhi kar diya, jisse kaheen koi gadbadi na ho. tilk ki league Karnataka, Maharashtra, madhyapraant aur baraar ki jimmevaari thi. desh ke baaki hisse eni besent ki league ke jimme thi. in donon ne apna vilay naheen kiya. kaaran tha eni besent ke kuchh samarthak tilk ko pasand naheen karte the tatha tilk ke kuchh samarthak eni besent ko, lekin un donon ke beech kisi prakaar ka jhagada naheen tha.

tilk ne Maharashtra ka daura kiya. homarool aandolan ka khoob prachaar kiya. janta ko samajhaaya ki iski jaroorat kyon hai, iske uddeshya kya hain. unheen ke shabdon mein, ''Bhaarat us bete ki tarah hai, jo javaan ho chuka hai. samay ka takaaja hai ki baap ya paalak is bete ko usaka vaajib hak de de. bhaarateeya janta ko ab hak lena hi hoga. unhein iska poora adhikaar hai.'' tilk ne kshetraaya bhaasha mein shiksha aur bhaashaai raajyon ki maaaing ko 'Swaraj' ki maaaing se jod diya. unhonein kaha ''maraathi, telagoo, kannad tatha anya bhaashaaon ke aadhaar par praanton ke gathan ki maaaing ka arth hi hai shiksha ka maadhyam kshetraaya bhaasha ho. kya angrej apne yahaaain logo ko fraanseesi ki shiksha dete hai. kya jarman apne logon ki angreji mein shiksha dete hai ya turk French mein shiksha dete hai.'' 1915 mein Mumbai ke praanteeya sammelan me tilk ne gokhale ke nidhan par shok prastaav rakha. bi.bi. aloor iska samarthan karne ke liye jaise hi khade hue tilk ne kaha ''kannad bhaasha ka adhikaar jataane ke liye kannad mein boliye.'' isse pata chalta hai ki tilk kshetraaya maraathi sankeernata naheen thi.

chhuaachhoot aur gair braahmanon ke maamalon me tilk jaativaadi naheen the. Maharashtra ke gair braahmanon ne ek-ek baar sarkaar ko alag se gyaapan bheja ki uchch vargon ki maaaingon se unka koi sambandh naheen hai. to kai logon ne iska virodh kiya. lekin tilk ne in virodh karanevaalo ko samajhaaya, aap log dhairya se kaam leejiye. yadi ham unhein yeh samjha sakein ki ham unke saath hain aur unki maaaing tatha hamaari maaaingon me koi fark naheen hai, to mujhe pakka vishvaas hai ki asamaanata mitaane ke liye chhida unka aandolan hamaare sangharsh se jud jaaega'' unhonne gair braahmanon ko samajhaaya ki jhagada braahmanon aur gair-braahmanon ka naheen hai bhed shikshit aur ashikshit ke beech hai. braahman aur gair-braahmanon ki tulana mein jyaada shikshit hai. isliye gair-braahmanon ki vakaalat karanevaali sarkaar bhi majaboor hokar sarkaari naukariyon mein braahmanon ko hi bharati karti hai. sarkaar braahmanon ke prati apne nirankush ravaiye ke baavajood, unhein prashaasan mein jagah de rahi hai kyonki vah maanati hai ki padhe likhe log hi prashaasan chala sakte hai. chhuaachhoot unmoolan ke liye aayojit ek sammelan mein tilk ne kaha tha, ''yadi Bhagwan bhi chhuaachhoot ko baradaasht karein, to main Bhagwan ko naheen maanooainga.''

tilk ke us samay diye gaye bhaashanon mein kaheen se bhi dhaarmik appeal naheen jhalakati. homarool ki maaaing poori tarah dharmanirpekshata par aadhaarit thi. tilk ka kehna tha ki angrejon se virodh ka kaaran yeh naheen hai ki vah kisi doosare dharm ke anuyaayi hai, unka virodh to ham isliye karte hai kyonki ve bhaarateeya janta ke hit mein koi kaam naheen kar rahe hain. tilk ke shabdon mein, ''angrej ho ya musalmaan yadi vah is desh ki janta ke hit ke liye kaam karta hai, to vah hamaare liye paraaya naheen hai. is paraaepan ka dharm ya vyavasaaya se koi rishta naheen hai. yeh seedhe-seedhe hiton se juda prashn hai.

