hindi vyaakaran ka itihaas

hindi bhaasha ka vyaakaran likhne ke prayaas kaafi pehle aarambh ho chuke the. adyatan jaankaari ke anusaar hindi vyaakaran ka sabse puraana granth banaaras ke Damodar pandit dvaara rachit dvibhaashik granth ukti-vyakti-prakaran siddh hota hai.[1] yeh baarahaveen shataabdi ka hai. yeh samay hindi ka kramik vikaas isi samay se praarambh hua maana jaata hai. is granth mein hindi ki puraani koshali ya avadhi boli bolne vaalon ke liye sanskrut sikhaane wala ek mainual hai, jismein puraani avadhi ke vyaakaranik roopon ke samaanaantar sanskrut roopon ke saath puraani koshali evam sanskrut donon mein udaaharanaatmak vaakya diye gaye hain. 'koshali' ka lok prachalit naam vartamaan mein 'avadhi' ya 'poorveeya hindi' hai. 1675i. se kuchh poorv braj bhaasha ke vyaakaran ka ek granth mirja Khan ibn fkhrooddeen muhammad dvaara likha gaya hai. 16 prushthon ke tuhaftul hind naamak is sankshipt granth mein hindi saahitya ke vividh vishyon ka vivechan hai jo kramash: is prakaar hain - vyaakaran, chhand, tuk, alankaar, shrungaar ras, sangeet, kaamashaastr, saamudrik shaastr aur shabdakosh. 1898 mein ek dach vidvaan yon yosva ketalaar dvaara likhe gaye hindi vyaakaran ke pramaan bhi milte hain. hindi vidvaan suneeti Kumar chatarji bhi apne lekhon mein is granth ka ullekh milta hai.

anukram

athaarahaveen shataabdi ke hindi vyaakaran

ketalaar vyaakaran ke laitin anuvaad ke prakaashan ke ek varsh baad hi prakhyaat mishnari beinjaamin shults ka graamaatika hindostaanika Grammtica Hindostanica (hindustaani vyaakaran) san 1744 mein prakaashit hua. yeh vyaakaran laitin bhaasha mein hai, jiska paaainch panktiyon ka poorn sheershak Dr. griyrsan ne Linguistic Survey of India, Vol IX, Part I ke pru. 8 par diya hai. shults ko ketalaar vyaakaran ki jaankaari thi aur apni bhoomika mein iska ullekh kiya. hindustaani shabd faarasi/arabi lipi mein roman lipyantaran sahit diye gaye hain. devanaagari lipi ki bhi vyaakhya hai. moorghanya aksharon ki dhvani ki usane upeksha ki hai aur (lipyantaran mein) sabhi mahaapraan aksharon ki. purushavaachak sarvanaamon ke ekavachan aur bahuvachan roopon ka use gyaan tha, parantu sakarmak kriyaaon ke bhootakaal mein karta mein prayukt 'ne' vibhkti ke baare mein vah anbhigya tha.

san 1771 mein kaapuchin mishnari kaasiaano beligaati dvaara bhaasha mein likhit "Alphabetum Brammhanicum" rom se prakaashit hua. ismein naagari ke saath-saath Bhaarat ki anya pramukh lipion ko chal taaipon mein mudrit kiya gaya hai aur in par vistrut vivechana ki gayi hai. iske bhoomika-lekhak Johannes Christophorus Amaditius (Amaduzzi) ne bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke baare mein us samay vartamaan gyaan ka sampoorn vivran diya hai.

yeh bahut prasannata ki baat hai ki ketalaar vyaakaran ke laitin anuvaad, shoolts vyaakaran evam Alphabetum Brammhanicum ke bhoomika sahit naagari lipi sambandhi ansh ka hindi anuvaad abhi upalabdh hai. 16 hindi bhaasha evam lipi ke adhyayan ke liye in teenon praacheenatam krutiyon ka aitihaasik mahattv hai.

