hockey

Melbourne vishvavidyaalaya mein field hockey ka khel

hockey ek aisa khel hai jismein do teemein lakdi ya kathor dhaatu ya faaibar se bani vishesh laathi (stick) ki sahaayata se rabar ya kathor plastic ki geind ko apni virodhi team ke net ya gol mein daalne ki koshish karti hain. hockey Bhaarat ka raashtreeya khel hai. hockey ka praarambh varsh 2010 se 4,000 varsh poorv Iran mein hua tha. iske baad bahut se deshon mein iska aagaman hua par uchit sthaan na mil saka. ant mein ise Bhaarat mein vishesh sammaan mila aur yeh raashtreeya khel bana gaya. Bhaarat mein iska aarambh 100 varshon se pehle hua tha. 11 khilaadiyon ke do virodhi dalon ke beech maidaan mein khele jaane vaale is khel mein pratyek khilaadi maarak bindu par mudi hui ek chhadi (stick) ka istemaal ek chhoti va kathor geind ko virodhi dal ke gol mein maarane ke liye karta hai. barf mein khele jaane vaale isi tarah ke ek khel aais hockey se bhinnata darshaane ke liye ise maidaani hockey kehte hain. chaaradeevaari mein kheli jaane waali hockey, jismein ek dal mein chhah khilaadi hote hain aur chhah khilaadi parivartan ke liye rakhe jaate hain.

hockey ke vistaar ka shreya, visheshakar Bhaarat aur sudoor poorv mein, Britain ki sena ko hai. anek antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaon ke aahvaan ke falasvaroop 1971 mein vishv cup ki shuruaat hui. hockey ki anya mukhya antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaen hain- olympic, asian cup, Asiaee khel, yooropiyn cup aur pain-ameriki khel. duniya mein hockey nimn prakaar se kheli jaati hai.

anukram

itihaas

hockey khel ka udgam sada se hi vivaad ka vishay raha hai. ek mat ke anusaar isa se do hajaar varsh poorv hockey ka khel faaras mein khela jaata tha. yeh khel aadhunik hockey se bhinn tha. kuchh samay baad yeh khel kuchh parivrtit hokar yoonaan (vartamaan grees) pahuncha jahaan yeh itna prachalit hua ki yeh yoonaan ki olanpik pratiyogita mein khela jaane laga. dheere-dheere romavaasiyon mein bhi is khel ke prati rujhaan badha aur rom bhi yoonaan ke olanpik mein ise khelne laga. hockey ki shuruaat aaranbhik sabhyataaon ke yug se maani jaati hai. hockey khelne ke arabi, yahoodi, faarasi aur roman tareeke rahe aur dakshin America ke ejtek indiynon dvaara chhadi se khele jaane vaale ek khel ke pramaan bhi milte hain. aaranbhik khelon harling aur shinti jaise khelon ke roop mein bhi hockey ko pahachaana gaya hai. madhya kaal mein chhadi se khela jaane wala ek fraanseesi khel hockey prachalit tha aur angreji shabd ki utpatti shaayad isi se hui hai.

19veen shataabdi ke praarambhik varshon mein Bhaarat mein is khel ke vistaar ka shreya mukhya roop se british sena ko jaata hai aur ek svaabhaavik parinaam ke roop mein yeh khel chhaavani nagaron va uske aaspaas tatha yuddhapriya samajhe jaane vaale logon aur sainikon ke beech fala-foola hain.

sainik chhaavaniyon vaale sabhi nagar, jaise Lahore, Jalandhar, Lucknow, Jhansi, jabalapur bhaarateeya hockey ke gadh the. magar is khel ko vibhaajan-poorv Bhaarat ki krushi pradhaan bhoomi ke mehanati aur balishth panjaabiyon ne svaabhaavik roop se seekha.

angreji vidyaalayon mein hockey khelna 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraarddh mein shuroo hua aur dakshin-poorvi London ke blaikaheeth mein purushon ke pehle hockey club ka vivran 1861 ki ek vivran-pustika mein milta hai. purushon ki maidaani hockey ko 1908 aur 1920 mein olympic khelon mein khela gaya aur 1928 se ise sthaayi taur par olympic mein shaamil kar liya gaya.

aadhunik yug mein pehli baar olanpik mein hockey 29 October, 1908 mein London mein kheli gayi. ismein chhah teemein theen. 1924 mein olapink mein antarraashtreeya kaaranon se yeh khel shaamil naheen ho saka. olanpik se hockey ke baahar ho jaane ke baad January, 1884 mein antararaashtreeya hockey mahaasangh (international hockey federation) ki sthaapana hui. hockey ka khel Asia mein Bhaarat mein sabse pehle khela gaya. pehle do Asiaee khelon mein Bhaarat ko khelne ka avsar naheen mil saka, kintu teesare Asiaee khelon mein Bhaarat ko pehli baar ye avsar haath laga. hockey mein Bhaarat ka pradarshan kaafi achha raha hai.[1] Bhaarat ne hockey mein ab tak olanpik mein aath svarn, ek aur do kaansya padak jeete hain. svatantr Bhaarat ne ise apna raashtreeya khel bhi ghoshit kiya hai. iske baad Bhaarat ne hockey mein agala svarn padak 1964 aur antim svarn padak 1980 mein jeeta. 1928 mein emsatardam mein hue olanpik mein Bhaarat ne Netherland ko 3-0 se haraakar pehla svarn padak jeeta tha. 1936 ke khelon mein Germany ko 8-1 se maat dekar vishv mein apni khel kshamata siddh ki. 1928, 1932 aur 1936 ke teenon mukaabalon mein bhaarateeya team ka netrutv hockey ke jaadoogar naam se prasiddh major dhyaanachand ne kiya. 1932 ke olapink mein hue 37 maichon mein Bhaarat dvaara kiye gaye 330 gol mein dhyaanachand ne akele 133 gol kiye the.

duniya mein anya khel bhi hockey se janme hain.

  • baaaindi
  • farshabaul
  • rink hockey
  • shinni
  • vaayu hockey
  • jal hockey
  • mej hockey
  • sadak hockey
  • jhaadoo baul (broom baal)

mahila hockey

viktoriyaai yug mein khelon mein mahilaaon par pratibandh hone ke baavajood mahilaaon mein hockey ki lokapriyta bahut badhi. yadyapi 1895 se hi mahila teemein niyamit roop se maitri pratiyogitaaon mein bhaag leti rahi theen, lekin gambhir antarraashtreeya pratiyogitaaon ki shuruaat 1970 ke dashak tak naheen hui thi. 1974 mein hockey ka pehla mahila vishv cup aayojit kiya gaya aur 1980 mein mahila hockey olympic mein shaamil ki gayi. 1927 mein antarraashtreeya niyaamak sanstha, international fedareshan of vimains hockey association ka nirmaan hua tha. 1901 mein America mein kaansateins M.ke. eppelabi dvaara is khel ki shuruaat hui aur maidaani hockey dheere-dheere yahaaain ki mahilaaon mein lokapriya maidaani team khel ban gayi va vidyaalayon, mahaavidyaalayon tatha clubon mein kheli jaane lagi.

niyam

London sthit ek club tedingatan ne kai mukhya parivrtanon ki shuruaat ki, jismein haathon ka prayog ya chhadi ko kandhon se oopar uthaane par pratibandh, rabar ki ghanaakaar geind ke sthaan par golaakaar svaroop ke prayog shaamil the. sabse mahattvapoorn tha maarak chakr ko apanaana, jise 1886 mein London mein sthaapit tatkaaleen hockey association ne apne niyamon mein shaamil kiya tha.

dal ke saamaanya sanyojan mein paanch khilaadi fauravard, teen haafbaik, do fulabaik aur ek goalkeeper hote hain. ek khel mein 35 minute ke do bhaag hote hain, jinmein 5 se 10 minute ka antaraal hota hai. keval chot lagne ki dasha mein khel roka jaata hai. goalkeeper mote magar halke pad pahanata hai aur use 30 gaj ke ghere (di) mein geind ko pair se maarane athva use pairon ya shareer ki madad se rokane ki ijaajt hoti hai. anya sabhi khilaadi geind ko keval stick se hi rok sakte hain.

maidaan ke kendra se paas-back dvaara, jismein ek khilaadi apni team ke anya khilaadeeyon ki or geind feinkata hai, geind pun: us tak pahuainchaai jaati hai[2], khel praarambh hota hai. kisi ko chot lagne par ya takaneeki kaaran se khel rukane par, donon dalon dvaara kramash: ek-ek penalty karne par ya khilaadeeyon ke kapadon mein geind ke ulajhane par khel ko fir se shuroo karne ke liye fes-of ya buli ka prayog kiya jaata hai. fes-of mein donon teemon ke ek-ek khilaadi aamne-saamane khade hote hai aur geind unke beech maidaan par hoti hai. ek ke baad ek jameen par aaghaat karne ke baad donon khilaadi ek-doosare ki stick ko aapas mein teen baar takaraate hain, pratyek khilaadi geind ko maarane ka prayaas karta hai aur is prakaar khel fir se shuroo ho jaata hai. geind ke maidaan se baahar jaane ki dasha mein khel ko fir se shuroo karne ke vibhinn tareeke hain.

hockey mein kai tarah ki glatiyaaain (faaul) hoti hain. kisi khilaadi ko maidaan mein geind se aage rahakar aur virodhi dal ke do khilaadeeyon se kam khilaadeeyon ke aage rahakar laabh uthaane se rokane ke liye banaae gaye of side niyam ko 1996 ke olympic khelon ke baad samaapt kar diya gaya. geind se khelte vakt hockey ko kandhon se oopar uthaana niyamon ke viruddh hai. geind ko hockey se rokana usi tarah ki glati hai, jaisi geind ko shareer ya pairon se rokana. andarakating ke saath hi virodhi ki hockey mein apni hockey fansaakar (huking) geind ko teji se oopar uchhaalate hue khel ko khtaranaak banaana bhi glat hai. ant mein avarodhan ka niyam hai: ek khilaadi ko apni stick ya shareer ke kisi bhi bhaag ko apne virodhi aur geind ke beech laakar avarodh khada karne athva virodhi va gand ke beech daudkar baadha daalne ki anumati naheen hai. adhiktar glatiyon ki saja virodhi dal ko, jis sthaan par niyam toda gaya, vahaaain se ek fri hit ke roop mein di jaati hai. khel ke pratyek bhaag ke liye ek nirnaayak (refri) hota hai.

geind:- hockey mein istemaal hone vali yeh geind moolat: cricket ki geind thi[3], lekin plastic ki geind bhi anumodit hai. iski paridhi lagbhag 30 semi hoti hai.

hockey stick:- hockey stick lagbhag ek meter lambi aur 340 se 790 gram hoti hai. stick ka chapata chhor hi geind ko maarane ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.

maidaan

yeh khel chaukor maidaan par 11 khilaadiyon vaale do dalon ke beech khela jaat hai. yeh maidaan 91.4 meter lamba aur 55 meter chauda hota hai, iske kendra mein ek keindreeya rekha va 22.8 meter ki do anya rekhaaeain khinchi hoti hain. gol ki chaudaai 3.66 meter va ooainchaai 2.13 meter hoti hai.

Bhaarat mein hockey

Bhaarat mein yeh khel sabse pehle Calcutta mein khela gaya. Bhaarat team ka sarvapratham vaheen sangathan hua. 26 May ko san 1928 mein bhaarateeya hockey team pratham baar olympic khelon mein sammilit hui aur vijay praapt ki. 1932 mein loss Angeles olympic mein jab bhaarateeyon ne mejbaan team ko 24-1 se haraaya. tab se ab tak ki sarvaadhik antar se jeet ka keertimaan bhi sthaapit ho gaya. 24 mein se 9 gol di bhaaiyon ne kiye, roopasinh ne 11 gol daage aur dhyaanachand ne shesh gol kiye.

1936 ke barlin olympic mein in bhaaiyon ke netrutv mein bhaarateeya dal ne pun: svarn 'padak jeeta' jab unhonne Germany ko haraaya. barlin olympic mein dhyaanachand asamaya baahar ho gaye aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ne bhi is vishv sparddha ko baadhit kar diya. aath varsh ke baad olympic ki pun: vaapasi par Bhaarat ki vishv hockey champion ki sthiti mein koi parivartan naheen aaya. ek asaadhaaran kaarya, jo vishv mein koi bhi ab tak duhara naheen paaya hai. anya teemon ke ubharane ke sanket sarvapratham melaborn mein dikhaai diye, jab Bhaarat ko pehli baar svarn padak ke liye sandharsh karna pada. pehle ki tarah, team ne apni or ek bhi gol naheen hone diya aur 38 gol daage, magar balabeer Singh ke netrutv mein khilaadeeyon ko semeefaainal mein Germany ke khilaaf aur faainal mein Pakistan ke khilaaf sangharsh karna pada. semeefaainal mein kaptaan ke gol ne nirnaya kiya, jabki varishth rakshak aar.S. jeintal ke banaae gol ne Bhaarat ki aparaajeyata ko banaae rakha. 1956 ke melaborn olympic ke faainal mein Bhaarat aur Pakistan ko 1960 mein rom olympic mein Pakistan ne faainal mein 1-0 se svarn jeetkar Bhaarat ki baaji palat di. Bhaarat ne Pakistan ko 1964 ke tokiyo olympic mein haraaya. 1968 ke Mexico olympic mein pehli baar Bhaarat faainal mein naheen pahuaincha aur keval kaansya padak jeet paaya. magar Mexico ke baad, Pakistan va Bhaarat ka aadhiptya tootane laga. 1972 ke myoonikh olympic mein donon mein se koi bhi team svarn padak jeetne mein safal naheen rahi aur kramash: doosare va teesare sthaan tak hi pahuainch saki. mukhya roop se Bhaarat mein, hockey ke paaramparik keindron ke alaava anya sthaanon par logon ki ruchi mein teji se giraavat I aur is patan ko rokane ke prayaas bhi kam hi kiye gaye. iske baad Bhaarat ne keval ek baar 1980 ke sankshipt Moscow olympic mein svarn padak jeeta. team ka asthir pradarshan jaari raha. iske baad 1998 ke Asiaee khelon mein svarn padak ki praapti bhaarateeya hockey ka ekamaatr badhiya pradarshan tha. aise bahut kam mauke rahe, jab kaushal ne shaareerik saushthav ko haraaya, anyatha yeh baaranbaar bahut kam antar se haar aur gol chook jaane ka maamala raha hai. yadyapi Bhaarat ab vishv hockey mein ek shakti ke roop mein naheen gina jaata, par haal ke varshon mein yahaaain aise kai khilaadi hue hain, jinke kaushal ki baraabari vishv mein kuchh hi khilaadi kar paate hain. ajitpaal Singh, vi. bhaaskaran, govinda, ashok Kumar, muhammas Shahid, jafr ikbaal, paragat Singh, mukesh Kumar aur dhanaraaj pille jaise khilaadeeyon ne apni aakraamak shaili ki dhaak jamaai hai.

Bhaarat mein hockey ke gaurav ko punarjeevit karne ke gambhir prayaas hue hain. Bhaarat mein teen hockey akaadamiyaan kaaryarat hain- nai Delhi mein air India academy, Ranchi (Jharkhand) mein vishesh kshetr khel academy air raaurakela, (udeesa) mein steel athauriti of India limited (sel) academy. in akaadamiyon mein prashikshaarthi hockey ko prashikshan ke alaava aupachaarik shiksha bhi jaari rakhate hain aur maasik vrutti bhi paate hain. pratyek academy ne yogya khilaadi taiyaar kiye hain, jinse aane vaale varshon mein is khel mein yogadaan ki aasha hai. cricket ke prati deewangi ke baavajood vidyaalayon aur mahaavidyaalayon mein hockey ke punarutthaan se nai peedhi mein is khel ke prati ruchi jaagrut hui hai. prativrsh rajdhani mein hone waali Nehru cup hockey pratiyogita jaisi pratisparddhaaon mein udeesa, Bihar aur Punjab ke vidyaalayon, jaise seint igneshiys vidyaalaya, raaurakela; birsa munda vidyaalaya, gumala aur laayalapur khaalasa vidyaalaya, Jalandhar dvaara uchch stareeya hockey ka pradarshan dekha gaya hai.

2010 raashtramandal khelon mein Bhaarat ne rajat padak haasil kiya.

olympic mein Bhaarat

hockey ke khel mein Bhaarat ne hamesha vijay pai hai. is s‍aavarn yug ke dauraan Bhaarat ne 24 olympic match khele aur sabhi 24 maichon mein jeet kar 178 gol banaae tatha keval 7 gol chhode. Bhaarat ke paas 8 olympic s‍aavarn padakon ka ut‍aakrush‍aat record hai. bhaarateeya hockey ka s‍aavarnim yug 1928-56 tak tha jab bhaarateeya hockey dal ne lagaataar 6 olympic s‍aavarn padak praap‍aat kiye. 1928 tak hockey Bhaarat ka raashtreeya khel ban gayi thi aur isi varsh emastardam olympic mein bhaarateeya team pehli baar pratiyogita mein shaamil hui. bhaarateeya team ne paanch mukaabalon mein ek bhi gol diye bagair svarn padak jeeta. jayapaal Singh ki kaptaani mein team ne, jismein mahaan khilaadi dhyaanachand bhi shaamil the, antim mukaabale mein haulaind ko aasaani se haraakar svarn padak jeeta.

bhaarateeya hockey sangh ke itihaas ki shuruaat olympic mein apni s‍aavarn gaatha shuroo karne ke liye ki gayi. is gaatha ki shuruaat emas‍aatardam mein 1928 mein hui aur Bhaarat lagaataar loss enjelas mein 1932 ke dauraan tatha barlin mein 1936 ke dauraan jeetata gaya aur is prakaar usane olympic mein s‍aavarn padakon ki haitatrik praap‍aat ki.

kishnalaala ke netrutv mein dal ne London mein svarn padak jeeta. bhaarateeya hockey dal ne 1975 mein vish‍aav cup jeetne ke alaava do an‍aaya padak (rajat aur kaans‍aaya) bhi jeete. bhaarateeya hockey sangh ne 1927 mein vaishvik sanbaddhata arjit ki aur antararaashtreeya hockey mahaasangh (FIH) ki sadas‍aayata praap‍aat ki. Bhaarat ko 1964 tokiyo olympic aur 1980 maus‍ako olympic mein do an‍aaya s‍aavarn padak praap‍aat hue. 1962 mein kaansya padak aur 1980 mein svarn padak praapt kiya aur desh ka naam ooaincha kar diya.

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  1. hockey ka itihaas. Hindustan live

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