tilk ne chh: maraathi tatha do angreji parache nikaal kar apne prachaar kaarya ko aur tej kar diya. in parcho ki 47 hajaar parchiyaaain bechi gain. baad me in parchon ko gujaraati aur kannad bhaasha me chhaapa gaya. league ki chh: shaakhaaeain banaai gayi. madhya Maharashtra Mumbai nagar, Karnataka aur madhyapraant mein ek-ek tatha baraar mein do.

homarool aandolan ne jaise-jaise jor pakadna shuroo kiya sarkaar ne damanaatmak kaaryavaahi tej kar di. is aandolan par vaar karne ke liye sarkaar ne ek vishesh din chuna. 23 July 1916 tilk ka 60 vau janmadin tha. ek bade sabha ka aayojan kiya gaya aur tilk ko ek lakh rupae ki thaili bheint ki gayi. sarkaar ne is avsar par unhein doosra inaam diya. unhein ek kaaran bataao notice diya gaya. jismein likha tha ki aapki gatividhiyon ke chalte aap par pratibndh kyon na laga diya jaae. unhein saath hajaar rupae ka muchalaka bharne ko kaha gaya. tilk ke liye shaayad sabse mahattvapoorn upahaar tha. unhonein kaha, ''ab homarool aandolan jungle mein aag ki tarah failega. sarkaari daman vidroh ki aag ko aur bhadkaaega.''

tilk ki or se muhammad Ali jinna ke netrutv mein vakeelon ki ek poori team ne mukaddama lada. magistrate ki adaalat mein to tilk mukaddama haar gaye par November mein unhein High Court ne nirdaash karaar diya. is jeet ki sabhi or saraahana hui. Gandhi ne 'yang-India' akhbaar me likha, ''yeh abhivyakti ki aajaadi ki bahut badi jeet hai. homarool aandolan ke liye ek bahut badi safalta hai.'' is avsar ka tilk ne faayda uthaaya aur apne saarvajanik bhaashanon mein kehne lage ki homarool ya svashaasan ki maaaing vyakt karne ke liye sarkaar ne anumati de di hai. tilk aur unke sahayogiyon ne prachaar kaarya tej kar diya aur April 1917 tak unhonein 14 hajaar sadasya bana liye.

eni besent ki league ne bhi sitmbar 1916 se kaam karna shuroo kar diya par unka sangathan bahut dheela tha. koi bhi teen vyakti milkar kaheen bhi shaakha khol sakte the jabki tilk ki league ka sangathan bahut majaboot tha, sabhi chh: shaakhaaon ke kaam tatha kaarya lena nirdhaarit the. eni besent ki league ki do sau shaakhaaeain theen. bahut shaakhaaeain kasbe aur nagaron mein theen, baaki gaaainvon mein, ek shaakha ke tahat kuchhek gaaainv aate the. haalaanki kaaryakaari parishd ka chunaav kiya jaata tha lekin saara kaam eni besent aur unke sahayogi arudel, si. di. raamaasvaami ayyar tatha bi.pi.vaadiya dekhte the. sadasyon ko nirdesh dene ka koi sangathit tareeka naheen tha. ya to vyaktigat roop se sadasyon ko nirdesh diye jaate the ya fir new indiya mein arudel ke lekhon ka padhkar log jaante the ki unhein kya karna hai. eni besent ki league tilk ki league ki tulana mein sadasya banaane mein peechhe rahe. March 1917 tak unki league ke sadasyon ki sankhya keval 7000 thi. Jawahar laal Nehru, bi.chakravarti tatha J. Bannerjee bhi isse shaamil ho gaye.

filhaal shaakhaaon ki ginti se league ki taakat ka anumaan lagaana kathin hai, kyonki inmein se kuchh to kaafi sakriya bhi aur kuchh nishkriya, kyonki ve jyaadaatar 'thiyosaufikl society' ki gatividhiyon tak seemit thi. bataur udaaharan, Madras nagar mein shaakhaaon ki sankhya sabse jyaada thi, lekin Mumbai, uttar pradesh ke nagaron aur Gujarat ke graameen ilaakon ki shaakhaaeain kaafi sakriya thi. haalaanki inki sankhya kaafi kam thi.

