holi

holi
होली
holi ke avsar par gulaal se rangeen chehara.
aadhikaarik naam holi
anya naam faguaa, dhuleindi, dol
anuyaayi hindu, bhaarateeya, bhaarateeya pravaasi, nepaali, nepaali pravaasi
prakaar dhaarmik, saamaajik
uddeshya dhaarmik nishtha, utsav, manoranjan
aarambh atyant praacheen
tithi faalgun poornima
anushthaan holika dahan va rang khelna
utsav rang khelna, gaana-bajaana, huddang
samaan parv hola mohalla, yaaosaang ityaadi

holi vasant ritu mein manaaya jaane wala ek mahatvapoorn bhaarateeya aur nepaali logon ka tyohaar hai. yeh parv hindu panchaang ke anusaar faalgun maas ki poornima ko manaaya jaata hai. rangon ka tyohaar kaha jaane wala yeh parv paaramparik roop se do din manaaya jaata hai. yeh pramukhata se Bhaarat tatha Nepal mein manaaya jaata hain ! yeh tyauhaar kai anya deshon jinmein alpasankhyak hindu log rahate hain vahaan bhi dhoom dhaam ke saath manaaya jaata hain![1] pehle din ko holika jalaayi jaati hai, jise holika dahan bhi kehte hai. doosare din, jise dhuraddi, dhuleindi, dhurakhel ya dhoolivandan kaha jaata hai, log ek doosare par rang, abeer-gulaal ityaadi feinkate hain, dhol baja kar holi ke geet gaaye jaate hain aur ghar-ghar ja kar logon ko rang lagaaya jaata hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki holi ke din log puraani katuta ko bhool kar gale milte hain aur fir se dost ban jaate hain. ek doosare ko rangane aur gaane-bajaane ka daur dopahar tak chalta hai. iske baad snaan kar ke vishraam karne ke baad nae kapde pahan kar shaam ko log ek doosare ke ghar milne jaate hain, gale milte hain aur mithaaiyaaain khilaate hain.[2]

raag-rang ka yeh lokapriya parv vasant ka sandeshavaahak bhi hai.[3] raag arthaat sangeet aur rang to iske pramukh ang hain hi, par inko utkarsh tak pahuainchaane waali prakruti bhi is samay rang-birange yauvan ke saath apni charam avastha par hoti hai. faalgun maah mein manaae jaane ke kaaran ise faalguni bhi kehte hain. holi ka tyohaar vasant panchami se hi aarambh ho jaata hai. usi din pehli baar gulaal udaaya jaata hai. is din se faag aur dhamaar ka gaana praarambh ho jaata hai. kheton mein sarason khil uthati hai. baag-bageechon mein foolon ki aakarshak chhata chha jaati hai. ped-paudhe, pashu-pakshi aur manushya sab ullaas se paripoorn ho jaate hain. kheton mein gehooain ki baaliyaaain ithalaane lagti hain. kisaanon ka hradaya khushi se naach uthata hai. bachche-boodhe sabhi vyakti sab kuchh sankoch aur roodhiyaaain bhoolakar dholak-jhaaainjh-manjeeron ki dhun ke saath nrutya-sangeet va rangon mein doob jaate hain. chaaron taraf rangon ki fuhaar foot padti hai.[4] holi ke din aamr manjari tatha chandan ko milaakar khaane ka bada maahaatmya hai.[5]

anukram

itihaas

holi Bhaarat ka atyant praacheen parv hai jo holi, holika ya holaaka[6] naam se manaaya jaata tha. vasant ki ritu mein harshollaas ke saath manaae jaane ke kaaran ise vasantotsav aur kaam-mahotsav bhi kaha gaya hai.

raadha-shyaam gop aur gopiyo ki holi

itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki aaryon mein bhi is parv ka prachalan tha lekin adhiktar yeh poorvi Bhaarat mein hi manaaya jaata tha. is parv ka varnan anek puraatan dhaarmik pustakon mein milta hai. inmein pramukh hain, jaimini ke poorv meemaansa-sootr aur katha gaarhya-sootr. naarad puraan auऱ bhavishya puraan jaise puraanon ki praacheen hastalipiyon aur granthon mein bhi is parv ka ullekh milta hai. vindhya kshetr ke raamagadh sthaan par sthit isa se 300 varsh puraane ek abhilekh mein bhi iska ullekh kiya gaya hai. sanskrut saahitya mein vasant ritu aur vasantotsav anek kaviyon ke priya vishay rahe hain.