George Headley (Hadley) ka vyaakaran san 1772 mein London se prakaashit hua. iske tarant baad isse behtar vyaakaran prakaashit hue, jaise - kisi agyaat lekhak ka portugeej bhaasha mein Gramatica Indostana rom se 1778 mein, jo Headley ke vyaakaran ki apeksha bahut viksit tha. kalakatte ke fort William college mein hindustaani vibhaag ke adhyaksh Dr. John baurthavik gilkraaist ka "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language" san 1796 mein prakaashit hua. yeh vyaakaran unke "A System of Hindoostanee Philology", khand-1 ka teesara bhaag tha.

sipaahi vidroh (1857) ke poorv unneesaveen shataabdi ke hindi vyaakaran

is avadhi mein prakaashit vyaakaranon ki vistrut soochi griyrsan ne Languistic Survey of India, Vol. IX, Part 1 mein di hai. yahaaain kuchh vyaakaranon ka hi ullekh kiya jaayega. san 1801 mein heraasim lebedef dvaara likhit "A Grammar of the pure and mixed East Indian Dialects" London se prakaashit hua. 17 ismein lekhak ne apni jeevani bhi di hai. 'premasaagar' ke rachayita lalloo laal ka braj bhaakha vyaakaran san 1811 mein kalakatte se prakaashit hua. John sheksapiyr ka "A Grammar of the Hindustani Language" London se 1813 mein chhapa (paaainchava sanskaran 1846 mein aur baad mein 1858 mein) captain William price ka "A new Grammar of the Hindustani Language" London se 1827 mein prakaashit hua. William yaates ka "Introduction to the Hindustani Language" kalakatte se 1827 mein chhapa, jiska chhatha sanskaran 1855 mein prakaashit hua. iska 1836 ka sanskaran Deccan college, Pune ke pustakaalaya mein upalabdh hai. iski bhoomika mein lekhak ka kehna hai ki hindustaani muslim logon ki bhaasha hai, jabki hindi hinduon ki. revareind M ti aidam ka "hindi bhaasha ka vyaakaran" kalakatte se 1827 mein prakaashit hua. yeh vyaakaran prashn evam uttar ke roop mein bachchon ke liye likha gaya tha. yeh pustak kai varshon tak schoolon mein prachalit rahi.

W. endroo ka A Comprehensive synopsis of the eiements of Hindustani Grammar aur sainford aarnot ka A new self-instructing grammar of the Hindustani tongue London mein kramash: 1930 evam 1931 mein prakaashit hua. Garcin de Tassy aur Joseph Heliodore ne milkar French bhaasha mein hindustaani aur hindavi (Hindui) donon ke vyaakaran likhe jo kramash: 1824 evam 1847 mein peris se prakaashit hua. James velantaain ke Grammar of Hindustani Language (1838) evam Elements of Hindi and Braj Bhakha (1839) London se prakaashit hue. kisi agyaat lekhak ka Introduction to the Hindustanee Grammar Madras se 1842 mein chhapa aur doosra sanskaran 1851 mein.

dankan forbes ne 1845 mein "The Hindustani Manual" likha jo landan se prakaashit hua. iska 1858 ka sanskaran "Grammar of Hinduatani Language" Deccan college, Pune mein upalabdh hai. devi prasaad ka "Polyglot Grammar and Exercises in Persian, English, Arabic, Hindee, Oordoo and Bengali" kalakatte se 1854 mein prakaashit hua.

sipaahi vidroh (1857) ke pashchaat unneesaveen shataabdi ke hindi vyaakaran

sipaahi vidroh ke baad shiksha vibhaag ki sthaapana hone par pan. raamajasan ki "bhaasha-tattv-bodhini" prakaashit hui, jismein kaheen-kaheen hindi aur sanskrut ki mishrit pranaaliyon ka prayog kiya gaya. iske baad pan. shreelaal ka "bhaasha chandrodaya" prakaashit hua, jismein hindi vyaakaran ke kuchh adhik niyam the. fir san 1869 E. mein babu naveenachandr rai krut "naveen-chandrodaya" nikla, jismein 'bhaasha chandrodaya' ke baare mein tippani bhi thi. iske pashchaat maraathi aur sanskrut vyaakaran ke aadhaar par aur bahut kuchh angreji dhang par pan. harigopaal paadhye ne apni 'bhaasha-tattv-deepika' likhi. lekhak ke mahaaraashtreeya hone ke kaaran is pustak mein svabhaavat: maraatheepan paaya jaata hai.

paadari W. ethaaringatan ka prasiddh hindi vyaakaran "bhaasha bhaaskar" banaaras se 1873 mein prakaashit hua, jiski satta lagbhag 50 varsh tak bani rahi. iska san 1913 ka sanskaran Deccan college, Pune mein upalabdh hai. pan. kaamata prasaad guru ne apne "hindi vyaakaran" ki bhoomika mein likha hai - "adhikaansh mein dooshit hone par bhi is pustak ke aadhaar aur anukaran par hindi ke kai chhote-mote vyaakaran bane aur bante jaate hain. yeh pustak angareji dhang par likhi gayi hai. hindi mein yeh angareji pranaali itni priya ho gayi hai ki ise chhodne ka poora prayatn aaj tak naheen kiya gaya. maraathi, gujaraati, baingala aadi bhaashaaon ke vyaakaranon mein bhi bahudha isi pranaali ka anukaran paaya jaata hai."18

san 1875 mein raaja shivprasaad ka hindi vyaakaran nikla. pan. kaamata prasaad guru likhte hain - "is pustak mein do visheshataaeain hain. pehli visheshata yeh hai ki pustak angareji dhang ki hone par bhi ismein sanskrut vyaakaran ke sootron ka anukaran kiya gaya hai; aur doosari yeh ki hindi ke vyaakaran ke saath-saath naagari aksharon mein urdoo ka bhi vyaakaran diya gaya hai. is samay hindi aur urdoo ke svaroop ke vishay mein vaad-vivaad upasthit ho gaya tha aur raaja saahab donon boliyon ko ek banaane ke prayatn mein aguaa the, iseeliye aapko aisa dohara vyaakaran banaane ki aavashyakta hui. isi samay bhaarateindu harishchandr ji ne bachchon ke liye ek chhota-sa hindi vyaakaran likhkar is vishay ki upayogita aur aavashyakta siddh kar di."19

san 1876 mein Allahabad aur kalakatte se S.H. kelaug ka "A Grammar of the Hindi Language" prakaashit hua, jiska paravarddhit truteeya sanskaran 1938 mein nikla. ismein uchch hindi ke saath-saath braj evam tulaseedaasakrut raamacharitmaanas ki poorvi hindi evam rajputana, kumaauain, avadh, riva, bhojapur, magadh, sambandhi vistrut not bhi hain. truteeya sanskaran ka punarmudran kai prakaashakon ne kiya hai, jaise asian ejukeshanal services evam munsheeraam manohar laal, Delhi.

fredrik pinkaut dvaara likhit "The Hindi Manual" landan se 1882 mein prakaashit hua, jismein saahityik aur praanteeya donon prakaar ke hindi vyaakaran shaamil kiye gaye. iska teesara sanskaran 1890 mein nikla. M. shoolts ka 'Grammatik der hinduistanischen Sprache' (hindustaani bhaasha ka vyaakaran) jarman bhaasha mein Leipzig se 1894 mein prakaashit hua.

edavin greebj likhit "A Grammar of Modern Hindi" banaaras se 1896 mein prakaashit hua. is lekhak ne kelaug ke hindi vyaakaran ko ek maanak kruti bataaya hai. parantu saamaanya logon ki aavashyakta ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue greebj ne anya vyaakaran racha. iska sanshodhit sanskaran 1908 mein prakaashit hua. san 1921 mein is lekhak ne poornat: naye roop se "Hindi Grammar" naamak sheershak ke antargat hindi vyaakaran likha, jismein braj bhaasha mein kuchh not ke siva hindi ke kshetreeya antaron ka koi jikr naheen kiya gaya. iska punarmudran asian ejukeshanal services ne 1983 mein kiya.

paashchaatya vidvaanon dvaara likhe gaye hindi vyaakaranon ka thoda vistrut vivran Dr. jaadhav ki theesis mein pru. 148-171 ke antargat dekha ja sakta hai. 20

beesaveen shataabdi ke hindi vyaakaran

san 1920 mein pan. kaamata prasaad guru dvaara likhit pratham baar ek praamaanik evam aadarsh "hindi vyaakaran" naagari prachaarini sabha, kaashi ne prakaashit kiya. iska shashth punarmudran san 1960 mein hua. san 2001 mein iska 22vaaain sanskaran prakaashit hua. is vyaakaran ke lekhak ne apni bhoomika mein likha hai - "hindi vyaakaran ki chhoti-moti kai pustakein upalabdh hote hue bhi hindi mein, is samay apne vishay aur dhang ki yahi ek vyaapak aur (sanbhavat:) maulik pustak hai. is vyaakaran mein anyaanya visheshataaon ke saath-saath ek badi visheshata yeh bhi hai ki niyamon ke spashteekaran ke liye ismein jo udaaharan diye gaye hain ve adhiktar hindi ke bhinn-bhinn kaalon ke pratishthit evam praamaanik lekhakon ke granthon se liye gaye hain. is visheshata ke kaaran pustak mein yathaasanbhav, andh-parampara athva krutrimta ka dosh naheen aane paaya hai."21 is vyaakaran mein chhand, alankaar, kahaavaton aur muhaavaron ko sthaan naheen diya gaya hai. lekhak ka kehna hai ki yadyapi ye sab vishay bhaasha gyaan ki poornata ke liye aavashyak hain, to bhi ye sab apne-aapamein svatantr vishay hain aur vyaakaran se inka koi pratyaksh sambandh naheen hai. kisi bhi bhaasha ka "sarvaangapoorn" vyaakaran vahi hai, jisse us bhaasha mein shisht roopon aur prayogon ka poorn vivechan kiya jaaya aur unamein yathaasanbhav sthirta laayi jaaya. 22 pan. kaamata prasaad guru ne yeh vyaakaran, adhikaansh mein, angreji vyaakaran ke dhang par likha hai. is pranaali ke anusaran ka kaaran bataate hue ve likhte hain - "is pranaali ke anusaran ka mukhya kaaran yeh hai ki ismein spashtata aur saralata vishesh roop se paayi jaati hai aur sootr tatha bhaashya donon aise mile rahate hain ki ek hi lekhak poora vyaakaran vishd roop se likh sakta hai. hindi bhaasha ke liye vah din sachmuch bade gaurav ka hoga jab iska vyaakaran 'ashtaadhyaayi' aur 'mahaabhaashya' ke mishrit roop mein likha jaayega, par vah din abhi bahut door dikhaayi deta hai."23

hindi ke raashtrabhaasha ho jaane par vidvaanon ka dhyaan iske svatantr astitv ki khoj par jaane laga. pan. kishoreedaas Vajpayee ne "raashtrabhaasha ka pratham vyaakaran" (1949) likhkar hindi vyaakaran ki svatantr satta par apne mahattvapoorn vichaar vyakt kiye hain. unke shabdon mein - "koi vyaakaran angreji ke aadhaar par likha gaya hai aur koi sanskrut ke aadhaar par. hindi ke aadhaar par hindi ka vyaakaran bana hi naheen. tab to ulajhan hogi hi."24 unka "hindi shabdaanushaasan" (1957) ek mahattvapoorn vyaakaran granth hai. iska pancham sanskaran sanvat 2055 vi. (san 1998 E.) mein prakaashit hua.

Dr. vaasudevanandan prasaad likhit "aadhunik hindi vyaakaran aur rachana" san 1959 mein Patna se prakaashit hua, jiska terahavaaain sanskaran 1977 mein nikla. Dr. prabhaakar maachave ki is vyaakaran granth par pratikriya is prakaar hai - "hindi mein vyaakaran granth, jo staindard maane jaayein, bahut thode hain. un pustakon mein Dr. prasaad ki rachana main sabhi drushtiyon se sarvaangapoorn samajhta hooain. sv. raamachandr varma, sv. kaamata prasaad guru aur aachaarya kishori das Vajpayee ke baad Dr. prasaad ka kaarya atyant moolyavaan aur upayogi hua hai."25 is vyaakaran ka 23vaaain sanskaran 1993 mein nikla, jiska dviteeya pun:mudran san 2001 mein hua.

videshi vaiyaakaranon ke dvaara likhit hindi vyaakaranon mein Dr. jaalaman deemashits ka roosi bhaasha mein likha "Гaaрaaаaaмaaмaaаaaтaaиaaкaaа Яaaзaaыaaкaaа хaиaнaдaи" (hindi bhaasha ka vyaakaran) mere mat mein sarvashreshth hai. iska dviteeya sanskaran (do khandon mein - 373 + 300 prushth) Moscow se san 1986 E. mein prakaashit hua. iske pratham sanskaran ka hindi anuvaad “ahindi vyaakaran” raaduga prakaashan, Moscow se san 1983 E. mein prakaashit hua.

tulanaatmak vyaakaran

unneesaveen shataabdi ke uttaraarddh se ek hi parivaar ki bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke tulanaatmak vyaakaran ka yug shuroo hua jab raabart kaaldavel (1814-1891) ki smaarakeeya kruti (Monumental work) 'Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages' (dravid bhaashaaon ka tulanaatmak vyaakaran) san 1856 mein prakaashit hui. England nivaasi John beems 1857 mein Indian civil service mein aaye. bhaashaaon ke adhyayan mein ye bachapan se hi ruchi lete the. kaaldavel ki kruti dekhkar inhein bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon par vaisa hi kaam karne ki prerana mili aur lagbhag 14 varshon tak is vishay par kaarya karte hue unhonne apna prasiddh granth "A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of India" teen bhaagon mein (pratham bhaag-1872 mein, dviteeya bhaag-1878 tatha truteeya bhaag 1879 mein) prakaashit kiya. bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon ke tulanaatmak vikaas par yeh pehla kaarya hai. is vishay par abhi tak koi doosra kaarya naheen hua hai. 26 ek hajaar se adhik prushthon ke is vistrut granth ke praarambh mein bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon ke udbhav aur vikaas par 121 prushthon ki ek lambi-si bhoomika hai tatha aage hindi, punjabi, sindhi, gujaraati, maraathi, udiya tatha bangala ki dhvaniyon tatha unke sanjnyaa, sarvanaam, sankhyaavaachak visheshan tatha kriyaaroopon ka sanskrut se tulanaatmak vikaas dikhlaaya gaya hai. munsheeraam manohar laal, Delhi ne iska punarmudran kiya hai.

saimuel kelaug (1839-1899) krut "A Grammar of the Hindi Language" ka ullekh pehle kiya ja chuka hai. hindi ka yeh pratham suvyavasthit tatha vistrut vyaakaran hai tatha aaj bhi kai drushtiyon se sarvottam hai. 27 inmein hindi ke tatkaaleen parinishthit roopon ke saath-saath maaravaadi, mevaadi, meravaadi, jayapuri, haadaat, kumaaooainni, gadhvaali, nepaali, kannauji, baisavaadi, Bhojpuri, magahi aur maithili aadi mein bhi roop yathaasthaan diye gaye hain. vaakya-rachana ke vistrut praayogik niyamon ke atirikt roopon ki vyutpatti tatha unka vikaas bhi diya gaya hai.

Agra mein ek jarman paadari ke ghar janme jarman vidvaan rudolf haarnale (1841-1918) ka prasiddh granth "A Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages" kalakatte se san 1880 mein prakaashit hua. ismein Bhojpuri ka vistrut vyaakaran dene ke saath-saath aadhunik aaryabhaashaaon ki kaafi tulanaatmak saamagri di gayi hai. ismein hindi kriya roopon mein ling-parivartan ke niyam, vibhinn roopon ka vikaas, bhaashaayi maanachitr tatha lipiyon mein vikaas ka chitr aadi bhi hain. asian ejukeshanal services, Delhi ne iska punarmudran san 1991 mein kiya hai.

bhaashaashaastreeya adhyayan

beesaveen shataabdi mein hindi evam usaki boliyon par kai vidvaanon ne bhaashaashaastreeya adhyayan kiya. Dr. vishvanaath prasaad ne "Phonetic and Phonological Study of Bhojpuri" par shodh kaarya kiya (pi.H.di. theesis, landan vishvavidyaalaya, 1950 aprakaashit). Dr. kailaashachandr Bhatia ka "brajabhaasha aur khadeeboli ka tulanaatmak adhyayan" san 1962 mein prakaashit hua. 28 haravanshalaal sharma ne iski prastaavana, pru. 1 mein likha hai - "Dr. Kailash Bhatia dvaara prastut 'braj bhaasha aur khadeeboli ka tulanaatmak adhyayan' hindi bhaasha-vigyaan ke kshetr mein ek stutya tatha naveen prayaas hai. braj bhaasha aur khadi boli ka tulanaatmak bhaasha-vaigyaanik adhyayan is roop mein abhi tak prastut naheen hua tha."

hindi vyaakaran ka kaal vibhaajan

Dr. anant chaudhari ne hindi vyaakaran ke sampoorn vikaas ki lagbhag 300 varshon ki avadhi ko nimnalikhit paaainch kaalakhandon mein vibhkt kiya hai.

  1. aarambh kaal - san 1676 - 1855 E.
  2. vikaas kaal - san 1855 - 1876 E.
  3. utthaan kaal - san 1876 - 1920 E.
  4. utkarsh kaal - san 1920 - 1947 E.
  5. navachetana kaal - san 1947 E. se vartamaan kaal tak. 30


Dr. beena garg ne hindi vyaakaran ki vikaas yaatra ko teen mukhya kaalon mein vargeekrut kiya hai31 -

  • 1. aadikaal
    • a - poorv aadikaal - sankraanti yug (san 1680 se poorv)
    • aa - uttar aadikaal - paashchaatya vaiyaakaran yug (san 1680 se 1855 E. tak)
  • 2. madhyakaal
    • i - poorv madhyakaal - shreelaal yug (san 1680 se 1855 E. tak)
    • E - uttar madhyakaal - kelaug yug (san 1676 se 1920 E. tak)
  • 3. aadhunik kaal
    • u - poorv aadhunik kaal - svatantrata-poorv yug (san 1920 se 1947 E. tak) - guru yug
    • oo - uttar aadhunik kaal - svaatantryottar yug (san 1947 se vartamaan kaal tak)

not (sandarbh-sanket)

1. kaamata prasaad guru: "hindi-vyaakaran," naagareeprachaarini sabha, kaashi; pratham sanskaran sanvat 1977 (1920 E.); shashth punarmudran, sanvat 2017 (1960 E.). Dr. vaasudevanandan prasaad likhte hain- "pan. kaamata prasaad guru ka 'hindi-vyaakaran' san 1920 E. mein prakaashit hua tha. tab se isi ka, hindi ka ekamaatr aadarsh vyaakaran maankar, sammaan hota raha hai." - aadhunik hindi-vyaakaran aur rachana, bhaarati bhavan, Patna 1977, pru. 9, pan. 20-22

2. kuchh anya bhaarateeya deshi bhaashaaon ke (Vernaculars) aarambh-kaal ke vyaakaran upalabdh hote hain. jaise- bheeshmaachaarya krut 'panchavaartik' naamak maraathi vyaakaran terahaveen ya chaudahaveen shataabdi ka hai. lagbhag sabhi saahitya samruddh Dravid bhaashaaon (tamil, kannad, telugu aur malayalam) ke praacheen vyaakaran upalabdh hain.

3. is sambandh mein dekhein lekhak ka sankshipt lekh "hindi bhaasha ka pratham vyaakaran", jalavaani, kendreeya jal aur vidyut anusandhaan shaala, Pune, ank 8, varsh 2001 pru. 13-17.

4. angrejon ke pehle yon yosva ketalaar naam ke ek jarman ne dach bhaasha mein ek hindi vyaakaran 1698 E. ya iske kuchh poorv likha tha. vistaar ke liye dekhein futanot 3 ka sandarbh.

5. "hindi-vyaakaran", bhoomika, pru. 4-5.

12. Indian Linguistics, griyrsan abhinndan granth, khand IV, 1935; punarmudran - S. K. Chatterji: "SELECT WRITINGS", Vol. 1, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1978, pp. 237–255.

13. 'bhaarateeya anusheelan', mahaamahopaadhyaaya gaureeshankar heeraachand ojha ke sammaan mein samarpit, 23vaaain hindi saahitya sammelan, Delhi, 1933, vibhaag 4, arvaacheen kaal, pru. 30-36.

14. "Indian and Iranian Studies", Dr. griyrsan ke pachaaseevein janm diwas 7 January 1936 par samarpit, The school of Oriental studies, landan, pru. 817-822.

15. dekhein futanot 3 ka sandarbh.

16. "hindi ke teen praarambhik vyaakaran", nirdeshak - Dr. udayanaaraayan tivaari, anuvaadak-maithyu vechchur, St. Paul Publications, Allahabad, 1976; kul 176 prushth.

17. punarmudran: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyaya, Calcutta, 1963. Edited with notes, biographical sketch and bibliography of writings on Lebedeff by Mahadev Prasad Saha; Foreword by Prof. Suniti Kumar Chatterji; kul prushth 40+118. is sanskaran ki ek prati Deccan college, Pune mein upalabdh hai.

18. hindi vyaakaran, bhoomika, prushth 6.

19. vahi, pru. 6.

20. Dr. panjaabaraav raamaraav jaadhav: "hindi bhaasha aur saahitya ke adhyayan mein isaai mishnariyon ka yogadaan", pi.H.di. theesis, Pune vishvavidyaalaya; prakaashak - karmaveer prakaashan, 22 ambika hausing society, senaapati baapat path, Pune - 411016; pratham sanskaran 1973 E..

21. bhoomika, pru. 6.

22. tatraiv

23. bhoomika, pru. 3

24. raashtrabhaasha ka pratham vyaakaran, pru. 82

25. buland shahar evam khurja tahaseelo ki boliyon ka sankaalik adhyayan - da. mahaaveer saran jain (hindi sahitya sammelan, 12, sammelan maarg, Allahabad,1967)

26. parinishthit hindi ka dhvanigraamik adhyayana—aada. mahaaveer saran jain (lok bhaarati prakaashan, 15 - A, mahaatma gaaaindhi maarg, Allahabad, 1974)

27. parinishthit hindi ka roopagraamik adhyayana—aada. mahaaveer saran jain (lok bhaarati prakaashan, 15 - A, mahaatma gaaaindhi maarg, Allahabad, 1978)

28. prakaashak - sarasvati sadan, Agra, 1962; kul 224 prushth.

29. dekhein not 9.

30. "hindi vyaakaran ka kaal vibhaajan : ek drushti", pru.46 ; prakaashan vivran hetu dekhein sandarbh 31.

31. "hindi vyaakaran ka kaal vibhaajan : ek drushti", pru.48-49. prakaashan vivran is prakaar hai - " samanvaya (kshetreeya saahitya sandarbh)" (1996) - san0 umaashankar mishr; prakaashak - yuva saahitya mandal, 68, turaabanagar, Ghaziabad; 392 + 405 + 59 prushth. ismein Dr. beena garg ka lekh "hindi vyaakaran ka kaal vibhaajan : ek drushti", pru.46-50.

sandarbh

  1. chatarji, Dr. suneeti Kumar (January 2002). sindhi jain granthamaala, granthaank 39, 1953 (lekh ka sheershak-pandit Damodar virchit "ukti-vyakti-prakaran". mumbai: bhaarateeya vidyaabhavan,.
2. hindi ka sankshipt vyaakaran - lekhak : shri Narayan prasaad

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