in saari gatividhiyon ka ek maatra lakshya homarool ki maaaing ke liye bade paimaane par aandolan chhedna tha. iske liye raajaneetik shiksha dena aur raajaneetik bahas chhedna bahut jaroori tha. arudel ne 'nyooindiya' ke maadhyam se apne samarthako ko raajaneetik bahas chhedne, raashtreeya raajaneeti ke baare mein jaankaari dene vaale pustakaalayon ki sthaapana, chhaatron ko raajaneetik shiksha dene ke liye kakshaaon ka aayojan, doston ke beech 'homarool' ke samarthan mein tark dene tatha unhonne aandolan mein bhaageedaari banaane ke liye kaarya karne ko kaha. kai shaakhaaon ne in par amal kiya. raajaneetik bahas chalaane par vishesharoop se dhyaan diya.

homarool ka prachaar kitna tej hua iska andaaj isi tathya se laga sakte hain ki sitmbar 1916 tak prachaar fand se chhaape jaanevaale teen lakh parche baaainte ja chuke the. yeh prachaar fand kuchh maheene pehle hi sthaapit kiya tha. in parachon me tatkaaleen sarkaar ka kachcha chittha hota tha aur Swaraj ke samarthan mein tark diye jaate the. eni besent ki league ki sthaapana ke baad in parcho ko fir chhaapa gaya. kai kshetraaya bhaashaaon mein bhi inka prakaashan hua. saath-saath janasabhaaon ka aayojan aur bhaashanon ka kram bhi jaari raha. jab bhi kisi mudde ko lekar deshavyaapi pratirodh ka aahvaan kiya jaata tha, league ki saari shaakhaaeain iska samarthan karti. November 1916 mein, jab eni besent par baraar va madhya praant mein jaane par pratibndh lagaaya gaya, to arudel ki appeal par league ki tamaam shaakhaaon ne virodh baithakein aayojit ki aur vaayasaraaya tatha gruh sachiv ko virodh prastaav bheje. isi tarah 1917 mein jab tilk par Punjab aur Delhi jaane par pratibndh lagaaya gaya to poore desh mein virodh baithakein huin. league ki tamaam shaakhaaon ne iska datakar virodh kiya. kaan gres ki akarmanyata se kshubdh anek naramapanthi kaan gresi bhi homarool aandolan mein shaamil ho gaye. gokhale ki 'sarvein t of indiya society' ko league ka sadasya banane ki ijaajat naheen thi, lekin unhaan ene janta ke beech bhaashan dekar aur parache baaain takar 'homarool aandolan' ka samarthan kiya. uttarapradesh me anek naramapanthi raashtravaadiyon ne Congress sammelan ki taiyaari ke silsile me homarool league ke kaaryakarttaaon ke saath gaaain vo, kasbon ka daura kiya. inki jyaadaatar baithak sthaaneeya adaalaton ke pustakaalayon mein hoti, jahaaain chhaatra, vyavasaayi tatha anya pesho se jude hue log ikattha hote. aur agar baithak kisi baajaar ke din hoti to ismein gaaain von se aae kisaan bhi shareek hote. in baithakon mein Hindustan ki gareebi aur behaali ka mudda uthaaya jaata. ateet ki samruththi ki yaad dilaai jaati aur you rop ke svatantraata aandolan par prakaash daala jaata, usase prerana lene ki appeal ki jaati. in baithakon mein hindi bhaasha ka istemaal kiya jaata tha. naramapanthiyon ka hom rool league ko samarthan dena koi acharaj ki baat nahi theen kyon ki league naramapanthiyon ke raajaneetik prachaar va shaiksh nik kaaryakramon ko hi amali jaama pahana rahi thi.

