hindu pauraanik kathaaeain


hindu pauraanik kathaaeain dharm se sanbandhit paaramparik vivranon ka ek vishaal sangrh hai. yeh sanskrut-mahaabhaarat, raamaayan, puraan aadi, tamil-sangam saahitya evam periya puraanam, anek anya krutiyaaain jinmein sabse ullekhaneeya hai . bhaagavad puraan; jise pancham ved ka pad bhi diya gaya hai tatha dakshin ke anya praanteeya dhaarmik saahitya mein nihit hai.inke mool mein smruti granth aur smaart parampara hai . yeh bhaarateeya evam nepaali sanskruti ka ang hai. ekabhoot vishaalakaaya krati hone ki jagah yeh vividh paranparaaon ka mandal hai jise vividh sanpradaayon, vyaktiyon, dashn shrankhala, vibhinn praanton, bhinn kaalaavadhi mein viksit kiya gaya. aisa aavashyak naheen ki inhein aitihaasik `tanaaon ka yatha shabd, vastavik vivran hone ki maanyata sabhi hinduon se praapt ho, par goodh, adhikaashat:saanketik arthayukt avashay maana gaya hai.
ved devagaathaaon ke mool, jo praacheen hindu dharm se viksit hue, vaidik sabhyata evam vaidik dharm ke samay se janmein hain. chaturvedon mein unek vishyavastu ke lakshan miltein hain. praacheen vaidik kathaaon ke paatr, unke vi'vaas tatha moolakatha ka hindu darshan se atoot sambandh hai. ved chaar hain yatha rigved, yajurved, atharvaved va saamaved. kuchh avataran aisi taatvik avadhaarana tatha yantron ka ullekh karte hain jo aadhunik kaal ke vaigyaanik siddhaanton se bahut milte-julate hain.

anukram

itihaas tatha puraan

sanskrut ki adhikaansh saamagri mahaakaavyon ke roop mein surakshit hai. kathaaon ke atirikt in mahaakaavyon mein tatkaaleen samaaj, darshan, sanskruti, dharm tatha jeevanacharya par vistrut jaankaari praapt hoti hai.

raamaayan va mahaabhaarat, ye do mahaakaavya vishesht: vishnu ke do avataaron Ram evam Krishna ki katha sunaate hain. ye itihaas kahalaae gaye hain. ye dono dharmik granth to hain hi, darshan evam naitikta ki amoolya nidhi bhi hain. in mahaakaavyon ko vibhinn kaandon mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai jinmein anek lagukathaaeain hain jahaaain prastut paristhiyon ko paatr hindu dharm tatha naitikta ke anusaar nibhaata hai. inmein se mahaakaavya ka sabse mahattvapoorn adhyaaya hai bhagavad geeta jismein shri Krishna kurukshetr ke yuddh se pehle arjun ko dharm, karm aur neetipraayanata ka gyaan dete hain.
ye mahaakaavya bhi alag-alag yugon mein rache gaye hain. vaalmeeki dvaara rachit raamaayan treta yug mein vishnu ke saatavein avataar Ram ki katha hai. mahaabhaarat paandavon tatha vishnu ke aathavein avataar Krishna se sambandhit dvaapar yug mein rachi rachana hai.

kul 4 yug maane gaye hain-sat~yug athva krut~yug, tretaayug, dvaaparayug tatha kaliyug.

puraanon mein ve kathaaeain samaahit hain jo mahaakaavyon mein naheen paayi gayi hain athva unka kshanik ullekh hai. inmein sansaar ki utpatti, anekaanek devi-devataaon naayak-nayikaaon praacheenakaaleen jeevon ;
asur, daanav, daitya, yaksh, raakshas, gandharv, apsaraaon, kinpurushon aadi ddh ke jeevan tatha saahasik abhiyaanon ki dantakathaaeain aur kahaaniyaaain hain.

bhaagavadpuraan sambhavat: sarvaadhik pathit evam vikhyaat puraan hai. ismein Bhagwan vishnu ke avataaron ke vruttaanton ko lipibddh kiya gaya hai.

brahmaand srujan evam brahmaand vigyaan praacheenatam srujan ki katha rigved mein milti hai jismein brahmaand utpatti hirnyagarbh-sone ke ande se maani gayi hai.

purush sookt mein kaha gaya hai ki devataaon ne ek divya purush ki bali di, uske bhinn angon se sabhi jeevon ki rachana hui. puraanon mein vishnu ke varaah avataar paraabhautik saagar se pruthvi ko ubhaar laae the.

shatapath brahmaand mein maana gaya hai ki aadi mein jab prajaapati-pratham srujanakarta akele the tab unhonne apne ko pati-patni ke do svaroopon mein vibhkt kar liya.

patni ne apne srujanakarta ke saath is sambandh ko vyabhichaar maana aur unke premapaash se bachane ke liye vibhinn jeev-jantuon ka roop dhaaran kiye pati ne bhi unheen roopon ko
dhaarankarake patni ka anukaran kiya aur inheen sanyogo se vibhinn prajaatiyon ka janm hua. puraanon mein brahmaand, vishnu, maheshvar ki ishvareeya trimoorti ke gathan ka varnan hai jo kramash:srujanakarta, vahanakarta aur vinaash karta maane gaye hain.

brahmaand ka sarjanabramaand ne kiya, vishnu iske sanrakshak hain tatha mahaadev shiv agale srujan ke liye iska vinaash karatein he. kuchh kinvadantiyon mein bramaand ke srujanakarta vishnu maane gaye hain jinki naabhi se utpann kamal par bramaand aaseen hain.

samay ki prakruti

hindu vyavastha anusaar bramaand anant kaal tak samay chakro mein vichran karta hai. 360 aise din aur raat brahm ka ek varsh banaate hain. unka jeevan aise 100 varshon ki avadhi ka hai.. prati manvantar ke beech lambi avadhi ka antaraal hota hai. is avadhi mein sansaar ka pun:srujan hota hai aur manushya janak roop mein nae manu prakat hote hain. is samay ham saatavein manvantar mein hain jiske manu vaivasvat manu hain. prati manvantar mein 71 mahaayug hote hain. pratyek mahaayug chaar yugon mein vibhkt hai-kruta, treta, dvaapar aur kali. inki avadhi kramash: 4800, 3600, 2400, 1200 Dave varshon ke baraabar hai. har yug mein pavitrata, naitikta, 'shaury, kshamata, jeevan avadhi tatha sukh ka haazs hota jaata hai. is samay ham kaliyug mein hain jon tatvaanusaar 3102 saal poorv praarambh hua. yeh saal mahaabhaarat ke yuddh ka saal maana jaata hai. kaliyug ke ant ke lakshan maane gaye hain varnasankarata, sthaapit moolyon ka tirskaar, dhaarmik prathaaon ki samaapti, kroor evam baahari raajaaon ka raaj. iske turant baad sansaar ka pralaya evam agni se naash hoga. sabhi grantho ke anusaar pralaya kalp ke antim chakr ke baad hi hota hai. ek mahaayug se doosare mahaayug mein paraagaman sahajata se ho jaata hai. jeevon ka ant teen prakaar ka maana gaya hai-naimittik, jo prati kalp ke ant mein brahm ke din ke ant mein hota hai. praakrutik vinaash brahm ke jeevan ke ant mein hota hai. atyaantik-yeh sampoorn tatv moksh ki praapti hai jahaaain se purnajanm ke bandhan se mukti mil jaati hai.

hindu devagan

vishnu

apni chaar bhujaaon mein shankh, chakr, gada, padam liye Bhagwan vishnu sanrakshak maane gaye hain. aadi mein rigved mein ve gaun devata ke roop mein prastut kiye gaye baad mein ve trimooti ke ang ke roop mein tatpashchaat vaishnav dharm mein ve akhand bramaandasvaroop ishvar ke roop mein prastut hue. dharm ki sansthaapana hetu avatarit haane ke kaaran tatha karunaamaya varadaan pradaata hone ke kaaran hi unhein yeh paramatatv svaroop Bhagwan ki upaadhi di gayi. vishnu ke 10 avataar hain - matsya, koorm, varaah, vaaman, narasinh, parashuraam, Ram, Krishna, buddh aur kalaki.

Shiv

shev sanpradaaya ke log Shiv ko parameshvar maanate hain, jo sarvashreshth srot tatha charam lakshya hain. pashupat shiv siddhaant inhein parabr ke baraabar ya unase bhi mahaan maanate hain. shiv naitik evam pita svaroop devata hain. ve unke bhi devata hai jo brhmaani samaaj ki mukhyadhaara se baahar hain. ve anek vidhiyon se poojit hain. taantrik bhi shiv ki aaraadhana karte hain. ang mein bhasm lagaae, charmaambar dhaaran kiye, naag ka haar, jataaon mein ardhachadradhaari vinaash ke devata yogi s parvat par vaas karte hain. shiv ka puraatan naam rudr hai. vaidik grantho ke anusaar rudr rko yagya ke prasaad mein sanmilit nahi kiya jaata tha. shiv ke sasur daksh ne shiv-sati ko apne yagya mein aamantrit naheen kiya. sati ne apne pita se shikaayat ki to unhonne shiv ka apamaan kiya. sati yeh sahan na kar pai aur yagya ki agni mein apna daah kar liya. apni patni ki mrutyu ki soochana pa krodhit shiv ne daksh ka sar chhinn kar diya. baad mein bali ke bakare ka sar lagaakar unhein pun: jeevit kiya. apni samaadhi bhang karne ke prayaas mein apne teesare netr se unhonne kaamadev ko bhasm kar diya. tadanantar himaalaya putri paarvati ne apne tap se shiv ko paaya asair inheen ke kehne par unhonne kaamadev ko adrushya roop mein jeevit kiya.

devi

devi apne puru pratiroop ki shakti hai, bal hai, ant:'shakti hai. Shiv ki patni ke roop mein adheenasth dikhaai deti hai, to doosari or mahaadevi ke roop mein 'Shiv ke baraabar ya brahmaand ki uchchatam devi ke roop mein sarv jeevon ki chetna, shakti va saakriyta ka moolabhoot suot hai. maata athva patni ke roop mein usaki paaramparik prakruti dikhaai ieti hai-sundar, ajnyaaakaarini jaise paarvati-'Shiv, lakshmi-vishnu, sarasvati-brahma.
ug roop mein durga mahishaasur ka vadh karne waali tatha ati ug bhe mein vah chaamunda-kaali hai jisne raktabeej daanav ka rakt pi liya anyatha uske rakt ki har boond se pun: naya daanav utpann ho jaata tha.

itar devata

vishnu, 'Shiv, durga ke saath anek anya devi-devataaon ko bhi pooja jaata hai. uttar vaidik kaal mein aranyakon aur upanishdon mein braahman ka mahattav badha. pehle prajaapati baad mein srujanakarta maane jaane lage. kuchh devataagan kisi kaarya vidhesh se hi sambandhit maane gaye : Indra-devataaon ke raaja, asr ke dhaarak, vaayoo rke devata, varun-jal devata, yam-kaal, mrutyu ke devata, kuber-dhanaz-sampatti ke devata, agnidev, pavanadev, chandazdev, aadi yam, Indra, varun va kuber Lokpal kahalaate hain.'Shiv-paarvati ke putr skand-yuddh ke devata, ganesh-vighn vina'shak hain. pratyek kaarya ko suchaaru roop se sampann karne ke liye praarambh mein ganesh ki pooja ki jaati hai.
deviyon mein lakshmi-saubhaajnya evam laukik, dhan ki devi, sarasvati-vidya evam kala ki devi hain.

yaksh-gandharv

hindu dhaarmik kathaaon mein anekaanek devi-devata maane gaye hain. naag-bahumoolya ko ki raksha karte hain, yaksh-kuber ke gan hain, gandharv-indra ke sangeetakaar hain, kinnar gandharvon ke saath rahate hain, gandharvon ki stri pratiroop hain apsaraaeain, jo sundar aur kaamuk hoti hain.

rishiyon ne vaidik shalokon ki sanrachana curry. inmein mukhya hain sapt rishi- maareechi, atri, angeeras, pulastya, krutu, vashishth. ye taaraamandal ke roop mein aakaash mein dikhaai dete hain.

daksh va kashayap devon evam maanavon ke poorvaj hain, naarad veena ke aavishkaarak, bruhaspati va shuk sur tatha asuron ke guru, agastya ne dakshin praayadveep mein dharm evam sanskruti ka prachaar kiya.

pitru poorvajon ki aatmaaeain jinhein pind daan diya jaata hai.

asur mukhya duraatmaaeain jo sada devajaaon se yuddharat rahate the. ye diti ki santaanein daitya kahalaate hain, danu ki santaanein daanav kahalaate hain. asuron ke pramukh raaja vrutr, hirnaakaship, baali aadi, pulastya rishi ke putr raavan raakshas hain.

yuddh

Dave aur asuron ke beech trilok ke liye kul 12 bheen yuddh hue. hirnaakshya-varaah yuddh jismein hirnaakshya divya saagar mein maara gaya. narasinh-hirnyaak'ship yuddh-narasinh ne daitya ka vadh kiya.
vajagaputr taarakaasur skand dvaara maara gaya. andhak vadh ismein andhakaasur 'Shiv ke dvaara maara gaya.


pancham yuddh mein devata jab taarakaasur ke teen putron ko maarane mein vifal hue, tab 'Shiv ne apne dhanu pinaak ke ek baan se teenon ko unke nagaron samet dhvast kar diya.

amrutamanthan-ind ne mahaabali ko paraast kiya vaaman avataar dhar vishnu ne teen pag mein trilok lekar mahaabali ko bandi banaaya.

aathavein yuddh mein indaz ne maara viprachitti tatha uske anuchar jo adrushaya ho gaye the.

aadivk yuddh mein ikshvaaku raaja ke pautr kaakushath ne Indra ki sahaayata ki aur aadivk ko paraast kiya. kolaahal yuddh mein shuk putr sand evam mark ka vadh hua.

daanavon ki sahaayata lekar vrutr ne Indra se yuddh kiya. vishnu ki madad paakar indra ne use maar daala.

baarahavein yuddh mein nahush ke bhaata raaji ne Indra ki sahaayata ki aur asuron ko maar daala.


astr-shastr

shastr-jinko haath mein pakad kar prahaar kiya jaata hai jaise talavaar, kataar. astr-jinko shatru par feinka jaata hai jaise baiaan. paaramparik astr- shastr jaise dhanu-baaainn, talavaar, kataar, bhaale, gada, dhaal ke atirikt daivik astr jaise Indra ka asr, bstr, trishool, sudarshan chakr, pinaak aadi hain. anek astr E'varon dvaara devataaon, raakshason ya manushyon ko varadaan svaroop diye jaate the jaise, brahmaastr, aagneyaastr. inhein chalaane ke liye vish gyaan ka hona aavashyak tha.

kuchh astr ek sunishichat kaarya ke liye hi bane hote the yatha - naagaastr jiske upayog se virodhi sena par koti-koti sarpon ki vrushti ho jaati thi. aagneyaastr virodhi ko jalaane, varunaastr agnishaman karne athva baadh laane ke liye, brahmaastr ka prayog keval shatru vishesh par hi praanaghaati vaar karne ke liye hota tha. inke atirikt anya daivik upakaranon ka ullekh bhi hai jaise kavach, kundal, mukut, shirstraan aadi.


pralaya

shatapath braahman mein mahaapralaya ki katha kahi gayi hai. anya dharmon ke vivranon se iski tulana ki jaati hai. manu ko aanevaale pralaya ki poorv soochana dekar Bhagwan vishnu ne matsya avataar liya aur dharmaka paalan karne vaale manushyon evam anya jeev-jantuon ko bachaaya.


lok

pauraanik kathaaon mein 14 lokon ka varnan paaya jaata hai inmein gruh naheen aateddhan. 7 uchch tatha 7 nimn. uchch lokon mein sabse neeche hai pruthvi. uchch lok hain- bhoo, bhuvas, svar, mahas, janas, tapas va satya jo saamaajya hai. nimn lok hain - ataal, vitaal, sutaal, rasaatal, talaatal, mahaatal tatha paataal. mrutyu ke nirnaya dharmaraaj yam praani ke achhe-bure karm dekhkar tay karatein hain ki aatma kis lok mein jaae. ye itaralok keval asthaai vaas sthaan hain. yahaaain se aatma ko pun: pruthvi par janm lena hota hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki keval pruthvi lok se hi aur manushya yoni ke baad hi karmon ke anusaar aatma ko moksh praapt ho sakta hai. [1] [2] [3]

sandarbh

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_mythology
  2. Sanskrit Documents Collection: Documents in ITX format of Upanishads, Stotras etc.
  3. Clay Sanskrit Library publishes classical Indian literature, including the Mahabharata and Ramayana, with facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and downloadable materials.