hokkaaido

hokkaaido ka naksha
madhya hokkaaido mein sthit shova-shinjn jvaalaamukheeya chattaan
sapporo him tyauhaar ke dauraan odori udyaan ka drushya

hokkaaido (Japani: 北aa海aa道) Japan ka doosra sab se bada dweep hai aur Japan ke praanton mein se sab se bada aur sab se uttari praant hai. yeh honshoo dweep se uttar mein hai aur in donon ke beech tsugaaroo jaladamaroo ka samudri kshetr aata hai.[1] aadhunik kaal mein in donon dveepon ke beech samudra ke frsh ke neeche se nikalne waali seikaan surang hai jismein ek relamaarg bana hua hai. hokkaaido ka sab se bada shahar sapporo (札aa幌aa市) usaki rajdhani bhi hai.

hokkaaido ka kul kshetrafal 83,453 varg kimi hai (yaani lagbhag Bhaarat ke arunaachal pradesh raajya ke baraabar aur san 2010 mein iski aabaadi 55,07,456 thi.[2] ispar 68 jile sthit hain.

anukram

itihaas

hokkaaido par aainoo, gilyak aur orok jaatiyon ke poorvaj lagbhag 20,000 varsh poorv aakar bas gaye the. aitihaasik roop se is dweep ka sabse pehla zikr san 720 isavi mein poori ki gayi "nihon shoki" (日aa本aa書aa紀, arth: "Japan ke itihaas-vruttaant") naamak granth mein milta hai. is pustak mein honshoo se badi sena lekar aabe no hiraafoo (阿aa部 比aa羅aa夫) naam ka ek raajyapaal vaataarishima naamak sthaan par gaya gaya aur vahaaain usaka paala emishi naamak jaati se pada. bahut se itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki vaataarishima vaastav mein hokkaaido tha aur emishi log aadhunik aainoo jaati ke poorvaj the. dheere-dheere Japan ke log hokkaaido jaakar basane lage. aainooon aur unamein jhadpein hui aur Japani jeetate gaye. jaapaaniyon ne aainooon ko ek jmeenadaari vyavastha mein nichle darje par kar diya. 1669-1672 ke kaal mein shaakushaain naamak mukhiye ke netrutv mein aainooon ne vidroh kiya jo kuchala gaya.

is kaal mein roos poorvi disha mein failakar saaiberiya ka maalik ho gaya aur hokkaaido se uttar mein sthit kamachaataka praayadveep par bhi aa gaya. Japan ko is se khtara laga aur hokkaaido par Japani ki kendreeya sarkaar ne apna niyantran badha diya. us samay hokkaaido ko ऍjochi bulaaya jaata tha. 1868 mein ek Japani gut ne ise "ऍjo ganaraajya" ke naam se svatantr ghoshit kar diya lekin May 1869 mein is prayaas ko kuchal diya gaya. roos ka khtara dekhte hue Japan ne ऍjochi par apna kbja sangathit karne ki thaani. ismein kuchh ameriki krushi visheshagyon ki bhi madad li gayi. 1870 se 1880 ke dashak mein is dweep mein bahut Japani aa base aur dweep ki janasankhya 58,000 se badhkar 240,000 ho gayi. 1868 mein bahaal hui meiji sarkaar ne is dweep ko naya naam dene ki sochi. kai naam prastaavit hue, lekin "hokkaaido" chuna gaya, jiska arth "uttari ghera" tha.[1]

vishvavidyaalaya 

bhoogol

hokkaaido Japan ke sudoor uttar mein sthit hai aur roos ke sameep hai. iske tat prashaant mahaasaagar, okhotsk saagar aur Japan saagar se milte hain. dweep ke kendra mein bahut se pahaad aur jvaalaamukheeya pathaar hain jo dhalaan ke baad tatavarti maidaan ban jaate hain. iske uttar mein kureel dweep samooh sthit hai. hokkaaido duniya ka 21va sab se bada dweep hai.

mausam

hokkaaido greeshmaritu mein kaafi thanda rahata hai aur iski sheetaritu bahut sard hoti hai. August ke maheene ka ausat taapamaan 17 se 22 seinteegred aur January ka ausat taapamaan -12 se -4 seinteegred hota hai. sardiyon barf bahut padti hai lekin lagaataar himpaat ki bajaae yahaaain samay-samay par aane vaale bhaari barfeele toofaanon se him adhik padta hai. barf se dhake hue pahaadon par ski aur anya him-khel lokapreeya hai. har saal fravari mein hone wala "sapporo him tyauhaar" vishv bhar mein mashahoor hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. a aa Nussbaum, Louis-Fréadéaric. (2005). "Hokkaido" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 343 at Google Books.
  2. National Census 2010 Preliminary Results