1916 mein Congress ka Lucknow adhiveshan homarool league ke sadasyon ke liye apni taakat dikhaane ka achha mauka tha. tilk ke samarthakon ne to ek parampara hi bana di jis par Congress bahut saal tak tiki rahi. unke samarthako ne Lucknow pahuainchane ke liye ek train aarakshit ki jise kuchh logon ne 'kaagreins special' ka naam diya, to kuchh ne 'homarool special' kaha. arudel ne league ke har sadasya se kaha tha ki vah Lucknow adhiveshan ka sadasya banane ki har sambhav koshish karein.

Congress league samjhauta

Lucknow Congress adhiveshan mein tilk ko pun: Congress mein shaamil kar liya gaya. adhyaksh anbikaacharan majoomadaar ne kaha-

''10 varshon ke sukhad alagaav tatha galatafahami ke kaaran bevajah ke vivaadon mein bhatakne ke baad bhaarateeya raashtreeya dal ke donon khemon ne ab yeh mahasoos kiya hai ki alagaav unki paraajaya hai aur ekta unki jeet. ab bhaai-bhaai fir mil gaye hain.''

isi adhiveshan mein mahattvapoorn 'kaan gres league' samjhauta hua, jo ''Lucknow paikt'' ke naam se jaana jaata hai. is samjhaute me eni besent aur tilk ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. madanamohan maalaveeya samet kai varisht neta iske bilkul khilaaf the. unka aarop tha ki yeh samjhauta muslim league ko bahut tavajjo deta hai. tilk ne is aarop par kaha, ''kuchh mahaanubhaavon ka yeh aarop hai ki hindu apne musalmaan bhaaiyon ko jyaada tavajjo de rahe hain. main kehta hooain ki yadi svashaasan ka adhikaar keval muslim samudaaya ko diya jaae to mujhe koi etaraaj naheen hoga, raajadooton ko yeh adhikaar mile to paravaah naheen, Hindustan ne kisi bhi samudaaya ko yeh adhikaar de diya jaae hamein koi aitaraaj nahi. mera yeh bayaan samoo chi bhaarateeya raashtreeya bhaavana ka pratinidhitv karta hai. jab bhi aap kisi teesari party se lad rahe hote hain, to sabse jaroori hoti hai, aapasi ekta, jaateeya ekta, dhaarmik ekta aur vibhinn raajaneetik vichaaradhaaraaon ki ekta.''

tilk ko bahut adhik roodhivaadi hindu maana jaata tha. vah bhaarateeya praachya vidya ke prakaand vidvaan the. jab unhonne is tarah ka bayaan diya, to kisi aur ka virodh karne ki himmat naheen hui. haalaaainki musalmaanon ke liye alag nirvaachan kshetron ke siththaant ko sveekaarana, vivaadaaspad tha. lekin yeh isliye sveekaar kiya gaya ki yahi alpasankhyakon ko yeh na lage ki bahusankhyak un par prabhutv sthaapit karna chaahate hain.

Lucknow adhiveshan mein samvaidhaanik sudhaaron ki maaaing fir uthaai. sadasyon ka maanana tha ki svaraajya ke lakshya ki praapti mein yeh maaaing sahaayak hogi. haalaanki is maaaing mein ve saari cheejein shaamil naheen thi, jaisa ki homarool league ke sadasya chaahate the, lekin unhonein is par koi vivaad khada naheen kiya. ve har haal mein Congress mein ekta banaae rakhana chaahate the. tilk ne ek aur prastaav rakha ki Congress adhiveshan ke nirnayon tatha kaaryakramon ko asaleeroop dene ke liye ek kaaryakaarini ka gathan kiya jaae. par naramapanthiyon ke virodh ke kaaran yeh prastaav manjoor na ho saka. vaastav mein tilk chaahate the ki Congress akarmanya na rahe, thoda aur kaam karein.

tilk ka prastaav to manjoor na ho paaya, par chaar saal baad jab 1920 mein mahaatma Gandhi ne kaanges samvidhaan ko sanshodhit kar use naya roop diya-ek aisa svaroop jo kisi aandolan ko lambe samay tak chalaane ke liye jaroori tha-to unhonein bhi tilk ke isi prastaav ko maanana jaroori samjha.

