hindu darshan

hindu dharm mein darshan atyant praacheen parampara rahi hai. vaidik darshanon mein shaddarshan adhik prasiddh aur praacheen hain.

anukram

hindu darshan ka vihangam drushya

daarshanik sampradaaya saankhya yog nyaaya vaisheshik meemaansa paanineeya darshan advait[N 1] vishishtaadvait[N 1] dvait[N 1] paashupat shaiv siddhaant Kashmiri shaiv sampradaaya raseshvar
uttpatti kaal 200 E 2ri shataabdi E poo[N 2] 2ri shataabdi E poo 2ri shataabdi E poo 3ri shataabdi E poo 6thi shataabdi E poo 7veen shataabdi[N 3] 10veen shataabdi 13veen shataabdi 2ri shataabdi 7veen shataabdi 8veen shataabdi pratham shataabdi
vargeekaran dvaitavaad, aneeshvaravaad aadhyaatmik kriyaakalaap tark, vaishleshik darshan paramaanuvaad exegesis, [[vaaङameemaansa (philology)|bhaasha darshan ekatvavaad, advait seemit ekatvavaad, panentheism dvaitavaad, ishvarameemaansa ishvaravaad (theism), aadhyaatmik paddhati ishvaravaadi dvaitavaad ishvaravaadi ekatvavaad, aadarshavaad keemiya (alchemy)
daarshanik Kapil, ishvarakrushn, vaachaspati mishr, gunaratn, more.. patanjali, yaajnyaavalkya, vyaas[N 4] Gautam, vaatsyaayan, udayan, jayant bhatt more.. kanaad, prashastapaad, nyaayakandali more.. jaimini, kumaaril bhatt, prabhaakar more.. paanini, bhartruhari, kaatyaayan gaudapaad, aadi shankar, madhusoodan sarasvati, vidyaaranya more.. yamunaachaarya, raamaanuj more.. maadhvaachaarya, jayateerth, vyaasateerth, raaghavendr svaami haradattaachaarya, Lakulish sadyajyoti, Meykandar, aghorashiv vasugupt, Abhinav gupt, jayarath govind Bhagwat, sarvajnya raameshvar
granth saankhyasootr, saankhyakaarika, saankhyatatvakaumudi more.. yogasootr, yog yaajnyaavalkya, saankhya pravachan bhaashya nyaayasootr, nyaayabhaashya, nyaayavaarttik, more.. vaisheshiksootr, padaarthadharmasangrah, dashapadaarthashaastr, more.. poorvameemaansaasootr, meemaansaasootr bhaashyam, more.. vaakyapadeeya, Mahabhashya, Vāarttikakāara prasthaanatrayi, avadhoot geeta, ashtaavakr geeta, Pañacadaśaī more.. siddhitrayam, shreebhaashya, vedaarthasangrah sarvashaastraarthasangrah, tattvaprakaashika ganakaarika, panyachaarthabhaashyadeepika, raashikrabhaashya shaiv aagam, shreemat kiran, rauravatantr, mrugendr shivsootr ([[vasugupt), tantralok rasaarnav, rasahrudaya, raseshvar siddhaant
prastut siddhaant purush, prakruti, gun, satkaaryavaad yam, niyam, aasan, praanaayaam, pratyaahaar, dhaarana, dhyaan, samaadhi pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan, anyathaakyati vaad, ni:shreyas more.. padaarth, dravya, saamaanya, vishesh, samavaaya, parmaanu apaurusheyatv, arthaapatti, anupalabdhi, satahapraamaanyavaad sfot, ashtaadhyaayi mahaavaakya, saadhan chatushthaya, teen satya : paramaarthik, vyaavahaarik, pratibhaasik hit, antarvyaapi, bahuvyaapi, more.. prapanch, muktiyog, nityasansaari, tamoyog paashupati, paashupat charya, mantramaarg, rodhashakti chiti, mal, upaaya, anuttar, aham, svaatantrya paarad, paarad ke teen roop
punarvikaas raajayog mein mil gaya bhaktiyog, hathayog navyanyaaya nyaaya ke saath mil gaya. vedaant ke dvaara dharaashaayi hua Classical Sanskrit shuddhaadvait svaaminaaraayan sampradaaya vaishnav sampradaaya shaiv bhakti rasaayan
  1. a aa i Advaita, Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita have evolved from an older Vedanta school and all of them accept Upanishads and Brahma Sutras as standard texts.
  2. This is the century in which Patañajali flourished. However, Yoga existed before Patañajali's lifetime.
  3. Dated by the century in which Gaudapada flourished.
  4. Vyasa wrote a commentary on Yoga Sutras called Samkhyapravacanabhasya.(Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.)

chhah darshan

vaidik darshanon mein shaddarshan adhik prasiddh hain. ye saankhya, yog, nyaaya, vaisheshik, meemaansa aur vedaant ke naam se vidit hai. inke praneta Kapil, patanjali, Gautam, kanaad, jaimini ke baadaraayan the. isa ke janm ke aaspaas in darshanon ka udaya maana jaata hai. inke aaranbhik sanket upanishdon mein bhi milte hain. pratyek darshan ka aadhaaragranth ek darshanasootr hai. "sootr" bhaarateeya darshan ki ek adbhut shaili hai. gine-chune shabdon mein siddhaant ke saar ka sanket sootron mein rahata hai. sankshipt hone ke kaaran sootron par vistrut bhaashya aur anek teekaaon ki rachana hui. bhaarateeya darshan ki yeh shaili svatantr darshanagranthon ki pashchimi shaili se bhinn hai. guru-shishya-parampara ke anukool darshan ki shiksha aur rachana iska aadhaar hai. yeh parampara shaddarshanon ke baad naveen darshanon ke udaya mein baadhak rahi. vyaakhyaaon ke prasang mein kuchh naveenata aur matabhed ke kaaran mukhya darshanon mein upabhed avashya paida ho gaye.

pramaanavichaar, srushtimeemaansa aur mokshasaadhana shaddarshanon ke saamaanya vishay hain. ye chh: darshan kisi na kisi roop mein aatma ko maanate hain. aatma ki praapti hi moksh hai. punarjanm, aachaar, yog aadi ko bhi ye maanate hain. nyaaya, yog aadi kuchh darshan ishvar mein vishvaas karte hain. saankhya aur meemaansa darshan nireeshvaravaadi hain. pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan aur shabd ye chaar pramaan saamaanyat: sabhi darshanon ko maanya hain. meemaansa mat mein arthaapatti aur anupalabdhi ye do pramaan aur maane jaate hain.

upanishnmoolak hone ke kaaran inmein vedaantadarshan sabse adhik praacheen hai. kintu brahmasootr mein anya darshanon ka khandan hai tatha usaka praacheenatam bhaashya aadi shankaraachaarya ka hai (8 veen shataabdi). anya darshan sootron ke bhaashya isa ki aaranbhik shataabdiyon mein rache gaye. saankhyasootr sambhavat: lupt ho gaya. ishvarakrushn (5veen shataabdi) ki "saankhyakaarika" saankhya darshan ka praamaanik granth hai. saankhya darshan nireeshvaravaadi dvaitavaad hai. iske anusaar prakruti aur purush do svatantr aur sanaatan sattaaeain hain. "prakruti" jad hai aur jagat ka sookshm kaaran hai. vah satv, rajas aur tamas in teen gunon ki saamyaavastha ka naam prakruti hai. prakruti ke saath purush ka sampark hone se sarg ka aarambh hota hai. sarg purush ka bandhan hai. tatvajnyaaan se moksh hota hai. apne shuddh chetan kartrutv bhoktrutv rahit svaroop ke gyaan se purush mukt hota hai.

yog darshan ke siddhaant saankhya ke samaan hain. yogasootr par rachit bhaashya aur teekaaeain yogadarshan ki vistrut parampara ka aadhaar hain. yogadarshan ka mukhya lakshya samaadhi ke maarg ko prashast karna hai. samaadhi mein chitt ki samast vruttiyon ka nirodh ho jaata hai. abhyaas, vairaagya aur dhyaan yog ke mukhya saadhan hain. ishvar ko bhi dhyaan ka lakshya banaaya ja sakta hai itna hi yogadarshan mein ishvar ka mahatva hai. yam, niyam, aasan, praanaayaam, pratyaahaar, dhaarana, dhyaan aur samaadhi ke aath angon se yukt ashtaangayog yog ka sarvajan sulabh maarg hai.

