hindu dharm granth

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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granth
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vishv mein hindu dharm
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vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

hindu dharm vyakti pravartit dharm naheen hai. iska aadhaar vedaadi dharmagranth hai, jinki sankhya bahut badi hai. ye sab do vibhaagon mein vibhkt hai-

  1. is shreni ke granth shruti kahalaate hain. ye apaurusheya maane jaate hain. ismein ved ki chaar sanhitaaon, braahmanon, aaranyakon, upanishdon, vedaang, sootr aadi granthon ki ganana ki jaati hai. aagam granth bhi shruti-shreni mein maane jaate hain.
  1. is shreni ke granth “asmruti´´ kahalaate hain. ye rishi praneet maane jaate hain.

is shreni mein 18 smrutiyaaain, 18 puraan tatha raamaayan va mahaabhaarat ye do itihaas bhi maane jaate hain.

anukram

ved

ved praacheenatam hindu granth hain. aisi maanyata hai ved paramaatma ke mukh se nikle huye vaakya hain. ved shabd ki utpatti sanskrut ke 'vid' shabd se hui hai. vid ka arth hai jaanana ya jnyaaanaarjan, isaliye ved ko "gyaan ka granth kaha ja sakta hai. hindu maanyata ke anusaar gyaan shaashvat hai arthaat srushti ki rachana ke poorv bhi gyaan tha evam srushti ke vinaash ke pashchaat bhi gyaan hi shesh rah jaayega. chooainki ved ishvar ke mukh se nikle aur brahma ji ne unhein suna isaliye ved ko shruti bhi kaha jaata hain. ved sankhya mein chaar hain jo hindu dharm ke aadhaar stambh hain.

shlok

sanskrut ki do panktiyon ki rachana, jinke dvaara kisi prakaar ka kathan kiya jaata hai, ko shlok kehte hain. praay: shlok chhand ke roop mein hote hain arthaat inmein gati, yati aur laya hoti hai. chhand ke roop mein hone ke kaaran ye aasaani se yaad ho jaate hain. praacheenakaal mein gyaan ko lipibddh karke rakhane ki pratha na hone ke kaaran hi is prakaar ka praavadhaan kiya gaya tha.

shruti

ved

yadyapi ved se rigved, yajurved, saamaved tatha atharvaved ki sanhitaaon ka hi bodh hota hai, tathaapi hindu log in sanhitaaon ke alaava braahman granthon, aaranyakon tatha upanishdon ko bhi ved hi maanate hain. inmein rik aadi sanhitaayein stuti pradhaan hain; braahman granth yagya karm pradhaan hain aur aaranyak tatha upanishd gyaan charcha pradhaan hain.

  • rigved sanhita - yeh chaaron sanhitaaon mein pratham gini jaati hai. anya sanhitaaon mein iske anek sookt sangrah kiye gaye hain. yeh ashtakon aur mandalon mein vibhkt hai, jo fir vargon aur anuvaakon mein vibhkt hai. ismein 10 mandal hain, jinmein 1017 sookt hai. in sookton mein shaunak ki anukramani ke anusaar 10,580 mantra hai. yeh sanhita sookton arthaat stotron ka bhandaar hai.
  • saamaved sanhita - yeh koi svatantr sanhita naheen hai. iske adhikaansh mantr rigved ke hi hain. keval 78 mantra iske apne hain. kul 1549 mantr hain. yeh sanhita do bhaagon mein vibhkt hai -
  1. poorvaarchik : poorvaarchik - chh: prapaathakon mein vibhkt hai. ise `chhanda´ aur `chhandasee´ bhi kehte hain. poorvaarchik ko `prakruti´ bhi kehte hain
  2. uttaraarchik : uttaraarchik ko `ooha´ aur `rahasya´ kehte hain.
  • yajurved sanhita - is ved ki do sanhitaayein hain -
  1. ek shukl : shukl yajurved yaajnyaavalkya ko praapt hua. use `vaajasaneyi-sanhitaa´ bhi kehte hain.`vaajasaneyi-sanhitaa´ ki 17 shaakhaayein hain. usamein 40 adhyaaya hain. usaka pratyek adhyaaya kandikaaon mein vibhkt hai, jinki sankhya 1975 hai. iske pehle ke 25 adhyaaya praacheen maane jaate hain aur peechhe ke 15 adhyaaya baad ke. ismein darsh paurnamaas, agnishtom, vaajapeya, agnihotr, chaaturmaasya, ashvamedh, purooshamedh aadi yajnyaon ke varnan hai.
  2. doosari Krishna : Krishna-yajurved-sanhita shukl se ki hai. use `taittiriya-sanhita´ bhi kehte hain. yajurved ke kuchh mantr rigved ke hain to kuchh atharvaved ke hain. `taittiriya-sanhita´ 7 ashtakon ya kaandon mein vibhkt hai. is sanhita mein mantron ke saath braahman ka mishran hai. ismein bhi ashvamedh, jyotishtom, raajasooya, atiraatr aadi yajnyaon ka varnan hai.
  • atharvaved sanhita - yeh sanhita 20 kaandon mein vibhkt hai. pratyek kaand anuvaakon aur anuvaak 760 sookton mein vibhkt hai. is sanhita mein 1200 mantr rik-sanhita ke hain. kul mantr sankhya 6015 hai.

