hindu maapan pranaali

hindu samay maapan (laghuganakeeya paimaane par)

ganit aur maapan ke beech ghanisht sambandh hai. isaliye aashcharya naheen ki Bhaarat mein ati praacheen kaal se dono ka saath-saath vikaas hua.

sanskrut kein shulb shabd ka arth naapane ki rassi ya dori hota hai. apne naam ke anusaar shulb sootron mein yagya-vediyon ko naapana, unke liye sthaan ka chunana tatha unke nirmaan aadi vishyon ka vistrut varnan hai.

anukram

samay

praacheen hindu khagoleeya aur pauraanik granthon mein varnit samay chakr aashcharyajanak roop se ek samaan hain. praacheen bhaarateeya bhaar aur maapan paddhatiyaan abhi bhi prayog mein hain, mukhyat: hindu aur jain dharm ke dhaarmik uddeshyon mein. yeh sabhi surat shabd yog mein bhi padhaai jaateen hain. iske saath saath hi hindu granthon mein lambaai, bhaar, kshetrafal maapan ki bhi ikaaiyaaain parimaan sahit ullikhit hain.

hindu brahmaandeeya samayachakr soorya siddhaant ke pehle adhyaaya ke shlok 11–23 mein aate hain.[1]:

(shlok 11) : vah jo ki shvaas (praan) se aarambh hota hai, yathaarth kahalaata hai; aur vah jo truti se aarambh hota hai, avaastavik kahalaata hai. chh: shvaas se ek vinaadi banti hai. saath shvaason se ek naadi banti hai.

(12) aur saath naadiyon se ek diwas (din aur raatri) bante hain. tees divson se ek maas (maheena) banta hai. ek naagrik (saavan) maas sooryodayon ki sankhyaaon ke baraabar hota hai.

(13) ek chandra maas, utani chandra tithiyon se banta hai. ek saur maas soorya ke raashi mein pravesh se nishchit hota hai. baarah maas ek varash banaate hain. ek varash ko devataaon ka ek diwas kehte hain.

(14) devataaon aur daityon ke din aur raatri paarasparik ulate hote hain. unke chh: guna saath devataaon ke (divya) varsh hote hain. aise hi daityon ke bhi hote hain.

(15) baarah sahasr (hajaar) divya varshon ko ek chaturyug kehte hain. yeh chaar lakh battees hajaar saur varshon ka hota hai.

(16) chaturyugi ki usha aur sandhya kaal hote hain. kॄtayug ya satayug aur anya yugon ka antar, jaise maapa jaata hai, vah is prakaar hai, jo ki charanon mein hota hai:

(17) ek chaturyugi ka dashaansh ko kramash: chaar, teen, do aur ek se guna karne par kॄtayug aur anya yugon ki avadhi milti hai. in sabhi ka chhatha bhaag inki usha aur sandhya hota hai.

(18) ikahattar chaturyugi ek manvantar ya ek manu ki aayu hote hain. iske ant par sandhya hoti hai, jiski avadhi ek satayug ke baraabar hoti hai aur yeh pralaya hoti hai.

(19) ek kalp mein chaudah manvantar hote hain, apni sandhyaaon ke saath; pratyek kalp ke aarambh mein pandrahaveen sandhya/usha hoti hai. yeh bhi satayug ke baraabar hi hoti hai.

(20) ek kalp mein, ek hajaar chaturyugi hote hain aur fir ek pralaya hoti hai. yeh brahma ka ek din hota hai. iske baad itni hi lambi raatri bhi hoti hai.

(21). is din aur raatri ke aakalan se unki aayu ek sau varsh hoti hai; unki aadhi aayu nikal chuki hai aur shesh mein se yeh pratham kalp hai.

(22) is kalp mein, chh: manu apni sandhyaaon samet nikal chuke, ab saatavein manu (vaivasvat: vivsvaan (soorya) ke putr) ka sattaisavaan chaturyugi beet chuka hai.