Congress adhiveshan ki samaapti ke turant baad usi pandaal mein donon homarool leegon ki baithak hui. jismein lagbhag ek hajaar pratinidhiyon ne bhaag liya. Congress league samjhaute ki saraahana ki gayi aur tilk tatha eni besent ne baithak ko sambodhit kiya. Lucknow se lautate samay in donon netaaon ne uttar, madhya aur poorvi Bhaarat ke anek kshetron ka daura kiya.

sarkaari daman

homarool aandolan ke badhte prabhaav ko dekhkar sarkaar ka chintit hona svaabhaavik tha. Madras sarkaar jara jyaada hi kathor ho gayi. usane chhaatron ke raajaneetik baithakon mein bhaag lene par pratibndh laga diya. poore pradesh mein iska virodh hua. tilk ne kaha, ''sarkaar ko maaloom hai ki desh prem ki bhaavana chhaatron ko jyaada uttejit karti hai. vaise bhi koi bhi desh yuva varg ki taakat se hi unnati kar sakta hai.

Madras sarkaar ne June 1917 mein eni besent, George arudel tatha vi.pi. vaadiya ko girfataar kar liya. iske khilaaf deshavyaapi pradarshan hue. sar subrahamanyam ayyar ne sarkaari upaadhi (naaitahud) asveekaar kar di. madanamohan maalaveeya, surendranaath Bannerjee aur muhammad Ali jinna jaise tamaam naramapanthi neta, jo ab tak league mein shaamil naheen the, ismein shaamil ho gaye aur unhone eni besent tatha anya netaaon ki giraftaari ke khilaaf aavaaj uthaai? 26 July 1917 ko kaagreins ko ek baithak mein tilk ne kaha ki yadi sarkaar in logon ko turant riha naheen karti hai, to shaantipoorn asahayog aandolan chalaaya jaae. is prastaav ko sabhi praanteeya Congress samitiyon ke paas manjoori ke liye bheja gaya. baraar va Madras ki Congress samitiyaaain to is par turant kaaryavaahi ke paksh mein theen, lekin baaki samitiyaaain koi nirnaya karne se pehle thoda intajaar karne ke paksh mein theen. Gandhiji ke kehne par shankaralaal baikar aur jamanaadaas dvaarakaaprasaad ne aiese ek hajaar logon ke dastakhat ikatthe kiye jo sarkaari aadeshon ki avhelna karke juloos ki shakl mein jaakar eni besent se milna chaahate the. in logon ne Swaraj ke samarthan mein kisaanon aur majadooron ke hastaakshar karaana shuroo kiya. Gujarat ke kasbon aur gaavon ka daura kiya aur vahaaain league ki shaakhaaeain sthaapit karne mein madad ki. homarool league ke sadasyon ki sankhya mein apratyaashit vruththi hui. is prakaar sarkaari daman ne aandolan ko aur badhaava diya, aandolanakaariyon ko aur jujhaaroo banaaya. maantegyoo ne apni daayari mein likha hai, ''Shiv ne apni patni ko 52 tukadon mein kaata, Bhaarat sarkaar ne jab eni besent ko giraftaar kiya, to uske saath theek aisa hi hua.''

in ghatnaaon ke baad inglaind ki sarkaar ne apni neetiyaaain badli. ab usaka rukh samajhautaavaadi ho gaya. naye gruh sachiv maantegyoo ne house of kaumans mein aitihaasik ghoshana ki, ''british shaasan ki neeti hai ki Bhaarat ke prashaasan mein bhaarateeya janta ko bhaageedaar banaaya jaae aur svashaasan ke liye vibhinn sansthaanon ka kramik vikaas kiya jaae jisse Bhaarat mein british saamraajya se judi koi uttaradaayi sarkaar sthaapit ki ja sake.'' yeh bayaan maarle ke bayaan se ekdam vipreet tha. 1909 mein samvaidhaanik sudhaaron ko paarliyaament mein rakhate samay maarle ne saaf-saaf kaha tha ki in sudhaaron ka uddeshya desh mein svaraajya ki sthaapana katai naheen hai. maantegyoo ki ghoshana ka sabse bada faayda yeh hua ki ab homarool ya Swaraj ki maaaing ko deshdrohi naheen kaha ja sakta tha. lekin iska arth yeh bhi naheen tha ki british hukoomat Swaraj ki maaaing maanane ja rahi thi. maantegyoo ki ghoshana mein yeh baat bhi thi ki svashaasan ki sthaapana tabhi hogi, jab usaka uchit samay aaega aur samay aaya hai ya naheen iska faisala hukoomat karegi. angreji hukoomat ke liye itni chhut kaafi thi. isse saaf jaahir tha ki vah bhaarateeyon ke haath nikat bhavishya me satta saunpane naheen ja rahi thi.

filhaal maantegyoo ki ghoshana ke chalte sitmbar 1917 mein eni besent ko riha kar diya gaya. is samay eni besent ki lokapriyta charam seema par thi. December 1917 mein Congress ke vaarshik adhiveshan mein tilk ke prastaav par unhein adhyaksh chun liya gaya.

lekin 1918 mein anek kaaranon se homarool kamjor pad gaya, 1917 mein bhaari safalta milne ke baavajood yeh aandolan mrutapraaya ho gaya. eni besent ki giraftaari se uttejit hokar naramapanthi is aandolan mein shaamil hue the, unki rihaai ke baad nishkriya ho gaye. sarkaar ne sudhaaron ka aashvaasan diya tha. in netaaon ko laga ki is aandolan ki jaroorat naheen hai. iske alaava kaanoon nishedh aandolan chalaane ki charcha se bhi ve naaraaj the. isliye unhein sitmbar 1918 ke baad se Congress ki baithakon mein hissa lena chhod diya. 1918 mein sudhaar yojanaaon ki ghoshana se raashtravyaapi kheme mein ek aur daraar pad gayi. kuchh log ise jyon-ka-tyon sveekaar karne ke paksh mein the to kuchh ise poori tarah naamanjoor karna chaahate the. kuchh logon ka maanana tha ki ismein kai kamiyaaain to hain par ismein aajmaana chaahiye. in sudhaaron aur shaantipriya asahayog aandolan ke mudde par khud eni besent duvidha mein thi. kabhi to vah ise galat kehti aur kabhi apne samarthakon ke dabaav ke kaaran theek kehti. shuroo mein tilk ke saath eni besent ne kaha ki in sudhaar yojanaaon ko bhaarateeya janta manjoor na kare, yeh usaka apamaan hai, par baad mein unhonne ise maan lene ki appeal ki. tilk kaafi samay tak apne nirnaya par adig rahe. lekin eni besent ki dhulamul neetiyon aur naramapanthiyon ke rukh mein badlaav ke kaaran vah akele apne boote par sudhaaron ka virodh karte hue aandolan ki gaadi ko aage kheenchne mein asamarth ho gaye aur saal ke ant mein inglaind chale gaye. vahaaain unhonne indiyn anarest ke lekhak chiraav par maanahaani ka mukadama daayar kar rakha tha. is mukadame ki pairavi ke chakkar mein vah kai maheenon tak inglaind mein rahe. eni besent ek sashakt netrutv dene me asamarth thi aur tilk videsh mein the. nateejan homarool aandolan netrutv viheen ho gaya.

homarool ki sabse badi upalabdhi yeh rahi ki isne bhaavi raashtreeya aandolan ke liye jujhaaroo yoddha taiyaar kiye. mahaatma Gandhi ke netrutv mein ye jujhaaroo aandolanakaari aajaadi ki mashaal lekar aage badhe. homarool aandolan ne, uttarapradesh, Gujarat, sindh, Madras, madhyapraant tatha baraar jaise anek nae kshetron ko raashtreeya aandolan mein shaamil kiya. is prakaar homarool aandolan vyarth naheen gaya. usaka bhaarateeya svatantraata sangraam par gahra prabhaav pada. is aandolan ne sote hue bhaarateeyon ko jagaaya aur unamein poorn jaagruti ka sanchaar kiya. isne raashtreeya aandolan ko nai gati pradaan ki aur sarkaar ko nai sudhaar yojana laagoo karne ke liye vivsh kiya.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh