holakar

holakar raajavansh malhaar Rao se praarambh hua jo 1721 mein peshava ki seva mein shaamil hue aur jaldi hi soobedaar bane. holkar vansh ke log 'holagaaainv' ke nivaasi hone se 'holkar' kahalaae. unhone aur unke vanshajon ne maraatha raaja aur baad mein 1818 tak maraatha mahaasangh ke ek svatantr sadasya ke roop mein madhya Bhaarat mein Indore par shaasan kiya aur baad mein Bhaarat ki svatantrata tak breetish Bhaarat ki ek riyaasat rahe.

holakar vansh un pratishthit raajavanshon me se ek tha jinka naam shaasak ke sheershak se juda, jo aam taur par mahaaraaja holkar ya 'holakar mahaaraaja' ke roop mein jaana jaata tha, jabki poora sheershak 'mahaaraajaadhiraaj raaj raajeshvar savaai shri (vyaktigat naam) holakar bahaadur, mahaaraaja of Indore' tha.

anukram

parichay

sarvapratham malhaaraav holkar ne is vansh ki keerti badhaai. maalavaavijya mein peshava baajeeraav ki sahaayata karne par unhein maalava ki soobedaari mili. uttar ke sabhi abhiyaanon mein unhonne mein peshava ko vishesh sahayog diya. ve maraatha sangh ke sabal stambh the. unhonne Indore raajya ki sthaapana ki. unke sahayog se maraatha saamraajya Punjab mein atak tak faila. sadaashivraav bhaaoo ke anuchit vyavahaar ke kaaran unhonne Panipat ke yuddh mein use poora sahayog na diya par uske vinaashakaari parinaamon se maraatha saamraajya ki raksha ki.

malhaararaav ke dehaant ke pashchaat usaki vidhva putravadhoo ahalya baai ne tees varsh tak badi yogyata se shaasan chalaya. suvyavasthit shaasan, raajaneetik soojhaboojh, sahishnu dhaarmikta, praja ke hitchintan, daan punya tatha teerthasthaanon mein bhavananirmaan ke liye ne vikhyaat hain. unhonne maheshvar ko naveen bhavanon se alankrut kiya. san 1795 mein unke dehaant ke pashchaat tukoji holkar ne teen varsh tak shaasan kiya. taduparaant uttaraadhikaar ke liye sangharsh hone par, ameerakhaaain tatha pindaariyon ki sahaayata se yashavantaraav holkar Indore ke shaasak bane. poona par prabhaav sthaapit karne ki mahatvaakaanksha ke kaaran unke aur dolataraav sindhiya ke beech pratidvandvita utpann ho gayi, jiske bhayankar parinaam hue. maalava ki suraksha jaati rahi. maraatha sangh nirbal tatha asangathit ho gaya. ant mein holkar ne sindhiya aur peshava ko haraakar poona par adhikaar kar liya. bhayabheet hokar baajeeraav dviteeya ne 1802 mein beseen mein angrejon se apamaanajanak sandhi kar li jo dviteeya aangl-maraatha yuddh ka kaaran bani. praarambh mein holkar ne angrejon ko haraaya aur pareshaan kiya par ant mein paraast hokar raajapuraghaat mein sandhi kar li, jisse unhein vishesh haani na hui. 1811 mein yashavantaraav ki mrutyu ho gayi.

antim aangl-maraatha yuddh mein paraast hokar malhaararaav dviteeya ko 1818 mein mandasaur ki apamaanajanak sandhi sveekaar karni padi. is sandhi se Indore raajya sada ke liye pangu ban gaya. gadar mein tukoji dviteeya angreji ke prati vafaadaar rahe. unhonne tatha unke uttaraadhikaariyon ne angrejon ki daak, taar, sadak, rel, vyaapaarakar aadi yojanaaon ko safal banaane mein poorn sahayog diya. 1902 se angrejon ke sikke holkar raajya mein chalne lage. 1948 mein anya deshi raajyon ki bhaaainti Indore bhi svatantr Bhaarat ka abhinn ang ban gaya aur mahaaraaj holkar ko niji kosh praapt hua.

holakar saamraajya ki sthaapana

malhaararaav holakar (janm 1694, mrutyu 1766) ne indaur me parivaar ke shaasan ki sthaapana ki. unhone 1720 ke dashak me maalava kshetr mein maraatha senaaon ki sambhaali aur 1733 mein peshava ne Indore ke aaspaas ke kshetr mein 9 paragana kshetr diye. Indore shahar mugal saamraajya dvaara manjoor, 3 March 1716 dinaank se kanpel ke nandalaal mandaloi dvaara sthaapit ek svatantr riyaasat ke roop mein pehle se hi astitv mein tha. ve nandalaal mandaloi hi the jinhone is kshetr mein maraathon ko aavaagaman ki anumati di aur Khan nadi ke paar shivir ke liye anumati di. malhaar Rao ne 1734 mein hi ek shivir ki sthaapana ki, jo ab mein malhaaraganj ke naam se jaana jaat hai. 1747 me unhone apne raajamahal, raajavaada ka nirmaan shuroo kiya. unki mrutyu ke samay vah maalava ke jyaadaatar kshetr me shaasan kiya aur maraatha mahaasangh ke lagbhag svatantr paaainch shaasakon mein se ek ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya.

unke baad unki bahoo ahilyaabaai holakar (1767-1795 tak shaasan kiya) ne shaasan ki kamaan sambhaali. unka janm Maharashtra mein chaundi gaaainv mein hua tha. unhone rajdhani ko Indore ke dakshin me narmada nadi par sthit maheshvar par sthaanaantarit kiya. raani ahilyaabaai kai hindu mandiron ki sanrakshak thi. unhone apne raajya ke baahar pavitra sthalon mein mandiron ka nirmaan kiya.

malhaar Rao holakar ke dattak putr tukojeeraav holakar (shaasan: 1795-1797) ne kuchh samay ke liye raani ahilyaabaai ki mrutyu ke baad shaasan sambhaala. haalaanki tukoji Rao ne ahilyaabaai kae senaapati ke roop me mandaloi dvara Indore ki sthaapana ke baad March 1767 mein apna abhiyaan shuru kar diya tha. holakar 1818 se pehle indaur me nahi base.

yashavantaraav holakar

unki mrutyu ke baad unke putr yashavantaraav holakar (shaasan: 1797-1811) ne shaasan ki baagdor sambhaali. unhone angrejon ki kaid se Delhi ke mugal samraat shaah aalam ko mukt karaane ka faisala kiya, lekin asafal rahe. apni bahaaduri ki prashansa mein shaah aalam ne unhe "mahaaraajaadhiraaj raajaraajeshvar aaleeja bahaadur" upaadhi se sammaanit kiya.

yashavantaraav holakar ne 1802 mein Pune ke nikat haadasapur mein sindhiya aur peshava baajeeraav dviteeya ki sanyukt senaaon ko haraaya. peshava apni jaan bachaakar Pune se besin bhaag nikle, jahaan angrejon ne sinhaasan ke laalach ke badle mein sahaayak sandhi par hastaakshar ki peshakash ki. is beech, yashavantaraav ne Pune mein amrutaraav ko agale peshava ke roop mein sthaapit kiya. ek maheene se adhik ke vichaar - vimarsh ke baad unke bhaai ko peshava ke rup me maanyata milne ke khatre ko dekhte hue, baajeeraav dviteeya ne sandhi par hastaakshar kiye aur apni avashisht samprabhuta ka aatmasamarpan kiya aur jisse angrej use poona mein sinhaasan par pun: sthaapit karein.

mahaaraaja yashavantaraav holakar ne jab dekha ki anya raaja apne vyaktigat svaarthon ke chalte ekajut hone ke liye taiyaar naheen the, tab antat: 24 December 1805 ko raajaghaat naamak sthaan par angrejon ke saath sandhi (raajaghaat sandhi) par hastaakshar kar diye. ve Bhaarat ke ekmaatr aise raaja the jinhe angrejon ne shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar karne ke liye sampark kiya tha. unhone aisi kisi bhi shart ko sveekaar nahi kiya jisse unka aatm sammaan prabhaavit hota. angrejon ne unhe ek samprabhu raaja ke roop mein maanyata pradaan ki aur uske sabhi pradesh lautaae. unhone Jaipur, Udaipur, kota, boondi aur kuchh anya rajput raajaaon par unke prabhutv ko bhi sveekaar kiya. unhonne yeh bhi sveekaar kiya ki ve holakar ke maamalon mein hastakshep naheen kareinge. yashavantaraav holakar ek pratibhaashaali sainya neta tha, jinhone doosare aangla-maraatha yuddh mein angrejon se loha liya tha. kuchh shuruaati jeeton ke baad, vah unhonne ke saath shaanti sandhi ki.

maahidpur ka yuddh

1811 mein, mahaaraaja malhaararaav truteeya, 4 varsh ki umr mein shaasak bane. mahaaraani tulasaabaai holakar ne prashaasan ka kaaryabhaal sambhaala. haalaanki, dharam kunvar aur balaraam seth ne pathaano aur pindhariyon ki madad se angrejo ke saath milkar tulasaabaai aur malhaararaav ko bandi banaane ka shadhayantr racha. jab tulasaabaai ko iske baare mein pata chala to unhone 1815 mein un donon ko maut ki saja di aur taantiya jog ko niyukt kiya. is kaaran, gaffoor Khan pindaari ne chupake se 9 November 1817 ko angrejo ke saath ek sandhi ki aur 19 December 1817 ko tulasaabaai ki hatya kar di. angrejo ne sar Thomas hislop ke netrutv mein, 20 December 1817 ko par hamla kar maahidpur ki ladaai mein 11 varsh ke mahaaraaja malhaararaav truteeya, 20 varsh ke hariraav holakar aur 20 varsh ki bheemaabaai holakar ki sena ko paraast kiya. holakar sena ne yuddh lagbhag jeet hi liya tha lekin ant samay mein navaab abdul gaffoor Khan ne unhe dhokha diya aur apni sena ke saath yuddh ka maidaan chhod diya. angrejo ne uske is krutya ke liye gaffoor Khan ko jaavara ki jaageer di. 6 January 1818 ko mandasaur mein sandhi par hastaakshar kiye gaye. bheemaabaai holakar ne is sandhi ko naheen sveekaar kiya aur gurilla vidhiyon dvaara angrejo par hamla jaari rakha. baad mein jhaaainsi ki raani lakshmeebaai ne bheemaabaai holakar se prerana lete huye angrejon ke khilaaf yuddh lade. is teesare englo - maraatha yuddh ke samaapan par, holakar ne apne adhikaanshat: kshetron angrejon ko kho diye aur british raaj me ek riyaasat ke taur par shaamil hua. rajdhani ko bhaanapura se Indore sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya.

riyaasat

malhaararaav holakar truteeya ne 2 November ko Indore mein pravesh kiya. kyonki ve avayask the, isaliye taantiya jog ko deevaan niyukt kiya gaya. puraana mahal daulat Rao sindhiya ki sena ke dvaara nasht kar diya gaya tha at: ek nae mahal ka nirmaan kiya gaya. malhaararaav holakar truteeya ke baad maartandaraav ne aupachaarik roop se 17 January 1834 ko sinhaasan sambhaala. lekin vah yashavantaraav ke bhateeje hariraav holakar se 17 April 1834 ko badal diye gaye. unhone 2 July 1841 ko khaanderaav holakar ko god liya aur 24 October 1843 ko nidhan ho gaya. khaanderaav 13 November 1843 ko shaasak bane par 17 fravari 1844 ko achaanak unki mrutyu ho gayi. tukojeeraav holakar dviteeya (1835-1886) ko 27 June 1844 ko sinhaasan par sthaapit kiya gaya. 1857 ke bhaarateeya vidroh ke dauraan, ve british East India company ke prati vafaadaar the. October 1872 mein, unhone ti. maadhav Rao ko Indore ke deevaan ke roop mein niyukt kiya. unki mrutyu 17 June 1886 ko hui aur unke jyeshth putr, shivaajeeraav shaasak bane.

yashavantaraav dviteeya (shaasan: 1926-1948) ne 1947 mein Bhaarat ki aajaadi tak Indore raajya par shaasan kiya. Indore ko madhya pradesh mein 1956 mein vilay kar diya gaya.

vanshaj

  • richrd holakar
  • sabareena holakar
  • yashavantaraav holakar
  • ooshaadevi mahaaraaj saahiba holakar 15 bahaadur
  • Ranjit malhotra
  • dileep malhotra
  • vijyendr ghaatage
  • saagarika ghaatage

Indore ke holakar mahaaraaja

  • malhaar Rao holakar pratham (shaasan: 2 November 1731 se 19 May 1766)
  • maaleraav holakar (shaasan: 23 August 1766 se 5 April 1767)
  • ahilyaabaai holakar (shaasan: 27 March 1767 se 13 August 1795)
  • tukojeeraav holakar (shaasan: 13 August 1795 se 29 January 1797)
  • kaasheeraav holakar (shaasan: 29 January 1797 se 1798)
  • yashavantaraav holakar pratham (shaasan: 1798 se 27 October 1811)
  • malhaar Rao holakar truteeya (shaasan: 27 October 1811 se 27 October 1833)
  • maartandaraav holakar (shaasan: 17 January 1834 se 2 fravari 1834)
  • hariraav holakar (shaasan: 17 April 1834 se 24 October 1834)
  • khaanderaav holakar truteeya (shaasan: 13 November 1843 se 17 fravari 1844)
  • tukojeeraav holakar dviteeya (shaasan: 27 June 1844 se 17 June 1886)
  • shivaajeeraav holakar (shaasan: 17 June 1886 se 31 January 1903)
  • tukojeeraav holakar truteeya (shaasan: 31 January 1903 se 26 fravari 1926)
  • yashavantaraav holakar dviteeya (shaasan: 26 fravari 1926 se 1948)

baahari kadiyaaain