braahman

is shreni ke granth ved ke ang hi maane jaate hain. ye do vibhaagon mein vibhkt hai. ek vibhaag ke karmakaand-sambandhi hain, doosare vibhaag ke jnyaaanakaand-sambandhi hai. jnyaaanakaand-sambandhi braahman granth `upanishd´ kahalaate hain. pratyek braahman granth mein ek-na-ek upanishd avashya hai, kintu svatantr upanishd granth bhi hain, jo kisi bhi braahman ka bhaag naheen hain aur na `aranyakon´ ke hi bhaag hain. kuchh upanishd aranyakon mein bhi paaye jaate hain. braahman granthon mein yagya-vishay ka varnan hai. aranyakon mein vaanaprasth-aashram ke niyamon ka varnan hai. upanishdon mein brahmajnyaaan ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. pratyek braahman kisi na kisi ved se sambandh rakhata hai. rigved ke braahman -aitareya aur kausheetaki (saamaved ke braahman -taandaya, shadvinsh, saamavidhaan, vansh, aarsheya, devataadhyaaya, sanhitopanisht, chhaandogya, jaimineeya, satyaayan aur bhallavi hai (Krishna yajurved ka braahman -taittireeya hai aur shukl yajurved ka shatapath hai (atharvaved ka braahman - gopath braahman hai. ye kuchh mukhya-mukhya braahmanon ke naam hain.

aaranyak

is vibhaag mein aitareya, kausheetaki aur bruhadaaranyak mukhya hain.

upanishd

is vibhaag ke granthon ki sankhya 123 se lekar 1194 tak maani gayi hai, kintu unamein 10 hi mukhya maane gaye hain. ish, ken, kath, prash, mundak, maandookya, taittireeya, aitareya, chhaandogya aur bruhadaaranyak ke atirikt shvetaashvatar aur kausheetaki ko bhi mahattv diya gaya hain.

ukt shruti-granthon ke alaava kuchh aise rishi-praneet granth bhi hain, jinka shruti-granthon se ghanisht sambandh hai.

vedaang aur sootr-granth

vedaang

shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, jyotish, chhand aur nirookt - ye chh: vedaang hai.

  1. shiksha - ismein ved mantron ke uchchaaran karne ki vidhi bataai gayi hai.
  2. kalp - vedon ke kis mantr ka prayog kis karm mein karna chaahiye, iska kathan kiya gaya hai. iski teen shaakhaayein hain- shraut sootr, gruhya sootr aur dharmasootr.
  3. vyaakaran - isse prakruti aur pratyaya aadi ke yog se shabdon ki siddhi aur udaatt, anudaatt tatha svarit svaron ki sthiti ka bodh hota hai.
  4. nirookt - vedon mein jin shabdon ka prayog jin-jin arthon mein kiya gaya hai, unke un-un arthon ka nishchayaatmak roop se ullekh nirookt mein kiya gaya hai.
  5. jyotish - isse vaidik yajnyaon aur anushthaanon ka samay gyaat hota hai. yahaaain jyotish se matlab `vedaang jyotish´ se hai.
  6. chhand - vedon mein prayukt gaayatri, ushnik aadi chhandon ki rachana ka gyaan chhandashaastr se hota hai.

sootr-granth

  1. shraut sootr - inmein mukhya-mukhya yajnyaon ki vidhiyaaain bataai gayi hai. rigved ke saankhyaayan aur aashvalaayan naam ke shraut-sootr hain. saamaved ke mashak, kaatyaayan aur draahyaayan ke shrautasootr hain. shukl yajurved ka kaatyaayan shrautasootr aur Krishna yajurved ke aapastamb, hirnyakeshi, bodhaayan, Bhardwaj aadi ke 6 shrautasootr hain. atharvaved ka vaitaan sootr hai.
  2. dharm sootr - inmein samaaj ki vyavastha ke niyam bataaye gaye hain. aashram, bhojyaabhojya, ooainch-neech, vivaah, daaya evam aparaadh aadi vishyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. dharmasootrakaaron mein aapastamb, hirnyakeshi, bodhaayan, Gautam, vashishth aadi mukhya hain.
  3. gruhya sootr - inmein gruhasthon ke aanhik krutya evam sanskaar tatha vaisi hi doosari dhaarmik baatein bataai gayi hai. gruhya sootron mein saankhyaayan, shaambavya tatha aashvalaayan ke gruhya sootr rigved ke hain. saamaved ke gobhil aur khadir gruhya sootr hain. shukl yajurved ka paaraskar gruhya sootr hai aur Krishna yajurved ke 7 gruhya sootr hain jo uske shrautasootrakaaron ke hi naam par hain. atharvaved ka kaushik gruhya sootr hai.