suprasiddh muslim paryatak alabarooni ne bhi apne aitihaasik yaatra sansmaran mein holikotsav ka varnan kiya hai. Bhaarat ke anek muslim kaviyon ne apni rachanaaon mein is baat ka ullekh kiya hai ki holikotsav keval hindu hi naheen musalmaan bhi manaate hain. sabse praamaanik itihaas ki tasveerein hain mugal kaal ki aur is kaal mein holi ke kisse utsukata jagaane vaale hain. Akbar ka jodhaabaai ke saath tatha jahaaaingeer ka noorajahaaain ke saath holi khelne ka varnan milta hai. alavar sangrahaalaya ke ek chitr mein jahaaaingeer ko holi khelte hue dikhaaya gaya hai.[7] shaahajahaaain ke samay tak holi khelne ka mugliya andaaj hi badal gaya tha. itihaas mein varnan hai ki shaahajahaaain ke jmaane mein holi ko Eid-A-gulaabi ya aab-A-paashi (rangon ki bauchhaar) kaha jaata tha.[8] antim mugal baadshah bahaadur shaah jfr ke baare mein prasiddh hai ki holi par unke mantri unhein rang lagaane jaaya karte the.[9] madhyayugeen hindi saahitya mein darshit Krishna ki leelaaon mein bhi holi ka vistrut varnan milta hai.

iske atirikt praacheen chitron, bhittichitron aur mandiron ki deevaaron par is utsav ke chitr milte hain. vijyanagar ki rajdhani hanpi ke 16vi shataabdi ke ek chitrafalak par holi ka aanandadaayak chitr ukera gaya hai. is chitr mein raajakumaaron aur raajakumaariyon ko daasiyon sahit rang aur pichkaari ke saath raaj dampatti ko holi ke rang mein rangate hue dikhaaya gaya hai. 16vi shataabdi ki ahamadanagar ki ek chitr aakruti ka vishay vasant raagini hi hai. is chitr mein raajaparivaar ke ek danpatti ko bageeche mein jhoola jhoolate hue dikhaaya gaya hai. saath mein anek sevikaaeain nrutya-geet va rang khelne mein vyast hain. ve ek doosare par pichkaariyon se rang daal rahe hain. madhyakaaleen bhaarateeya mandiron ke bhittichitron aur aakrutiyon mein holi ke sajeev chitr dekhe ja sakte hain. udaaharan ke liye ismein 17vi shataabdi ki mevaad ki ek kalaakruti mein mahaaraana ko apne darabaariyon ke saath chitrit kiya gaya hai. shaasak kuchh logon ko upahaar de rahe hain, nrutyaangana nrutya kar rahi hain aur is sabke madhya rang ka ek kund rakha hua hai. boondi se praapt ek laghuchitr mein raaja ko haatheedaaaint ke sinhaasan par baitha dikhaaya gaya hai jiske gaalon par mahilaaeain gulaal mal rahi hain.[10]

kahaaniyaaain

Bhagwan nrusinh dvaara hirnyakashipu ka vadh

holi ke parv se anek kahaaniyaaain judi hui hain. inmein se sabse prasiddh kahaani hai prahlaad ki. maana jaata hai ki praacheen kaal mein hirnyakashipu naam ka ek atyant balashaali asur tha. apne bal ke darp mein vah swayam ko hi ishvar maanane laga tha. usane apne raajya mein ishvar ka naam lene par hi paabandi laga di thi. hirnyakashipu ka putr prahlaad ishvar bhakt tha. prahlaad ki ishvar bhakti se kruddh hokar hirnyakashipu ne use anek kathor dand diye, parantu usane ishvar ki bhakti ka maarg na chhoda. hirnyakashipu ki bahan holika ko varadaan praapt tha ki vah aag mein bhasm naheen ho sakti. hirnyakashipu ne aadesh diya ki holika prahlaad ko god mein lekar aag mein baithe. aag mein baithane par holika to jal gayi, par prahlaad bach gaya. ishvar bhakt prahlaad ki yaad mein is din holi jalaai jaati hai.[11] prateek roop se yeh bhi maana jata hai ki prahlaad ka arth aanand hota hai. vair aur utpeedn ki prateek holika (jalaane ki lakdi) jalati hai aur prem tatha ullaas ka prateek prahlaad (aanand) akshunn rahata hai.[12]

prahlaad ki katha ke atirikt yeh parv raakshasi dhundhi, raadha Krishna ke raas aur kaamadev ke punarjanm se bhi juda hua hai.[13] kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki holi mein rang lagaakar, naach-gaakar log Shiv ke ganon ka vesh dhaaran karte hain tatha Shiv ki baaraat ka drushya banaate hain. kuchh logon ka yeh bhi maanana hai ki Bhagwan shreekrushn ne is din pootana naamak raakshasi ka vadh kiya tha. isi khushi mein gopiyon aur gvaalon ne raasaleela ki aur rang khela tha.[14]

paranparaaeain

holi ke parv ki tarah iski paranparaaeain bhi atyant praacheen hain aur iska svaroop aur uddeshya samay ke saath badalta raha hai. praacheen kaal mein yeh vivaahit mahilaaon dvaara parivaar ki sukh samruddhi ke liye manaaya jaata tha aur poorn chandra ki pooja karne ki parampara thi. vaidik kaal mein is parv ko navaatraishti yagya kaha jaata tha. us samay khet ke adhapake ann ko yagya mein daan karke prasaad lene ka vidhaan samaaj mein vyaapt tha. ann ko hola kehte hain, isi se iska naam holikotsav pada. bhaarateeya jyotish ke anusaar chaitr shudi pratipda ke din se navavarsh ka bhi aarambh maana jaata hai. is utsav ke baad hi chaitr maheene ka aarambh hota hai. at: yeh parv navasanvat ka aarambh tatha vasantaagaman ka prateek bhi hai. isi din pratham purush manu ka janm hua tha, is kaaran ise manvaaditithi kehte hain.[15]

holika dahan

holi ka pehla kaam jhanda ya danda gaadna hota hai. ise kisi saarvajanik sthal ya ghar ke aahaate mein gaada jaata hai. iske paas hi holika ki agni ikatthi ki jaati hai. holi se kaafi din pehle se hi yeh sab taiyaariyaaain shuroo ho jaati hain. parv ka pehla din holika dahan ka din kahalaata hai. is din chauraahon par va jahaaain kaheen agni ke liye lakdi ekatr ki gayi hoti hai, vahaaain holi jalaai jaati hai. ismein lakadiyaaain aur upale pramukh roop se hote hain. kai sthalon par holika mein bharabholiye[16] jalaane ki bhi parampara hai. bharabholiye gaaya ke gobar se bane aise upale hote hain jinke beech mein chhed hota hai. is chhed mein mooainj ki rassi daal kar maala banaai jaati hai. ek maala mein saat bharabholiye hote hain. holi mein aag lagaane se pehle is maala ko bhaaiyon ke sir ke oopar se saat baar ghooma kar feink diya jaata hai. raat ko holika dahan ke samay yeh maala holika ke saath jala di jaati hai. iska yeh aashay hai ki holi ke saath bhaaiyon par lagi buri nazar bhi jal jaae.[16] lakadiyon va upalon se bani is holi ka dopahar se hi vidhivt poojan aarambh ho jaata hai. gharon mein bane pakavaanon ka yahaaain bhog lagaaya jaata hai. din dhalane par jyotishiyon dvaara nikaale muhoort par holi ka dahan kiya jaata hai. is aag mein nai fasal ki gehooain ki baaliyon aur chane ke hole ko bhi bhoona jaata hai. holika ka dahan samaaj ki samast buraaiyon ke ant ka prateek hai. yeh buraaiyon par achhaaiyon ki vijay ka soochak hai. gaaainvon mein log der raat tak holi ke geet gaate hain tatha naachate hain.

saarvajanik holi milan

holi se agala din dhoolivandan kahalaata hai. is din log rangon se khelte hain. subah hote hi sab apne mitron aur rishtedaaron se milne nikal padte hain. gulaal aur rangon se sabka svaagat kiya jaata hai. log apni irshya-dvesh ki bhaavana bhulaakar premapoorvak gale milte hain tatha ek-doosare ko rang lagaate hain. is din jagah-jagah toliyaaain rang-birange kapde pahane naachati-gaati dikhaai padti hain. bachche pichkaariyon se rang chhodkar apna manoranjan karte hain. saara samaaj holi ke rang mein rangakar ek-sa ban jaata hai. rang khelne ke baad der dopahar tak log nahaate hain aur shaam ko nae vastr pahanakar sabse milne jaate hain. preeti bhoj tatha gaane-bajaane ke kaaryakramon ka aayojan karte hain.