(23) vartamaan mein, atthaaisavaan chaturyugi ka kॄtayug beet chuka hai. us bindu se samay ka aakalan kiya jaata hai.

hindu samay maapan, (kaal vyavahaar) ka saar nimn likhit hai:

laghuganakeeya paimaane par, hindu samay ikaaiyaaain

naakshatreeya maapan

  • ek parmaanu = maanaveeya chakshu ke palak jhapakane ka samay = lagbhag 4 saikind
  • ek vighti = 6 parmaanu = (vighti) is 24 saikind
  • ek ghati ya ghadi = 60 vighti = 24 minute
  • ek muhoort = 2 ghadiyaan = 48 minute
  • ek nakshatr ahoraatram ya naakshatreeya diwas = 30 muhoort (diwas ka aarambh sooryodaya se agale sooryodaya tak, na ki ardharaatri se)

vishnu puraan mein diya gaya ak anya vaikalpik paddhati samay maapan paddhati anubhaag, vishnu puraan, bhaag-1, adhyaaya tॄteeya nimn hai:

  • 10 palak jhapakane ka samay = 1 kaashtha
  • 35 kaashtha= 1 kala
  • 20 kala= 1 muhoort
  • 10 muhoort= 1 diwas (24 ghante)
  • 50 diwas= 1 maas
  • 6 maas= 1 ayan
  • 2 ayan= 1 varsh, = 1 divya diwas

chhoti vaidik samay ikaaiyaaain

  • ek tॄsarenu = 6 brahmaandeeya anu.
  • ek truti = 3 tॄsarenu, ya saikind ka 1/1687.5 bhaag
  • ek vedh = 100 truti.
  • ek laava = 3 vedh.[2]
  • ek nimesh = 3 laava, ya palak jhapakana
  • ek kshan = 3 nimesh.
  • ek kaashtha = 5 kshan, = 8 saikind
  • ek laghu =15 kaashtha, = 2 minute.[3]
  • 15 laghu = 1 naadi, jise dand bhi kehte hain. iska maan us samay ke baraabar hota hai, jismein ki chh: pal bhaar ke (chaudah aauns) ke taamr paatr se jal poorn roop se nikal jaaye, jabki us paatr mein chaar maase ki chaar angul lambi sooin se chhidr kiya gaya ho. aisa paatr samay aakalan hetu banaaya jaata hai.
  • 2 dand = 1 muhoort.
  • 6 ya 7 muhoort = 1 yaam, ya ek chauthaai din ya ratri. [4]
  • 4 yaam ya prahar = 1 din ya raatri. [5]

chaaaindr maapan

ooshn katibndheeya maapan

  • ek yaam = 7½ ghati
  • 8 yaam ardh diwas = din ya raatri
  • ek ahoraatr = naakshatreeya diwas (jo ki sooryodaya se aarambh hota hai)

anya astitvon ke sandarbh mein kaal-ganana

pitron ki samay ganana
  • 15 maanav diwas = ek pitॄ diwas
  • 30 pitॄ diwas = 1 pitॄ maas
  • 12 pitॄ maas = 1 pitॄ varsh
  • pitॄ jeevan kaal = 100 pitॄ varsh= 1200 pitru maas = 36000 pitॄ diwas= 18000 maanav maas = 1500 maanav varsh
devataaon ki kaal ganana
  • 1 maanav varsh = ek divya diwas
  • 30 divya diwas = 1 divya maas
  • 12 divya maas = 1 divya varsh
  • divya jeevan kaal = 100 divya varsh= 36000 maanav varsh

vishnu puraan ke anusaar kaal-ganana vibhaag, vishnu puraan bhaag 1, tॄteeya adhyaaya ke anusaar:

  • 2 ayan (chh: maas avadhi, oopar dekhein) = 1 maanav varsh = ek divya diwas
  • 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divya varsh = 1 kॄt yug
  • 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divya varsh = 1 treta yug
  • 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divya varsh = 1 dvaapar yug
  • 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divya varsh = 1 kali yug
  • 12,000 divya varsh = 4 yug = 1 mahaayug (divya yug bhi kehte hain)
brahma ki kaal ganana
  • 1000 mahaayug= 1 kalp = brahma ka 1 diwas (keval din) (chaar kharab battees arab maanav varsh; aur yahoo soorya ki khagoleeya vaigyaanik aayu bhi hai).