nyaaya aur vaisheshik pramaanapradhaan darshan hain. nyaaya ek prakaar ka bhaarateeya tarkashaastr hai. nyaayasootr par anek prasiddh teekaaeain hain. gangesh upaadhyaaya (12veen shataabdi) ki "tatvachintaamani" se navadveep mein navya nyaaya ki parampara ka aarambh hua. nyaayadarshan ke pehle hi sootr mein 16 padaarthon ka ullekh hai. inke dvaara tatvajnyaaan hota hai jo ni:shreyas athva moksh ka saadhan hai. pramaanon ko vishesh vistaar nyaayadarshan mein milta hai. ishvarabhakti ko nyaaya mein moksh ka saadhan maana gaya hai.

vaisheshik darshan ek prakaar se nyaaya ka samaan tantr hai. vishesh athva 'parmaanu' usaka mukhya vishay hai. parmaanu srushti ka mool upaadaan kaaran hai. ishvar ko nyaaya-vaisheshik-dasharn srushti ka nimitt kaaran maanate hain. vaisheshik darshan mein sampoorn satta ko saat padaarthon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai - dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya, vishesh, samavaaya aur abhaav. nyaaya ke 16 padaarthon ki apeksha adhik sangat hone ke kaaran yahi vibhaajan aage chalakar adhik maanya hua tatha nyaaya-vaisheshik-darshan ki us sanyukt parampara ka aadhaar bana jiska pratinidhitv "nyaayamuktaavali" aadi arvaacheen granth karte hain.

shaddarshanon mein antim do darshanon ko "meemaansa" kaha jaata hai. ye poorvameenmaansa aur uttarameemaansa kahalaati hain. anya darshanon ki apeksha inka vedon se adhik ghanishth sambandh hai. ek prakaar se ye vaidik darshan ki vyaakhyaaeain hain. poorvameemaansa, mantrasanhita aur braahmanon ke karmakaand ki vyaakhya hai. uttarameemaansa upanishdon ke adhyaatmadarshan ka taarkik vivechan hai. vedon ka antim bhaag hone ke kaaran upanishdon ko "vedaant" kehte hain. uttar meemaansa ka naam bhi "vedaant" hai. in donon meemaansaaon ke siddhaanton ka aadhaar vedon mein hai, kintu vyavasthit darshanon ke roop mein inka aarambh anya darshanon ke saath saath hi (pratham shataabdi mein) hua. iseeliye inki ganana shaddarshanon mein ki jaati hai. donon meemaansaaon ke itihaas ke teen charan hain. teenon hi charanon mein inka vikaas ek hi poorvottar kram mein hua. vaidik yug mein vedon ke poorvabhaag (sanhita, braahman) mein karmakaand ka vidhaan hua. vedon ke uttar bhaag (upanishdon) mein adhyaatm ki pratishtha hui. isa ki aaranbhik shataabdi mein jaimini aur baadaraayan ke "meemaansaasootr" tatha "brahmasootr" bhi sambhavat: isi kram mein rache gaye. isa ki saataveen shataabdi mein kumaaril bhatt aur shankaraachaarya ne isi poorvaapar kram mein poorv aur uttarameemaansaaon ka uddhaar evam prachaar kiya.

anaatmavaadi hone ke kaaran bauddhadarshan ka aatmavaadi vaidik darshan se virodh hai. vaidik dharm ke viruddh kraanti ke roop mein hi isavi poorv chhathi shataabdi mein bauddh dharm ka udaya hua tha. anek kaaranon se isa ki chhathi shataabdi mein bauddh dharm ka hraas hone laga. usi samay kumaaril aur shankaraachaarya ne vaidik dharm ke donon pakshon ki pratishtha ki. inke baad paarthasaarathi mishr (14veen shataabdi) tatha maadhavachaarya (14veen shataabdi) ne poorvameemaansa darshan ka vistaar kiya. maadhavaachaarya vijyanagar ke raaja vukka ke mantri the. baad mein sanyaas lekar vidyaaranya ke naam se shrungeri peeth ke shankaraachaarya pad par aaseen hue aur "panchadashi" naamak praddhi vedaant granth ki rachana ki. vedaantamat ki pratishtha ke liye shankaraachaarya ne desh ke chaaron konon par jin chaar peethon ki sthaapana ki unamein shrungeri peeth dakshin mein neelagiri parvat par sthit hai. anya teen peeth puri, badarikaashram aur dvaaraka mein hain. shankaraachaarya ne upanishdon, brahmasootr aur geeta par bhaashyon ki rachana ki. shankaraachaarya ke baad vaachaspati mishr (9veen shataabdi), shri harsh (12van shataabdi) aadi aachaaryon ne vedaant parampara ka vistaar kiya.

poorvameemaansa ka mukhya lakshya vaidik karmakaand ki vyavastha karna hai. iske anusaar vedamantron ka mukhya arth vidhi athva karm ke aadesh mein hai. jin mantron mein vidhivaachak kriya nahan hai ve "arthavaad" hain tatha devataaon aadi ki prarochana karte hain. yadi yajnyaaadi karm se ek divya shakti utpann hoti hai jise "apoorv" kehte hain. yahi apoorv karmafal ka niyaamak hai. poorvameemaansa mein ishvar maanya naheen hai. ved nitya aur apaurusheya hain. nitya shabd ka kalp kalp mein yathaapoorv sfot hota hai aur apoorv ki shakti se yathaapoorv srushti ki utpatti hoti hai. poorvameemaansa ki aatma vaisheshik ke samaan chetanaateet hai. nyaaya darshan ke char pramaanon ke atirikt arthaapatti aur anupalabdhi do pramaan aur meemaansa darshan mein maane jaate hain.

uttar meemaansa vedon ke uttar bhaag (upanishdon) par aashrit hai. upanishd vedon ke antim bhaag hain, at: ve 'vedaant' kahalaate hain. uttar meemaansa ka adhik prasiddh naam "vedaant" hi hai. brahmasootr aur upanishdon ki vyaakhyaaon ke dvaara vedaant ka vistaar hua hai. anek aachaaryon ne bhinn bhinn drushtikon se brahmasootron aur upanishdon ki vyaakhya ki hai. aachaaryon ke vibhinn maton ke aadhaar par vedaant ke anek sanpradaaya ban gaye. ye advait, vishishtaadvait, dvait aadi ke naam se prasiddh hain. vedaant ke ye sanpradaaya saankhya aadi ki bhaaainti daarshanik naheen hain; in sabhi sanpradaayon ke dhaarmik peeth desh ke vibhinn sthaanon mein pratishthit hain. in peethon ki aachaarya-parampara aaj tak akshunn chali aa rahi hai.

geeta ka karmavaad

geetaadarshan bhi vaidik shadadarshanon ke samakaaleen hai. geeta ka karmayog upanishdon ke brahmavaad ke baad ek mahatvapoorn maulik darshan hai. sabhi vaidik darshanon ne karmayog ka mahatva sveekaar kiya hai. vyaavahaarik hone ke kaaran use pratinidhi bhaarateeya jeevanadarshan kaha ja sakta hai. geeta ke karmayog mein adhyaatm aur jeevan ka adbhud samanvaya hua hai. aitihaasik drushti se yeh vaidik karmakaand aur upanishdon ke brahmavaad ka samanvaya hai. adhyaatm aur karm ka yeh samanvaya atyant mahatvapoorn hai. upanishdon ke vedaant tatha bauddh aur jain dharm ke sanyaasavaad ke prabhaav s bhaarateeya janta mein virkti aur nivrutti ka prabhaav itna badh raha tha ki samaaj ke liye ghaatak ban jaata. aisi sthiti mein geeta ne karmayog ka sandesh dekar desh ko ek sanjeevan mantra pradaan kiya. adhyaatm ko sveekaar kar geeta ne sanyaas ko ek nai paribhaasha di. "sanyaas" ka saamaanya arth "tyaag" hai. kintu is tyaag mein praaya: bhraanti ho jaati hai. bhojan, shayan aadi praakrutik karmon ka tyaag kiya ja sakta hai. kaamya karmon ka bhi tyaag sambhav hai. yahi geeta ka sanyaas hai. fal ki kaamna tyaag kar lok sambhav hai. yahi geeta ka sanyaas hai. fal ki kaamna tyaag kar lok sangrah ke liye nishkaam karm karna jeevan ka aadarsh hai. yahi moksh ka saadhan hai. geeta ka yeh nishkaam karmayog adhikaansh bhaarateeya darshanon ne apnaaya hai. jnyaaanayog usaka aadhyaatmik aadhaar hai aur bhaktiyog usaka bhaavaatmak darshan hai.

vedaant ke sampradaaya

vedaant ke in anek sanpradaayon mein shankaraachaarya ka advaitamat sabse praacheen hai. yeh sambhavat: sabse adhik pratishthit bhi hai. shankaraachaarya ka advaitavaad upanishdon par aashrit hai. unke anusaar brahm hi ek maatr satya hai. jagat ka vikshep aur jeev ke brahmabhaav ka aavaran karti hai. ajnyaaan ka nivaaran hone par jeev ko apne brahmabhaav ka saakshaatkaar hota hai. yahi moksh hai. brahm sachchidaanand hai. brahm ki satta aur chetna tatha usaka aanand anant hai. jaagrut, svapn aur sushupt ki avasthaaon se pare tatha baahya aur aantarik vishyon se ateet anubhav mein brahm ka prakaash hota hai. vishyaateet hone ke kaaran brahm anirvachaneeya hai. sankhyaateet hone ke kaaran use "advait" kaha jaata hai. tyaag aur prem ke vyavahaaron mein yeh advait bhaav vibhaasit hota hai. samaadhi mein iska aantarik saakshaatkaar hota hai. advait bhaav ko siddh karne ke liye brahm ko jagat ka kaaran maana gaya hai. brahm ko jagat ka upaadaan kaaran maankar donon ka advait siddh ho jaata hai. upaadaan ke parinaam ki aashanka ko vivrtavaad ke dvaara door kiya gaya hai. vivrtakaaran avikaarya hota hai. usaka kaarya mithya hota hai jaise rajju mein sarp ka bhram. rajju sarp aur svapn praatibhaasik satya hain. jagat vyaavahaarik satya hai. moksh paryant vah maanya hai. brahm hi paaramaarthik satya hai jo moksh mein shesh rah jaata hai. maaya se yukt brahm "ishvar" kahalaata hai. vah srushti ka karta hai kintu vah paaramaarthik satya naheen hai. brahmaanubhav ka saadhan gyaan hai. karm ke saadhya shaashvat naheen hote. "brahm" karm ke dvaara saadhya naheen hai. karm aur bhakti moksh ke sahakaari kaaran hain. shravan, manan aur nididhyaasan mokshasaadhana ke teen charan hain. moksh mein aatma samast bandhanon se mukt ho jaati hai aur anant aanand se aaplaavit rahati hai. yeh moksh jeevanakaal mein praapya hai tatha jeevan ke vyavahaar se iski poorn sangati hai.

shankaraachaarya ke lagbhag 300 varsh baad 11veen shataabdi mein raamaanujaachaarya ne brahmasootron ki naveen vyaakhya ke aadhaar par vishishtaadvait mat ki sthaapana ki. raamaanujakrut "shreebhaashya" ke aadhaar par yeh 'shreesanpradaaya' kahalaata hai. raamaanuj shankar ke maayaavaad ko naheen maanate. unke anusaar jeev, jagat aur brahm teenon paaramaarthik satya hain. jagat brahm ka vivrt naheen varan brahm ki vaastavik rachana hai. brahm aur ishvar ek doosare ke paryaaya hain. jeev brahm ka ansh hai. moksh mein jagat ka vilay naheen hota aur jeev ka svatantr astitv bana rahata hai. brahm nirvishesh aur nirgun naheen varan savisheshya aur sagun hai. brahm hi svatantr satta hai. jeev aur jagat uske apruthaksiddh visheshan hain. brahm se pruthak unka astitv sambhav naheen hai. at: raamaanuj ka mat bhi advait hi hai. jeev aur jagat ke visheshanon se yukt brahm ka inke sath vishisht advaitabhaav hai. brahm inka antaryaami svaami hai. raamaanuj ke mat mein bhakti moksh ka mukhya saadhan hai. Bhagwan ke gunon ka gyaan bhakti ka prerak hai. saadhaaran jan aur shoodron ke liye prapatti arthaat sharanaagati sarvottam maarg hain.

raamaanuj ke kuchh varsh baad 11veen shataabdi mein hi ninbaarkaachaarya ne dvaitaadvait mat ki pratishtha ki. brahmasootron par "vedaant-paarijaat-saurabh" naam se unka bhaashya is mat ka aadhaar hai. raamaanuj ke samaan ninbaark bhi jeev aur jagat ko satya tatha brahm ka aashrit maanate hain. raamaanuj ke mat mein advait pradhaan hai. ninbaark mat mein dvait ka anurodh adhik hai. raamaanuj ke anusaar jeev aur brahm mein svaroopagat saamya hai, unki shakti mein bhed hain. ninbaark ke mat mein unamein svaroopagat bhed hai. ninbaark ke advait ka aadhaar jeev ki brahm par nirbharata hai. ninbaark ka brahm sagun ishvar hai. Krishna ke roop mein usaki bhakti hi moksh ka param maarg hai. yeh bhakti Bhagwan ke anugrah se praapt hoti hai. bhakti se Bhagwan ka saakshaatkaar hota hai. yahi moksh hai. raamaanuj aur ninbaark dono ke mat mein videh mukti hi maanya hai.

ninbaark ke baad 13veen shataabdi mein madhvaachaarya ne dvait mat ka pratipaadan kiya. ve poornaprajnya tatha aanandateerth ke naam se bhi prasiddh hain. unhonne shankaraachaarya ke advait aur ninbaark ke dvaitaadvait ka khandan karke dvaitavaad ki sthaapana ki hai. unke anusaar bhed aur abhed donon ki ekatr sthati sambhav naheen hai. shankaraachaarya ka maayaavaad bhi unhein maanya naheen hai. jagat mithya naheen yathaarth hai. sat aur asat se bhinn maaya ki teesari anirvachaneeya koti sambhav naheen hai. ishvar, jeev aur jagat teenon ek doosare se bhinn hain. bhed ke paaainch prakaar hain. ishvarajeev, ishvar-jagat, jeev-jagat, jeev-jeev aur jad padaarthon mein paraspar bhed hai. ishvar jagat ka upaadaan kaaran naheen, nimitt kaaran hai. upaadaan karan prakruti hai. ishvar usaka niyaamak hai. ishvar ki bhakti ke dvaara moksh praapt hota hai. mukt jeevon mein paraspar bhed rahata hai. ve ishvar se bhinn rahakar apni saamathrya ke anusaar ishvar ki vibhooti mein bhaag lete hain.

15veen shataabdi mein vallabhaachaarya ne shuddhaadvait mat ka prachaar kiya. is mat ka aadhaar "brahmasootron" par likhit vallabhaachaarya ka "anubhaashya" hai. ve maaya se alipt shuddh brahm ka advait bhaav maanate hain. yeh brahm nirgun naheen, sagun hai tatha maaya ke sambandh se rahit hai. brahm apni anant shakti se jagatru ke roop mein vyakt hota hai. chit aur aanand ka tirodhaan hone ke kaaran jagat mein keval sat roop se brahm ki abhivyakti hoti hai. jeev aur brahm svaroop se ek hain. agni ke sfurligon ki bhaanti jeev brahm ka ansh hai, visheshan naheen. is prakaar sarvatr advait hai, kaheen bhi dvait naheen. maryaada aur pushti do prakaar ki bhakti moksh ka saadhan hain.

16veen shataabdi mein chaitanya mahaaprabhu ne achintya bhedaabhed ka pravartan kiya. unke shishya roop Goswami ne gaudeeya vaishnav sanpradaaya ka pratishthaapan kiya. inke anusaar Bhagwan ki shakti achintya hai. vah virodhi gunon ka samanvaya kar sakti hai. bhedaabhed ka chintan na karke moksh ki saadhana karna hi jeevan ka dharm hai. moksh ka arth Bhagwan ki preeti ka nirantar anubhav hai.

is prakaar vaidik yug ke uttarakaal mein upanishdon mein jis vedaant ka udaya hua usaka naveen utthaan saataveen shataabdi se lekar 16veen shataabdi tak advait, vishishtaadvait, dvait, shuddhaadvait aadi sanpradaayon ke roop mein hua. upanishdon ka vedaant pashchimi aur uttari Bhaarat ki den hai. advait aadi sanpradaayon ka udaya dakshin se hua. inke pravartak dakshin deshon ke nivaasi the. chaitanya ka mat Bengal se udit hua. kintu in sabhi sanpradaayon ne vrudaanvan aadi uttari sthaanon mein apne peeth banaae. shankaraachaarya ne desh ke chaaron konon par peeth sthaapit kiye. uttar, dakshin, poorv, pashchim sabhi pradeshon ke log in sanpradaayon mein sammilit hue. siddhaant mein bhinn hote hue bhi vedaant ke ye vibhinn sanpradaaya bhaaratavarsh ki aantarik ekta ke sootr bane.

shaiv tatha shaakt darshan

paashupat dekhein

vaidik aur avaidik darshanon ke atirikt bhaarateeya darshan parampara mein ek teesari dhaara shaiv tatha shaakt sanpradaayon ki pravaahit hoti rahi hai. kuchh rahasyamaya saadhana ke roop mein hone ke kaaran yeh vaidik aur avaidik dhaaraaon ke sangam mein kuchh sarasvati ke samaan gupt rahi hai. kintu pratyaksh upaasana ke roop mein bhi Shiv ki maanyata bahut hai. praacheen aitihaasik khojon se Shiv ki praacheenata pramaanit hoti hai. gaaainv gaaainv mein Shiv ke mandir hain. prati saptaah aur prati paksh mein Shiv ka vrat hota hai. mahaadev paarvati ka divya daanpatya bhaarateeya parivaaron mein aadarsh ke roop se poojit hota hai. rigved aur yajurved ke rudr ke roop mein Shiv ka varnan hai. kintu praaya: Shiv ko avaidik lokadevata maana jaata hai. daksh ke yajnyaaghvans ke prasang ke dvaara Shiv ki avaidikta ka samarthan kiya jaata hai pauraanik yug mein bhi tridevon ki tulana ke prasang mein virodh ke aabhaas milte hain. kintu aage chalakar Shiv ek atyant lokapriya devata ban gaye.

shaiv sanpradaaya praaya: gupt tantron ke roop mein rahe hain. unka bahut kam saahitya prakaashit hai. prakaashit saahitya bhi prateekaatmak hone ke kaaran durooh hai. shaiv parampara ke anek sanpradaaya hain. inmein shaiv, paashupat, veerashaiv, kaalaamukh, kaapaalik, kaashmeer shaiv mat tatha dakshini mat adhik prasiddh hain. inhein shaiv parampara ke shaddarshan kah sakte hain. shaiv siddhaat ka prachaar dakshin mein tamil desh mein hai. iska aadhaar aagam granthon mein hai. 14veen shataabdi mein neelakanth ne "brahmasootron" par shaivabhaashya ki rachana kar vedaant parampara ke saath shaivamat ka samanvaya kiya. paashupat mat, 'nakuleesh paashupat' ke naam se prasiddh hai. paashupat sootr is sanpradaaya ka mool granth hai. kaalaamukh aur kaapaalik sanpradaaya kuchh bhayankar aur rahasyamaya rahe hain. kaashmeer shaiv mat advait vedaant ke samaan hai. taantrik hote hue bhi inka daarshanik saahitya vipul hai. iski spand aur pratyabhijnyaa do shaakhaaeain hain. ek ka aadhaar vasugupt ki spandakaarika aur doosari ka aadhaar unke shishya somaanand (9veen shati) ka "pratyabhijnyaaashaastr" hai. jeev aur parameshvar ka advait donon shaakhaaon mein maanya hai. parameshvar "Shiv" vedaant ke brahm ke hi samaan hain. veerashaiv mat dakshin deshon se prachalit hai. inke anuyaayi shivling dhaaran karte hain. at: inhein "lingaayat" bhi kehte hain. 12veen shataabdi mein vasav ne is mat ka prachaar kiya. veerashaiv mat ek prakaar ka vishishtaadvait hai. shakti vishisht vishv ko param tatv maanane ke kaaran ise shakti vishishtaadvait kah sakte hain. uttar aur dakshin mein prachalit shaiv sanpradaaya bhi uttar vedaant sanpradaayon ki bhaaainti Bhaarat ki dhaarmik ekta ke sootr hain. kailaas se raameshvaram tak poojit Shiv bhaarateeya ekta ke mangal devata hai. donon ki yaatraaon ke dvaara bhaarateeya ekta ka vyaavahaarik anushthaan hota hai.

shaktipooja ka srot sambhavat: praacheen Bhaarat ke maatrutantr mein hai. bhaarateeya parivaaron mein devi ki mahima bahut hai. striyon ke naam mein praaya: uttarapad ke roop mein "devi" shabd ka prayog hota hai. shakti ke anek roop hain. lakshmi, sarasvati, paarvati kaali, aadi ke roop mein devi ki upaasana hoti hai. "shakti" ichhaaroop hai. shivsootr mein ichhaashakti ko uma kumaari ka roop diya hai (ichha shakti: uma kumaari). par tatv ke chinmaya roop mein ichhaashakti ka samanvaya shakti darshan ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh hai.

baahari kadiyaaain