holi ke din gharon mein kheer, poori aur poode aadi vibhinn vyanjan pakaae jaate hain. is avsar par anek mithaaiyaaain banaai jaati hain jinmein gujhiyon ka sthaan atyant mahattvapoorn hai. besan ke sev aur daheebade bhi saamaanya roop se uttar pradesh mein rahane vaale har parivaar mein banaae va khilaae jaate hain. kaanji, bhaang aur thandaai is parv ke vishesh peya hote hain. par ye kuchh hi logon ko bhaate hain. is avsar par uttari Bhaarat ke praay: sabhi raajyon ke sarkaari kaaryaalayon mein avakaash rahata hai, par dakshin Bhaarat mein utana lokapriya na hone ki vajh se is din sarkaari sansthaanon mein avakaash naheen rahata.

vishisht utsav

Bhaarat mein holi ka utsav alag-alag pradeshon mein bhinnata ke saath manaaya jaata hai. braj ki holi aaj bhi saare desh ke aakarshan ka bindu hoti hai. barasaane ki lathamaar holi[17] kaafi prasiddh hai. ismein purush mahilaaon par rang daalte hain aur mahilaaeain unhein laathiyon tatha kapde ke banaae gaye kodon se maarati hain. isi prakaar Mathura aur vrundaavan mein bhi 15 dinon tak holi ka parv manaaya jaata hai. kumaaooain ki geet baithaki[18] mein shaastreeya sangeet ki goshthiyaaain hoti hain. yeh sab holi ke kai dinon pehle shuroo ho jaata hai. Haryana ki dhulandi mein bhaabhi dvaara devar ko sataae jaane ki pratha hai. Bengal ki dol jaatra[19] chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke janmadin ke roop mein manaai jaati hai. jaloos nikalte hain aur gaana bajaana bhi saath rahata hai. iske atirikt Maharashtra ki rang panchami[20] mein sookha gulaal khelne, Goa ke shimgo[21] mein jaloos nikaalne ke baad saanskrutik kaaryakramon ka aayojan tatha Punjab ke hola mohalla[22] mein sikkhon dvaara shakti pradarshan ki parampara hai. Tamil Nadu ki kaman podigi[23] mukhya roop se kaamadev ki katha par aadhaarit vasantotasav hai jabki manipur ke yaaosaang[24] mein yongasaang us nanheen jhonpadi ka naam hai jo poornima ke din pratyek nagar-gram mein nadi athva sarovar ke tat par banaai jaati hai. dakshin Gujarat ke aadivaasiyon ke liye holi sabse bada parv hai, Chhattisgarh ki hori mein lok geeton ki adbhut parampara hai aur Madhya Pradesh ke maalava anchal ke aadivaasi ilaakon mein behad dhoomadhaam se manaaya jaata hai bhagoriya[25], jo holi ka hi ek roop hai. Bihar ka faguaa[26] jam kar mauj masti karne ka parv hai aur Nepal ki holi[27] mein is par dhaarmik va saanskrutik rang dikhaai deta hai. isi prakaar vibhinn deshon mein base pravaasiyon tatha dhaarmik sansthaaon jaise iskaun ya vrundaavan ke baanke bihaari mandir mein alag alag prakaar se holi ke shrungaar va utsav manaane ki parampara hai jismein anek samaanataaeain aur bhinnataaeain hain.

saahitya mein holi

praacheen kaal ke sanskrut saahitya mein holi ke anek roopon ka vistrut varnan hai. shreemadbhaagavat mahaapuraan mein rason ke samooh raas ka varnan hai. anya rachanaaon mein 'rang' naamak utsav ka varnan hai jinmein harsh ki priydarshika va ratnaavali[k] tatha kaalidaas ki kumaarasanbhavam tatha maalavikaagnimitram shaamil hain. kaalidaas rachit ritusanhaar mein poora ek sarg hi 'vasantotsav' ko arpit hai. bhaaravi, maagh aur anya kai sanskrut kaviyon ne vasant ki khoob charcha ki hai. chand baradaai dvaara rachit hindi ke pehle mahaakaavya pruthveeraaj raaso mein holi ka varnan hai. bhaktikaal aur reetikaal ke hindi saahitya mein holi aur faalgun maah ka vishisht mahatva raha hai. aadikaaleen kavi vidyaapati se lekar bhaktikaaleen sooradaas, raheem, rasakhaan, padmaakar[kh], jaayasi, meeraabaai, kabeer aur reetikaaleen bihaari, keshav, ghanaanand aadi anek kaviyon ko yeh vishay priya raha hai. mahaakavi sooradaas ne vasant evam holi par 78 pad likhe hain. padmaakar ne bhi holi vishyak prachur rachanaaeain ki hain.[28] is vishay ke maadhyam se kaviyon ne jahaaain ek or nitaant laukik naayak naayika ke beech kheli gayi anuraag aur preeti ki holi ka varnan kiya hai, vaheen raadha Krishna ke beech kheli gayi prem aur chhedchhaad se bhari holi ke maadhyam se sagun saakaar bhaktimya prem aur nirgun niraakaar bhaktimya prem ka nishpaadan kar daala hai.[29] soofi sant hajrat nijaamuddeen auliya, ameer khusaro aur bahaadur shaah jfr jaise muslim sanpradaaya ka paalan karne vaale kaviyon ne bhi holi par sundar rachanaaeain likhi hain jo aaj bhi jan saamaanya mein lokapriya hain.[8] aadhunik hindi kahaaniyon premachand ki raaja haradol, prabhu Joshi ki alag alag teeliyaaain, tejeindr sharma ki ek baar fir holi, om prakaash avasthi ki holi mangalamaya ho tatha svadesh raana ki ho li mein holi ke alag alag roop dekhne ko milte hain. bhaarateeya filmon mein bhi holi ke drushyon aur geeton ko sundarata ke saath chitrit kiya gaya hai. is drushti se shashi Kapoor ki utsav, yash Chopra ki silsila, vi shaantaaraam ki jhanak jhanak paayal baaje aur navarang ityaadi ullekhaneeya hain.[30]

sangeet mein holi

vasant raagini- kota shaili mein raagamaala shrunkhala ka ek laghuchitr

bhaarateeya shaastreeya, upashaastreeya, lok tatha filmi sangeet ki paramparaaon mein holi ka vishesh mahatva hai. shaastreeya sangeet mein dhamaar ka holi se gahra sambandh hai, haaainlaaainki dhrupad, dhamaar, chhote va bade khyaal aur thumari mein bhi holi ke geeton ka saundarya dekhte hi banta hai. kathak nrutya ke saath holi, dhamaar aur thumari par prastut ki jaane waali anek sundar bandishein jaise chalo guniyaan aaj khelein hori kanhaiya ghar aaj bhi atyant lokapriya hain. dhrupad mein gaaye jaane waali ek lokapriya bandish hai khelat hari sang sakal, rang bhari hori sakhi. bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet mein kuchh raag aise hain jinmein holi ke geet vishesh roop se gaae jaate hain. basant, bahaar, hindol aur kaafi aise hi raag hain. holi par gaane bajaane ka apne aap vaataavaran ban jaata hai aur jan jan par iska rang chhaane lagta hai. upashaastreeya sangeet mein chaiti, daadara aur thumari mein anek prasiddh holiyaaain hain. holi ke avsar par sangeet ki lokapriyta ka andaaj isi baat se lagaaya ja sakta hai ki sangeet ki ek vishesh shaili ka naam hi holi hain, jismein alag alag praanton mein holi ke vibhinn varnan sunane ko milte hai jismein us sthaan ka itihaas aur dhaarmik mahatva chhupa hota hai. jahaan brajadhaam mein raadha aur Krishna ke holi khelne ke varnan milte hain vaheen avadh mein Ram aur seeta ke jaise holi khelein raghuveera avadh mein. Rajasthan ke Ajmer shahar mein khwaaja moinuddeen chishti ki dargaah par gaai jaane waali holi ka vishesh rang hai. unki ek prasiddh holi hai aaj rang hai ri man rang hai, apne mahaboob ke ghar rang hai ri.[31] isi prakaar shankar ji se sambandhit ek holi mein diganbar khele masaane mein holi kah kar Shiv dvaara shmashaan mein holi khelne ka varnan milta hain. bhaarateeya filmon mein bhi alag alag raagon par aadhaarit holi ke geet prastut kiye gaye hain jo kaafi lokapriya hue hain. 'silsila' ke geet rang barase bheege chunar waali, rang barase aur 'navarang' ke aaya holi ka tyohaar, ude rangon ki bauchhaar, ko aaj bhi log bhool naheen paae hain.