smruti

jin maharshiyon ne shruti ke mantron ko praapt kiya hai, unheenne apni smruti ki sahaayata se jin dharmashaastron ke granthon ki rachana ki hai, ve `smruti grantha´ kahe gaye hain.

inmein samaaj ki dharmamaryaada - varnadharm, aashram-dharm, raaj-dharm, saadhaaran dharm, dainik krutya, stri-puroosh ka kartavya aadi ka niroopan kiya hai. mukhya smrutikaar ye hain aur inheen ke naam par inki smrutiyaaain hai -

  • manu
  • atri
  • vishnu
  • haareet
  • yaajnyaavalkya
  • ushana
  • angira
  • yam
  • aapastamb
  • sanvart
  • kaatyaayan
  • bruhaspati
  • paraashar
  • vyaas
  • shankh
  • likhit
  • daksh
  • Gautam
  • shaataatap
  • vashishth

inke alaava nimn rishi bhi smrutikaar maane gaye hain aur unki smrutiyaaain upasmrutiyaaain maani jaati hain. -

  • gobhil
  • jamadagni
  • vishmitr
  • prajaapati
  • vruddhashaataatap
  • paitheenasi
  • aashvaayan
  • pitaamah
  • bauddhaayan
  • Bhardwaj
  • chhaagaleya
  • jaabaali
  • chyavan
  • mareechi
  • kashyap aadi

puraan

ved mein nihit gyaan ke atyant goodh hone ke kaaran aam aadamiyon ke dvaara unhein samajhna bahut kathin tha, isaliye rochak kathaaon ke maadhyam se ved ke gyaan ki jaankaari dene ki pratha chali. inheen kathaaon ke sankalan ko puraan kaha jaata hain. pauraanik kathaaon mein gyaan, satya ghatnaaon tatha kalpana ka sanmishran hota hai. puraan jnyaaanayukt kahaaniyon ka ek vishaal sangrah hota hai. puraanon ko vartamaan yug mein rachit vigyaan kathaaon ke jaisa hi samjha ja sakta hai. puraan sankhya mein athaarah hain.[2]

18 puraanon ke naam vishnupuraan mein is prakaar hai -

inke alaava devi Bhagwat mein 18 up-puraanon ka ullekh bhi hai -

  1. ganesh puraan
  2. narasinh puraan
  3. kalki puraan
  4. ekaamr puraan
  5. Kapil puraan
  6. datt puraan
  7. shreevishnudharmauttar puraan
  8. mudgagal puraan
  9. sanatkumaar puraan
  10. shivdharm puraan
  11. aachaarya puraan
  12. maanav puraan
  13. ushna puraan
  14. varun puraan
  15. kaalika puraan
  16. maheshvar puraan
  17. saamb puraan
  18. saur puraan


anya,

  1. paraashar puraan
  2. mareech puraan
  3. bhaargav puraan
  • pashupati puraan naam ke 11 upapuraan ya `atipuraana´ aur bhi milte hain.

puraanon mein srushtikram, raajavanshaavali, manvantar-kram, rishivanshaavali, panch-devataaon ki upaasana, teerthon, vraton, daanon ka maahaatmya vistaar se varnan hai. is prakaar puraanon mein hindu dharm ka vistaar se lalit roop mein varnan kiya gaya hai.

anyapuraan tatha granth

  1. harivansh puraan
  2. saurapuraan
  3. mahaabhaarat
  4. shreeraamacharitmaanas
  5. raamaayan
  6. shreemadbhagavadgeeta
  7. garg sanhita
  8. yogavaasishth
  9. prajnyaa puraan

aagam ya tantrashaastr

in shaastron mein mukhyataya hindu dharm ke devataaon ki saadhana ki vidhiyaaain batalaai gayi hai. kintu inke alaava inmein anya vishyon ka bhi samaavesh hai. ye shaastr teen bhaagon mein vibhkt hai -

  • aagam,
  • tantr va
  • yaamal

aagam granth

srushti, pralaya, devataaon ki pooja tatha saadhan vidhi, purashcharan, shatkarm-saadhan, chaturvidh dhyaan yog aadi vishyon ka varnan hai.

tantr granth

srushti, pralaya, mantra-nirnaya, devataaon ka sansthaan, teerthavarnan, aashram dharm, vipr sansthaan, bhootaadi ka sansthaan, kalp varnan, jyotish sansthaan, puraanaakhyaan, kosh, vrat, shauchaaऽshauch, stri-puroosh lakshan, raajadharm, daanadharm, yug dharm vyavahaar, adhyaatm aadi vishyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. tantr shaastr sampradaayaatmak hai. vaishnavon, shaivon, shaakton aadi ke alag-alag tantr granth hain.

yaamal granth

srushti tattv, jyotish, nityakrutya, kalpasootr, varnabhed, jaatibhed aur yugadharm aadi vishyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain

  • puraan puraan par prakaashit prushth - vikeepediya
  • ved ved ke liye prakaashit prushth.