hindu panchaang

varsh 1871-72 ke hindu panchaang ka ek prushth

hindu panchaang hindu samaaj dvaara maane jaane wala calendar hai. iske bhinn-bhinn roop me yeh lagbhag poore Nepal aur Bhaarat me maana jaata hai. panchaang (panch + ang = paanch ang) hindu kaal-ganana ki reeti se nirmit paaramparik kailendar ya kaaladarshak ko kehte hain. panchaang naam paaainch pramukh bhaagon se bane hone ke kaaran hai, yeh hai- tithi, vaar, nakshatr, yog aur karan. iski ganana ke aadhaar par hindu panchaang ki teen dhaaraaeain hain- pehli chandra aadhaarit, doosari nakshatr aadhaarit aur teesari soorya aadhaarit calendar paddhati. bhinn-bhinn roop mein yeh poore Bhaarat mein maana jaata hai.

ek saal mein 12 maheene hote hain. pratyek maheene mein 15 din ke do paksh hote hain- shukl aur Krishna. pratyek saal mein do ayan hote hain. in do ayanon ki raashiyon mein 27 nakshatr bhraman karte rahate hain. 12 maas ka ek varsh aur 7 din ka ek saptaah rakhane ka prachalan vikram samvat se shuroo hua. maheene ka hisaab soorya va chandrama ki gati par rakha jaata hai. yeh 12 raashiyaaain baarah saur maas hain. jis din soorya jis raashi me pravesh karta hai usi din ki sankraanti hoti hai. poornima ke din chandrama jis nakshatr me hota hai usi aadhaar par maheenon ka naamakaran hua hai. chandra varsh, saur varsh se 11 din 3 ghadi 48 pal chhota hai. iseeliye har 3 varsh me isame ek maheena jod diya jaata hai jise adhik maas kehte hain.

anukram

tithi

ek din ko tithi kaha gaya hai jo panchaang ke aadhaar par unnees ghante se lekar chaubees ghante tak ki hoti hai. chandra maas mein 30 tithiyaaain hoti hain, jo do pakshon mein bainti hain. shukl paksh mein ek se chaudah aur fir poornima aati hai. poornima sahit kul milaakar pandrah tithi. Krishna paksh mein ek se chaudah aur fir amaavasya aati hai. amaavasya sahit pandrah tithi.

tithiyon ke naam nimn hain- poornima (pooranamaasi), pratipda (padva), dviteeya (dooj), truteeya (teej), chaturthi (chauth), panchami (panchami), shashthi (chhath), saptami (saatam), ashtami (aatham), navami (naumi), dashami (dasam), ekaadashi (gyaaras), dvaadashi (baaras), trayodashi (teras), chaturdashi (chaudas) aur amaavasya (amaavas).

vaar

ek saptaah mein saat din hote hain:-somvaar, mangalvaar, Budhvaar, guruvaar, shukravaar, shanivaar aur ravivaar

nakshatr

aakaash mein taaraamandal ke vibhinn roopon mein dikhaai dene vaale aakaar ko nakshatr kehte hain. moolat: nakshatr 27 maane gaye hain. jyotishiyon dvaara ek anya abhijit nakshatr bhi maana jaata hai. chandrama ukt sattaais nakshatron mein bhraman karta hai. nakshatron ke naam neeche chandramaas mein diye gaye hain-

yog

yog 27 prakaar ke hote hain. soorya-chandra ki vishesh dooriyon ki sthitiyon ko yog kehte hain. dooriyon ke aadhaar par banane vaale 27 yogon ke naam kramash: is prakaar hain:- vishkumbh, preeti, aayushmaan, saubhaagya, shobhan, atignd, sukarma, dhruti, shool, gand, vruddhi, dhruv, vyaaghaat, harshan, vajr, siddhi, vyaateepaat, vareeyaan, parigh, Shiv, siddh, saadhya, shubh, shukl, brahm, indr aur vaidhruti.

27 yogon mein se kul 9 yogon ko ashubh maana jaata hai tatha sabhi prakaar ke shubh kaamon mein inse bachane ki salaah di gayi hai. ye ashubh yog hain: vishkumbh, atignd, shool, gand, vyaaghaat, vajr, vyateepaat, parigh aur vaidhruti

karan

ek tithi mein do karan hote hain- ek poorvaardh mein tatha ek uttaraardh mein. kul 11 karan hote hain- bav, baalav, kaulav, taitil, gar, vanij, vishti, shakuni, chatushpaad, naag aur kistughn. Krishna paksh ki chaturdashi (14) ke uttaraardh mein shakuni, amaavasya ke poorvaardh mein chatushpaad, amaavasya ke uttaraardh mein naag aur shukl paksh ki pratipda ke poorvaardh mein kistughn karan hota hai. vishti karan ko bhadra kehte hain. bhadra mein shubh kaarya varjit maane gaye hain.

paksh

pratyek maheene mein tees din hote hain. tees dinon ko chandrama ki kalaaon ke ghatne aur badhne ke aadhaar par do pakshon yaani shukl paksh aur Krishna paksh mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. ek paksh mein lagbhag pandrah din ya do saptaah hote hain. ek saptaah mein saat din hote hain. shukl paksh mein chandra ki kalaaeain badhti hain aur Krishna paksh mein ghatati hain.

maheenon ke naam

in baarah maason ke naam aakaashamandal ke nakshatron mein se 12 nakshatron ke naamon par rakhe gaye hain. jis maas jo nakshatr aakaash mein praaya: raatri ke aarambh se ant tak dikhaai deta hai ya kah sakte hain ki jis maas ki poornamaasi ko chandrama jis nakshatr mein hota hai, usi ke naam par us maas ka naam rakha gaya hai. chitra nakshatr ke naam par chaitr maas (March-April), vishaakha nakshatr ke naam par vaishaakh maas (April-May), jyeshtha nakshatr ke naam par jyeshth maas (May-June), aashaadha nakshatr ke naam par aashaadh maas (June-July), shravan nakshatr ke naam par shraavan maas (July-August), bhaadrapad (bhaadra) nakshatr ke naam par bhaadrapad maas (August-sitmbar), ashvini ke naam par aashvin maas (sitmbar-October), kruttika ke naam par kaartik maas (October-November), mrugasheersh ke naam par maargasheersh (November-December), pushya ke naam par paush (December-January), magha ke naam par maagh (January-February) tatha faalguni nakshatr ke naam par faalgun maas (February-March) ka naamakaran hua hai.

maheenon ke naam poornima ke din chandrama is nakshatr hota hai
chaitr chitra, svaati
vaishaakh vishaakha, anuraadha
jyeshth jyeshtha, mool
aashaadh poorvaashaadh, uttaraashaadh
shraavan shravan, dhanishtha, shatabhisha
bhaadrapad poorvabhaadr, uttarabhaadr
aashvin revati, Ashwin, bharani
kaartik krutika, rohani
maargasheersh mrugashira, aardra
paush punavarsu, pushya
maagh ashlesha, magha
faalgun poorv faalgun, uttar faalgun, hast

sauramaas

sauramaas ka aarambh soorya ki sankraanti se hota hai. soorya ki ek sankraanti se doosari sankraanti ka samay sauramaas kahalaata hai. yeh maas praaya: tees, ikatees din ka hota hai. kabhi-kabhi atthaais aur untees din ka bhi hota hai. moolat: sauramaas (saur-varsh) 365 din ka hota hai.

12 raashiyon ko baarah sauramaas maana jaata hai. jis din soorya jis raashi mein pravesh karta hai usi din ki sankraanti hoti hai. is raashi pravesh se hi sauramaas ka naya maheena ‍ashuroo maana gaya hai. saur-varsh ke do bhaag hain- uttaraayan chhah maah ka aur dakshinaayan bhi chhah maas ka. jab soorya uttaraayan hota hai tab hindu dharm anusaar yeh teerth yaatra va utsavon ka samay hota hai. puraanon anusaar Ashwin, kaartik maas mein teerth ka mahatva bataaya gaya hai. uttaraayan ke samay paush-maagh maas chal raha hota hai.

makar sankraanti ke din soorya uttaraayan hota hai jabki soorya dhanu se makar raashi mein pravesh karta hai. soorya kark raashi mein pravesh karta hai tab soorya dakshinaayan hota hai. dakshinaayan vraton ka aur upavaas ka samay hota hai jabki chandramaas anusaar ashaadh ya shraavan maas chal raha hota hai. vrat se rog aur shok mitte hain. dakshinaayan mein vivaah aur upanayan aadi sanskaar varjit hai, jab ki agrahaayan maas mein ye sab kiya ja sakta hai agar soorya vrushchik raashi mein ho. aur uttaraayan saur maason mein meen maas mai vivaah varjit hai.

sauramaas ke naam : mesh, vrushabh, mithun, kark, Singh, kanya, tula, vrush‍aachik, dhanu, makar, Kumbh, meen.

soorya ke dhanusankraman se makarasankraman tak makar raashi mein rahata he. ise dhanurmaas kehte hai. is maah ka dhaarmik jagat mein vishesh mahatva hai.

chandramaas

chandrama ki kala ki ghat-badh vaale do pakshon (krush‍aan aur shukl) ka jo ek maas hota hai vahi chandramaas kahalaata hai. yeh do prakaar ka shukl pratipda se praarambh hokar amaavasya ko poorn hone wala 'amaant' maas mukh‍aaya chandramaas hai. krush‍aan pratipda se 'poornimaat' poora hone wala gaun chandramaas hai. yeh tithi ki ghat-badh ke anusaar 29, 30 va 28 evam 27 dinon ka bhi hota hai.

poornima ke din, chandrama jis nakshatr mein hota hai usi aadhaar par maheenon ka naamakaran hua hai. saur-varsh se 11 din 3 ghati 48 pal chhota hai chandra-varsh iseeliye har 3 varsh mein ismein 1 maheena jod diya jaata hai.

sauramaas 365 din ka aur chandramaas 355 din ka hone se prativrsh 10 din ka antar aa jaata hai. in das dinon ko chandramaas hi maana jaata hai. fir bhi aise bade hue dinon ko 'malamaas' ya 'adhimaas' kehte hain.

chandramaas ke naam : chaitr, vaishaakh, jyeshth, aashaadh, shraavan, bhaadrapad, aashvin, kaartik, maargasheersh, paush, maagh tatha faalgun.

nakshatramaas

aakaash mein sthit taara-samooh ko nakshatr kehte hain. saadhaaranat: yeh chandrama ke path se jude hain. rigved mein ek sthaan par soorya ko bhi nakshatr kaha gaya hai. anya nakshatron mein saptarshi aur agastya hain. nakshatr se jyotisheeya ganana karna vedaang jyotish ka ang hai. nakshatr hamaare aakaash mandal ke meal ke pattharon ki tarah hain jisse aakaash ki vyaapakata ka pata chalta hai. vaise nakshatr to 88 hain kintu chandra path par 27 hi maane gaye hain.

chandrama ash‍aavini se lekar revati tak ke nakshatr mein vichran karta hai vah kaal nakshatramaas kahalaata hai. yeh lagbhag 27 dinon ka hota hai iseeliye 27 dinon ka ek nakshatramaas kahalaata hai.

maheenon ke naam poornima ke din chandrama jis nakshatr mein rahata hai:

  1. chaitr : chitra, svaati.
  2. vaishaakh : vishaakha, anuraadha.
  3. jyeshth : jyeshtha, mool.
  4. aashaadh : poorvaashaadh, uttaraashaadh, satabhisha.
  5. shraavan : shravan, dhanishtha.
  6. bhaadrapad : poorvabhaadr, uttarabhaadr.
  7. aashvin : Ashwin, revati, bharani.
  8. kaartik : krutika, rohani.
  9. maargasheersh : mrugashira, uttara.
  10. paush : punarvasu, pushya.
  11. maagh : magha, ashlesha.
  12. faalgun : poorvaafaalgun, uttaraafaalgun, hast.
nakshatron ke gruh svaami
  1. ketu : Ashwin, magha, mool.
  2. shukr : bharani, poorvaafaalguni, poorvaashaadh.
  3. ravi : kaartik, uttaraafaalguni, uttaraashaadh.
  4. chandra : rohini, hast, shravan.
  5. mangal : mॄgashira, chitra, shravishtha.
  6. raahu : aadra, svaati, shatabhisha.
  7. bruhaspati : punarvasu, vishaakha, poorvabhaadrapada.
  8. shani . pushya, anuraadha, uttarabhaadrapada.
  9. budh : ashlesha, jyeshtha, revati.

inhe bhi dekhein

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