hindu kaal ganana

hindu samay maapan, laghuganakeeya paimaane par

praacheen hindu khagoleeya aur pauraanik paathyon mein varnit samay chakr aashcharyajanak roop se ek samaan hain. praacheen bhaarateeya bhaar aur maapan paddhatiyaan, abhi bhi prayog mein hain (mukhyat: hindu aur jain dharm ke dhaarmik uddeshyon mein). yeh sabhi surat shabd yog mein bhi padhaai jaateen hain. iske saath saath hi hindu granthon mॆn lambaai, bhaar, kshetrafl maapan ki bhi ikaaiyaaain parimaan sahit ullekhit hain.

hindu brahmaandeeya samay chakr soorya siddhaant ke pehle adhyaaya ke shlok 11–23 mein aate hain.[1]:

"(shlok 11). vah jo ki shvaas (praan) se aarambh hota hai, yathaarth kahalaata hai; aur vah jo truti se aarambh hota hai, avaastavik kahalaata hai. chh: shvaas se ek vinaadi banti hai. saath shvaason se ek naadi banti hai.

(12). aur saath naadiyon se ek diwas (din aur raatri) bante hain. tees divson se ek maas (maheena) banta hai. ek naagrik (saavan) maas sooryodayon ki sankhyaaon ke baraabar hota hai.

(13). ek chandra maas, utani chandra tithiyon se banta hai. ek saur maas soorya ke raashi mein pravesh se nishchit hota hai. baarah maas ek varash banaate hain. ek varash ko devataaon ka ek diwas kehte hain.

(14). devataaon aur daityon ke din aur raatri paarasparik ulate hote hain. unke chh: guna saath devataaon ke (divya) varsh hote hain. aise hi daityon ke bhi hote hain.

(15). baarah sahasr (hajaar) divya varshon ko ek chaturyug kehte hain. yeh chaar lakh battees hajaar saur varshon ka hota hai.

(16) chaturyugi ki usha aur sandhya kaal hote hain. kॄtayug ya satayug aur anya yugon ka antar, jaise maapa jaata hai, vah is prakaar hai, jo ki charanon mein hota hai:

(17). ek chaturyugi ka dashaansh ko kramash: chaar, teen, do aur ek se guna karne par kॄtayug aur anya yugon ki avadhi milti hai. in sabhi ka chhatha bhaag inki usha aur sandhya hota hai.

(18). ikahattar chaturyugi ek manvantar ya ek manu ki aayu hote hain. iske ant par sandhya hoti hai, jiski avadhi ek satayug ke baraabar hoti hai aur yeh pralaya hoti hai. (19). ek kalp mein chaudah manvantar hote hain, apni sandhyaaon ke saath; pratyek kalp ke aarambh mein pandrahaveen sandhya/usha hoti hai. yeh bhi satayug ke baraabar hi hoti hai.

(20). ek kalp mein, ek hajaar chaturyugi hote hain aur fir ek pralaya hoti hai. yeh brahma ka ek din hota hai. iske baad itni hi lambi raatri bhi hoti hai.

(21). is din aur raatri ke aakalan se unki aayu ek sau varsh hoti hai; unki aadhi aayu nikal chuki hai aur shesh mein se yeh pratham kalp hai.

(22). is kalp mein, chh: manu apni sandhyaaon samet nikal chuke, ab saatavein manu (vaivasvat: vivsvaan (soorya) ke putr) ka sattaisavaan chaturyugi beet chuka hai.

(23). vartamaan mein, atthaaisavaan chaturyugi ka kॄtayug beet chuka hai. us bindu se samay ka aakalan kiya jaata hai.

anukram

samay

hindu samay maapan, (kaal vyavahaar) ka saar nimn likhit hai:

laghuganakeeya paimaane par, hindu samay ikaaiyaaain

naakshatreeya maapan

  • ek parmaanu maanaveeya chakshu ke palak jhapakane ka samay = lagbhag 4 saikind
  • ek vighti = 6 parmaanu = 24 saikind
  • ek ghati ya ghadi = 60 vighti = 24 minute
  • ek muhoort = 2 ghadiyaan = 48 minute
  • ek nakshatr ahoraatram ya naakshatreeya diwas = 30 muhoort (diwas ka aarambh sooryodaya se agale sooryodaya tak, na ki ardharaatri se)

vishnu puraan mein di gayi ek anya vaikalpik paddhati samay maapan paddhati anubhaag, vishnu puraan, bhaag-1, adhyaaya tॄteeya nimn hai:

  • 10 palak jhapakane ka samay = 1 kaashtha
  • 35 kaashtha= 1 kala
  • 20 kala= 1 muhoort
  • 10 muhoort= 1 diwas (24 ghante)
  • 30 diwas= 1 maas
  • 6 maas= 1 ayan
  • 2 ayan= 1 varsh, = 1 divya diwas

chhoti vaidik samay ikaaiyaaain

  • ek tॄsarenu = 6 brahmaandeeya '.
  • ek truti = 3 tॄsarenu, ya saikind ka 1/1687.5 bhaag
  • ek vedh =100 truti.
  • ek laava = 3 vedh.[2]
  • ek nimesh = 3 laava, ya palak jhapakana
  • ek kshan = 3 nimesh.
  • ek kaashtha = 5 kshan, = 8 saikind
  • ek laghu =15 kaashtha, = 2 minute.[3]
  • 15 laghu = ek naadi, jise dand bhi kehte hain. iska maan us samay ke baraabar hota hai, jismein ki chh: pal bhaar ke (chaudah aauns) ke taamr paatr se jal poorn roop se nikal jaaye, jabki us paatr mein chaar maase ki chaar angul lambi sooin se chhidr kiya gaya ho. aisa paatr samay aakalan hetu banaaya jaata hai.
  • 2 dand = ek muhoort.
  • 6 ya 7 muhoort = ek yaam, ya ek chauthaai din ya ratri.[2]
  • 4 yaam ya prahar = ek din ya raatri. [4]

chaaaindr maapan

ooshn katibndheeya maapan

  • ek yaam = 7½ ghati
  • 8 yaam ardh diwas = din ya raatri
  • ek ahoraatr = naakshatreeya diwas (jo ki sooryodaya se aarambh hota hai)

anya astitvon ke sandarbh mein kaal-ganana

pitron ki samay ganana
  • 15 maanav diwas = ek pitॄ diwas
  • 30 pitॄ diwas = 1 pitॄ maas
  • 12 pitॄ maas = 1 pitॄ varsh
  • pitॄ jeevan kaal = 100 pitॄ varsh= 1200 pitru maas = 36000 pitॄ diwas= 18000 maanav maas = 1500 maanav varsh
devataaon ki kaal ganana
  • 1 maanav varsh = ek divya diwas
  • 30 divya diwas = 1 divya maas
  • 12 divya maas = 1 divya varsh
  • divya jeevan kaal = 100 divya varsh= 36000 maanav varsh

vishnu puraan ke anusaar kaal-ganana vibhaag, vishnu puraan bhaag 1, tॄteeya adhyaaya ke anusaar:

chaar yug
  • 2 ayan (chh: maas avadhi, oopar dekhein) = 360 maanav varsh = ek divya varsh
  • 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divya varsh = 1 sat yug
  • 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divya varsh = 1 treta yug
  • 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divya varsh = 1 dvaapar yug
  • 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divya varsh = 1 kali yug
  • 12,000 divya varsh = 4 yug = 1 mahaayug (divya yug bhi kehte hain)
brahma ki kaal ganana
  • 1000 mahaayug= 1 kalp = brahma ka 1 diwas (keval din) (chaar kharab battees arab maanav varsh; aur yahi soorya ki khagoleeya vaigyaanik aayu bhi hai).

(do kalp brahma ke ek din aur raat banaate hain)

  • 30 brahma ke din = 1 brahma ka maas (do kharab 59 arab 20 karod maanav varsh)
  • 12 brahma ke maas = 1 brahma ke varsh (31 kharab 10 arab 4 karod maanav varsh)
  • 50 brahma ke varsh = 1 paraardh
  • 2 paraardh= 100 brahma ke varsh= 1 mahaakalp (brahma ka jeevan kaal)(31 shankh 10 kharab 40arab maanav varsh)

brahma ka ek diwas 10,000 bhaagon mein banta hota hai, jise charan kehte hain:

chaaron yug
4 charan (1,728,000 saur varsh) sat yug
3 charan (1,296,000 saur varsh) treta yug
2 charan (864,000 saur varsh) dvaapar yug
1 charan (432,000 saur varsh) kali yug

[5]

yeh chakr aise doharaata rahata hai, ki brahma ke ek diwas mein 1000 mahaayug ho jaate hain

  • ek uparokt yugon ka chakr = ek mahaayug (43 lakh 20 hajaar saur varsh)
  • shreemadbhagvadageeta ke anusaar "sahasr-yug ahar-yad brahmano vidu:", arthaat brahma ka ek diwas = 1000 mahaayug. iske anusaar brahma ka ek diwas = 4 arab 32 kharab saur varsh. isi prakaar itni hi avadhi brahma ki raatri ki bhi hai.
  • ek manvantar mein 71 mahaayug (306,720,000 saur varsh) hote hain. pratyek manvantar ke shaasak ek manu hote hain.
  • pratyek manvantar ke baad, ek sandhi-kaal hota hai, jo ki kॄtayug ke baraabar ka hota hai (1,728,000 = 4 charan) (is sandhi-kaal mein pralaya hone se poorn pॄthvi jalamagn ho jaati hai.)
  • ek kalp mein 864,000,0000 - 8 arab 64 karod saur varsh hote hain, jise aadi sandhi kehte hain, jiske baad 14 manvantar aur sandhi kaal aate hain
  • brahma ka ek din baraabar hai:
(14 guna 71 mahaayug) + (15 x 4 charan)
= 994 mahaayug + (60 charan)
= 994 mahaayug + (6 x 10) charan
= 994 mahaayug + 6 mahaayug
= 1,000 mahaayug

paalya

'paalya' samay ki ek ikaai hai. yeh ikaai, bhed ki oon ka ek yojan ooncha ghan (yadi pratyek sootr ek shataabdi mein chadhaaya gaya ho) banaane mein lage samay ke baraabar hai. doosari paribhaasha anusaar, yeh ek chhoti chidiya (yadi vah pratyek reshe ko prati sau varsh mein uthaati hai) dvaara kisi ek vargameel ke sookshm reshon se bhare kuen ko rikt karne mein lage samay ke baraabar hai.

yeh ikaai Bhagwan aadinaath ke avataran ke samay ki hai. yathaarth mein yeh 100,000,000,000,000 paalya pehle tha.

vartamaan tithi

ham vartamaan mein vartamaan brahma ke ikyaavanavein varsh mein saatavein manu, vaivasvat manu ke shaasan mein shvetavaaraah kalp ke dviteeya paraardh mein, aththaaisavein kaliyug ke pratham varsh ke pratham diwas mein vikram samvat 2070 mein hain. is prakaar abatak 15 neel, 55 kharab, 21 arab, 97 karod, 19 lakh, 61 hajaar, 620 varsh is brahma ko sॄjit hue ho gaye hain.

gregoriyn kailendar ke anusaar vartamaan kaliyug dinaaaink 17 February / 18 February ko 3102 E.poo. mein hua tha.

brahma ji ke ek din mein 14 indr mar jaate hai aur inki jagah nae devata indr ka sthaan lete hai. itni badi hi brahma ki raatri hoti hai. din ki is ganana ke aadhaar par brahma ki aayu 100 varsh hoti hai fir brahma mar jaate hai aur doosra devata brahma ka sthaan grahan karte hain . brahma ki aayu ke baraabar vishnu ka ek din hota hai. is aadhaar par vishnu ji ki aayu 100 varsh hai. vishnu ji 100 varsh ka shankar ji ka ek din hota hai. is din aur raat ke anusaar shankar ji ki aayu 100 varsh hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Ebenezer Burgess. "Translation of the Surya-Siddhanta, a text-book of Hindu Astronomy", Journal of the American Oriental Society 6 (1860): 141–498.
  2. a aa [1]
  3. [2]
  4. http://vedabase.net/sb/3/11/10/en1]

baahari kadiyaan