aadhunikta ka rang

holi rangon ka tyohaar hai, hainsi-khushi ka tyohaar hai, lekin holi ke bhi anek roop dekhne ko milte hai. praakrutik rangon ke sthaan par raasaayanik rangon ka prachalan, bhaang-thandaai ki jagah nashebaaji aur lok sangeet ki jagah filmi gaanon ka prachalan iske kuchh aadhunik roop hain.[32] lekin isse holi par gaae-bajaae jaane vaale dhol, manjeeron, faag, dhamaar, chaiti aur thumari ki shaan mein kami naheen aati. anek log aise hain jo paaramparik sangeet ki samajh rakhate hain aur paryaavaran ke prati sachet hain. is prakaar ke log aur sansthaaeain chandan, gulaabajal, tesoo ke foolon se bana hua rang tatha praakrutik rangon se holi khelne ki parampara ko banaae hue hain, saath hi iske vikaas mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan bhi de rahe hain.[33] raasaayanik rangon ke kuprabhaavon ki jaankaari hone ke baad bahut se log swayam hi praakrutik rangon ki or laut rahe hain.[34] holi ki lokapriyta ka viksit hota hua antarraashtreeya roop bhi aakaar lene laga hai. baajaar mein iski upayogita ka andaaj is saal holi ke avsar par ek antarraashtreeya pratishthaan kenjoaamoor dvaara jaari kiye gaye nae itr holi hai se lagaaya ja sakta hai.[35]

teeka tippani

k.

^

keernau:pishtaatakaudhai: krutadivsamukhai: kunkumasinaat gaure:
hemaalankaarabhaabhirbharanamitshikhai: shekharai: kaikiraatai:.
esha veshaabhilkshyasvabhavanavijitaasheshavitteshakosha
kaushaambi shaatakumbhadravakhajitjanevaikapeeta vibhaati. -'ratnaavali', 1.11

kh. ^

faag ke bheer abheeran mein gahi govindai lai gayi bheetar gori.
bhaai curry man ki 'padmaakar' oopar naai abeer ki jhori.
chheen pitaambar kammar te su bida dai meed kapaalan rori.
nain nachaai, kahi musakaai lala firi aiyo khelan hori.

sandarbh

  1. : holi
  2. "Holi Celebrations" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). the colors of India. http://www.thecolorsofindia.com/holi-celebrations.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  3. "rituon ka raaja vasant" (echateeem). web duniya. http://hindi.webdunia.com/religion/occasion/others/0802/09/1080209019_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  4. "HINDU HOLI FESTIVAL" (angreji mein). festivls aailaviindiya.com. http://festivals.iloveindia.com/holi/. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  5. http://www.riiti.com/1490/holi_holika_dahan_process_vidhi
  6. aapte, vaaman shivraam (1969). sanskrut hindi kosh. Delhi, Patna, Varanasi Bhaarat: Motilal banaaraseedaas. pa॰ 1181.
  7. "Alwar Museum: A fossilised collection that comes alive" (angreji mein) (echateeem). the tribyoon. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020120/ncr1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  8. a aa "Who says Holi is only a Hindu festival?" (angreji mein) (seeemaes). times of India. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. http://web.archive.org/20110316055718/timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1448831,prtpage-1.cms?. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  9. "Krishna-raadha se lekar Akbar-jodhaabaai tak" (esaechateeemael). BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/regionalnews/story/2004/03/040306_holi_history.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
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  16. a aa "bharabholiyon ka hai holi par vishesh mahatva" (echateeemael). khabar express. http://www.khabarexpress.com/3/1/2007/-news_928.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
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  19. "Bengal ki holi". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/regionalnews/story/2004/03/040305_holi_bengal.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2008.
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  25. "fir bikhre bhagoriya ke rang" (echateeem). web duniya. http://hindi.webdunia.com/religion/occasion/holi/0803/20/1080320041_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
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  33. "The Safe Holi campaign" (angreji mein). kalpavruksh. http://www.kalpavriksh.org/f1/f1.4/GAholi1. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  34. "kenjoaamoor Indian holi" (echateeemael). kenjoaamoor. http://www.kenzoamour-indianholi.com/EN/kenzo-amour-indian-holi.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  35. "Play safe this Holi" (aaingraji mein) (echateeem). the hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/03/13/stories/2006031301530100.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.

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