(do kalp brahma ke ek din aur raat banaate hain)

  • 30 brahma ke din = 1 brahma ka maas (do kharab 59 arab 20 karod maanav varsh)
  • 12 brahma ke maas = 1 brahma ke varsh (31 kharab 10 arab 4 karod maanav varsh)
  • 50 brahma ke varsh = 1 paraardh
  • 2 paraardh= 100 brahma ke varsh= 1 mahaakalp (brahma ka jeevan kaal)(31 shankh 10 kharab 40arab maanav varsh)

brahma ka ek diwas 10,000 bhaagon mein banta hota hai, jise charan kehte hain:

chaaron yug
4 charan (1,728,000 saur varsh) sat yug
3 charan (1,296,000 saur varsh) treta yug
2 charan (864,000 saur varsh) dvaapar yug
1 charan (432,000 saur varsh) kali yug

(veda_besa_dauta_net se)

yeh chakr aise doharaata rahata hai, ki brahma ke ek diwas mein 1000 mahaayug ho jaate hain

  • ek uparokt yugon ka chakr = ek mahaayug (43 lakh 20 hajaar saur varsh)
  • shreemadbhagvadageeta ke anusaar "sahasr-yug ahar-yad brahmano vidu:", arthaat brahma ka ek diwas = 1000 mahaayug. iske anusaar brahma ka ek diwas = 4 arab 32 kharab saur varsh. isi prakaar itni hi avadhi brahma ki raatri ki bhi hai.
  • ek manvantar mein 71 mahaayug (306,720,000 saur varsh) hote hain. pratyek manvantar ke shaasak ek manu hote hain.
  • pratyek manvantar ke baad, ek sandhi-kaal hota hai, jo ki kॄtayug ke baraabar ka hota hai (1,728,000 = 4 charan) (is sandhi-kaal mein pralaya hone se poorn pॄthvi jalamagn ho jaati hai.)
  • ek kalp mein 1,728,000 saur varsh hote hain, jise aadi sandhi kehte hain, jiske baad 14 manvantar aur sandhi kaal aate hain
  • brahma ka ek din baraabar hai:
(14 guna 71 mahaayug) + (15 x 4 charan)
= 994 mahaayug + (60 charan)
= 994 mahaayug + (6 x 10) charan
= 994 mahaayug + 6 mahaayug
= 1,000 mahaayug

paalya

ek paalya samay ki ikaai hai, yeh baraabar hoti hai, bhed ki oon ka ek yojan ooncha ghan banaane mein laga samay, yadi pratyek sootr ek shataabdi mein chadhaaya gaya ho. iski doosari paribhaasha anusaar, ek chhoti chidiya dvaara kisi ek varg meal ke sookshm reshon se bhare kune ko rikt karne mein laga samay, yadi vah pratyek reshe ko prati sau varsh mein uthaati hai.

yeh ikaai Bhagwan aadinaath ke avataran ke samay ki hai. yathaarth mein yeh 100,000,000,000,000 paalya pehle tha.

vartamaan tithi

koi bhi shubh kaarya karne ke pehle hinduon mein jo sankalp liya jaata hai usamein bhaarateeya kaalaganana ki mahaanata drushtigt hai -

...shri brahmano dviteeyaparaardhde shri shvetavaaraahakalpe vaivasvatamanvantareऽshtaavinshati tame kaliyuge kaliprathamacharane jamboodveepe bhaaratavarshe bharatakhande aaryaavartaantargate brahmavartaikadeshe punyapradeshe baudhdaavataare vartamaane yathaanaam sanvatsare (2055 san 1998) mahaamaangalyaprade maasottame kaartikmaase krushnapakshe chaturthi tithiyau dinaank diwas (vaar) samay shubhayoge ....

ham vartamaan mein vartamaan brahma ke ikyaavanavein varsh mein saatavein manu, vaivasvat manu ke shaasan mein shvetavaaraah kalp ke dviteeya paraardh mein, aththaaisavein kaliyug ke pratham varsh ke pratham diwas mein vikram samvat 2064 mein hain. is prakaar abatak pandrah shankh pachaas kharab varsh is brahma ko sॄjit hue ho gaye hain.

vartamaan kaliyug dinaaaink 17 February / 18 February ko 3102 E.poo. mein hua tha, gregoriyn kailendar ke anusaar.

lambaai ki ikaaiyaaain

pruthvi ki lambaai hetu sarvaadhik prayogit ikaai hai yojan. dhaarmik vidvaan bhaktivedaant svaami prabhupaad dvaara unke pauraanik anuvaadon mein sabhi sthaanon par yojan ki lambaai ko 8 meal (13 ki.mi.) bataaya gaya hai.[2] . adhikaansh bhaarateeya vidvaan iska maap 13 ki॰mee॰ se 16 ki॰mee॰ (8-10 meal) ke lagbhag bataate hain.

chhoti ikaaiyaan

iski anya ikaaiyaan is prakaar hain:

hindu hast parimaan- angushth se vibhinn anguliyon ki dooriyaan
  • 8 yav = 1 angul
  • 1 angul = 16 mimi se 21 mimi (mm)
  • 4 angul = ek dhanu grah = 62 mimi se 83 mimi;
  • 8 angul = ek dhanu mushti (angushth utha ke) = 125 mm se 167 mm ;
  • 12 angul = 1 vitsti (angushth ke sire se poore haath ko khol kar kanishthika anguli ke sire tak ki doori) = 188 mm se 250 mm
  • 2 vitsti = 1 aratni (hast) = 375 mm se 500 mm
  • 4 arati = 1 dand = 1.5 se 2.0 m
  • 2 dand = 1 dhanu = 3 se 4 m
  • 5 dhanu = 1 rajju = 15 m se 20 m
  • 2 rajju = 1 paridesh = 30 m se 40 m
  • 100 paridesh = 1 krosh ya kos (ya gorat) = 3 kimi (km) se 4 kimi
  • 4 kos ya kosh = 1 yojan = 13 km se 16 km
  • 1,000 yojan = 1 mahaayojan = 13,000 Km se 16,000 Km

rajju ya rajalok

ek rajalok hota hai - ek devata dvaara 2,057,152 yojan prati samay ki gati se chh: maas mein tay ki doori. yeh lagbhag 2,047,540,985,856,000 kilometer ya 216.5 prakaash varsh) ke baraabar hogi. ise 1000 bhaar ki lauh geind ko chh: maas mukt gati se svarg, Indra ke gruh se giraaya jaaye, to usase tay hui doori ke baraabar bhi maana ja sakta hai.

  • 7 rajju = 1 jagashreni

kshetrafal ki ikaaiyaaain

beegha (Bhaarat mein)

ek beegha baraabar hai:

  • 2500 varg meter (Rajasthan) mein
  • 1333.33 varg meter (Bengal) mein
  • 14,400 varg feet (1337.8 m²) ya 5 katha (Assam) mein, ek katha = 2,880 varg feet (267.56 m²).
  • ek kaththa= 720 varg feet
beegha (Nepal mein)
  • 1 beegha = 20 kaththa (lagbhag 2,603.7 m²)
  • 1 kaththa = 20 dhur (lagbhag 130.19 m²)
  • 1 beegha= 13.9 ropani
  • 1 ropani = 16 aana (lagbhag 508.72 m²)
  • 1 aana= 4 paisa (lagbhag 31.80 m²)
  • 1 paisa= 4 daam (7.95 m²)

bhaar ki ikaaiyaaain

ratti

ek ratti bhaarateeya paaramparik bhaar maapan ikaai hai, jise ab 0.12125 gram par maanakeekrut kiya gaya hai. yeh ratti ke beej ke bhaar ke baraabar hota tha.

  • 1 tola = 12 maasha = 11.67 gram (yeh tola ke beej ke bhaar ke baraabarhota tha, jo ki kuchh sthaanon par jara badal jaata tha)[3]
  • 1 maasha = 8 ratti = 0.97 gram
  • 1 dharani = 2.3325 kilogram (lagbhag 5.142 paaund) = 12 paav (yeh Nepal mein prayog hoti thi).
  • 1 ser = 1 liter = 1.06 kvaart (ise san 1871 mein yathaarth 1 liter maanakeekrut kiya gaya tha, jo ki baad mein aprachalit ho gayi thi)
  • 1 panseri = 4.677 kg (10.3 paaund) = paanch ser
  • 1 ser = 80 tola chaaval ka bhaar

inhein bhi dekhein

tippani

  1. cf. Burgess.
  2. Srimad Bhagavatam 10.57.18 (translation) "one yojana measures about eight miles"
  3. [1]

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaan