hindi vyaakaran

hindi vyaakaran hindi bhaasha ko shuddh roop se likhne aur bolne sambandhi niyamon ka bodh karaane wala shaastr hai. yeh hindi bhaasha ke adhyayan ka mahatvapoorn hissa hai. ismein hindi ke sabhi svaroopon ko chaar khandon ke antargat adhyayan kiya jaata hai. ismein varn vichaar ke antargat varn aur dhvani par vichaar kiya gaya hai to shabd vichaar ke antargat shabd ke vividh pakshon se sambandhit niyamon par vichaar kiya gaya hai. vaakya vichaar ke antargat vaakya sambandhi vibhinn sthitiyon evam chhand vichaar mein saahityik rachanaaon ke shilpagat pakshon par vichaar kiya gaya hai.

anukram

varn vichaar

varn vichaar hindi vyaakaran ka pehla khand hai jismein bhaasha ki mool ikaai varn aur dhvani par vichaar kiya jaata hai. iske antargat hindi ke mool aksharon ki paribhaasha, bhed-upabhed, uchchaaran sanyog, varnamaala, aadi niyamon ka varnan hota hai.

varn

hindi bhaasha ki lipi devanaagari hai. devanaagari varnamaala mein kul 52 varn hain, jinmein se 16 svar hain aur 36 vyanjan.

svar

hindi bhaasha mein mool roop se gyaarah svar hote hain. ye gyaarah svar nimnalikhit hain.

a, aa, i, E, u, oo, ri, A, ai, O, au aadi.

hindi bhaasha mein ri ko aadha svar (ardhasvar) maana jaata hai, at: ise svar mein shaamil kiya gaya hai.

hindi bhaasha mein praay: ri aur ka prayog naheen hota. an aur a: ko bhi svar mein naheen gina jaata.

isaliye ham kah sakte hain ki hindi mein 11 svar hote hain. yadi ऍ, o naam ki videshi dhvaniyon ko shaamil karein to hindi mein 11+2=13 svar hote hain, fir bhi 11 svar hindi mein moolabhoot hain.

  • a aa i E u oo A ai O au an a: ri ri ऌ ऍ o (hindi mein ri ka prayog praay: naheen hota tatha ऍ o ka prayog videshi dhvaniyon ko darshaane ke liye hota hai.)

shabd vichaar

shabd vichaar hindi vyaakaran ka doosra khand hai jiske antargat shabd ki paribhaasha, bhed-upabhed, sandhi, vichhed, roopaantaran, nirmaan aadi se sambandhit niyamon par vichaar kiya jaata hai.

shabd

shabd varnon ya aksharon ke saarthak samooh ko kehte hain.

udaaharan ke liye k, m tatha l ke mel se 'kamal' banta hai jo ek khaas kism ke fool ka bodh karaata hai. at: 'kamal' ek shabd hai
kamal ki hi tarah 'lakam' bhi inheen teen aksharon ka samooh hai kintu yeh kisi arth ka bodh naheen karaata hai. isliye yeh shabd naheen hai.

vyaakaran ke anusaar shabd do prakaar ke hote hain- vikaari aur avikaari ya avyaya. vikaari shabdon ko chaar bhaagon mein baaainta gaya hai- sanjnyaa, sarvanaam, visheshan aur kriya. avikaari shabd ya avyaya bhi chaar prakaar ke hote hain- kriya visheshan, sanbandh bodhak, sanyojak aur vismayaadi bodhak is prakaar sab milaakar nimnalikhit 8 prakaar ke shabd-bhed hote hain:

sanjnyaa

kisi bhi sthaan, vyakti, vastu aadi ka naam bataane vaale shabd ko sanjnyaa kehte hain. udaaharan -

Ram, Bhaarat, himaalaya, ganga, mej, kursi, bistar, chaadar, sher, bhaaloo, saaainp, bichhoo aadi.

sanjnyaa ke bhed-

sajnyaa ke kul 6 bhed bataaye gaye hain-

  • 1- vyaktivaachak: Ram, Bhaarat, soorya aadi.
  • 2-jaativaachak: bakari, pahaad, computer aadi.
  • 3-samooh vaachak: kaksha, baaraat, bheed, jhund aadi.
  • 4-dravyavaachak: paani, loha, mitti, khaad ya urvarak aadi.
  • 5-sankhyaavaachak: darjan, joda, paanch, hajaar aadi.
  • 6-bhaavavaachak : mamata, budhaapa aadi.

sarvanaam

sanjnyaa ke badle mein aane vaale shabd ko sarvanaam kehte hain. udaaharan -

main, tum, aap, vah, ve aadi.

sanjnyaa ke sthaan par prayukt hone vaale shabd ko sarvanaam kehte hai. sanjnyaa ki punarukti na karne ke liye sarvanaam ka prayog kiya jaata hai. jaise - main, too, tum, aap, vah, ve aadi.

  • sarvanaam saarthak shabdon ke aath bhedon mein ek bhed hai.
  • vyaakaran mein sarvanaam ek vikaari shabd hai.

sarvanaam ke bhed

sarvanaam ke chhah prakaar ke bhed hain-

  1. purushavaachak (vyaktivaachak) sarvanaam.
  2. nishchayavaachak sarvanaam.
  3. anishchayavaachak sarvanaam.
  4. sanbandhavaachak sarvanaam.
  5. prashnavaachak sarvanaam.
  6. nijvaachak sarvanaam.

purushavaachak sarvanaam

jis sarvanaam ka prayog vakta ya lekhak dvaara swayam apne liye athva kisi anya ke liye kiya jaata hai, vah 'purushavaachak (vyaktivaachak) sarvanaam' kahalaata hai. purushavaachak (vyaktivaachak) sarvanaam teen prakaar ke hote hain-

  • uttam purushavaachak sarvanaam- jis sarvanaam ka prayog bolne wala swayam ke liye karta hai, use uttam purushavaachak sarvanaam kaha jaata hai. jaise - main, ham, mujhe, hamaara aadi.
  • madhyam purushavaachak sarvanaam- jis sarvanaam ka prayog bolne wala shrota ke liye kare, use madhyam purushavaachak sarvanaam kehte hain. jaise - tum, tujhe, tumhaara aadi.
  • anya purushavaachak sarvanaam- jis sarvanaam ka prayog bolne wala shrota ke atirikt kisi anya purush ke liye kare, use anya purushavaachak sarvanaam kehte hain. jaise- vah, ve, usane, yeh, ye, isne, aadi.

nishchayavaachak sarvanaam

jo (shabd) sarvanaam kisi vyakti, vastu aadi ki or nishchayapoorvak sanket karein ve nishchayavaachak sarvanaam kahalaate hain. jaise- 'yeh', 'vah', 've' sarvanaam shabd kisi vishesh vyakti ka nishchayapoorvak bodh kara rahe hain, at: ye nishchayavaachak sarvanaam hain.

udaaharan-

  • yeh pustak soni ki hai
  • ye pustakein raani ki hain.
  • vah sadak par kaun aa raha hai.
  • ve sadak par kaun aa rahe hain.

anishchayavaachak sarvanaam

jin sarvanaam shabdon ke dvaara kisi nishchit vyakti athva vastu ka bodh na ho ve anishchayavaachak sarvanaam kahalaate hain. jaise- 'koi' aur 'kuchh' aadi sarvanaam shabd. inse kisi vishesh vyakti athva vastu ka nishchaya naheen ho raha hai. at: aise shabd anishchayavaachak sarvanaam kahalaate hain.

udaaharan-

  • dwaar par koi khada hai.
  • kuchh patra dekh liye gaye hain aur kuchh dekhne hain.

sanbandhavaachak sarvanaam

paraspar sabandh batalaane ke liye jin sarvanaamon ka prayog hota hai unhein sanbandhavaachak sarvanaam kehte hain. jaise- 'jo', 'vah', 'jiski', 'usaki', 'jaisa', 'vaisa' aadi.

udaaharan-

  • jo soega, so khoega; jo jaagega, so paavega.
  • jaisi karni, taisi paar utarani.

prashnavaachak sarvanaam

jo sarvanaam sanjnyaa shabdon ke sthaan par bhi aate hai aur vaakya ko prashnavaachak bhi banaate hain, ve prashnavaachak sarvanaam kahalaate hain. jaise- kya, kaun aadi.

udaaharan-

  • tumhaare ghar kaun aaya hai?
  • Delhi se kya maingaana hai?

nijvaachak sarvanaam

jahaaain swayam ke liye 'aap', 'apna' athva 'apne', 'aap' shabd ka prayog ho vahaaain nijvaachak sarvanaam hota hai. inmein 'apna' aur 'aap' shabd uttam, purush madhyam purush aur anya purush ke (swayam ka) apne aap ka gyaan kara rahe shabd hein jinhein nijvaachak sarvanaam kehte hain.

vishesh-

jahaaain 'aap' shabd ka prayog shrota ke liye ho vahaaain yeh aadar-soochak madhyam purush hota hai aur jahaaain 'aap' shabd ka prayog apne liye ho vahaaain nijvaachak hota hai.

udaaharan-

  • Ram apne daada ko samajhaata hai.
  • shyaama aap hi Delhi chali gayi.
  • raadha apni saheli ke ghar gayi hai.
  • seeta ne apna makaan bech diya hai.

sarvanaam shabdon ke vishesh prayog

  • aap, ve, ye, ham, tum shabd bahuvachan ke roop mein hain, kintu aadar prakat karne ke liye inka prayog ek vyakti ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai.
  • 'aap' shabd swayam ke arth mein bhi prayukt ho jaata hai. jaise- main yeh kaarya aap hi kar looainga.

visheshan

sanjnyaa ya sarvanaam ki visheshata bataane vaale shabd ko visheshan kehte hain. udaaharan -

'himaalaya ek vishaal parvat hai.' yahaaain "vishaal" shabd "himaalaya" ki visheshata bataata hai isliye vah visheshan hai.

visheshan ke bhed

  1. sankhyaavaachak visheshan
das laddoo chaahiye.
  1. parimaanavaachak visheshan
ek kilo cheeni deejiye.
  1. gunavaachak visheshan
himaalaya vishaal parvat hai
  1. saarvanaamik visheshan
kamala meri bahan hai.

kriya

kaarya ka bodh karaane vaale shabd ko kriya kehte hain. udaaharan -

aana, jaana, hona, padhna, likhna, rona, hansana, gaana aadi.

kriyaaen do prakaar ki hoteen hain-

  • 1-sakarmak kriya,
  • 2-akarmak kriya.

sakarmak kriya: jis kriya mein koi karm (objekt) hota hai use sakarmak kriya kehte hain. udaaharan - khaana, peena, likhna aadi.

bandar kela khaata hai. is vaakya mein 'kya' ka uttar 'kela' hai.

akarmak kriya: ismein koi karm naheen hota. udaaharan - hansana, rona aadi. bachcha rota hai. is vaakya mein 'kya' ka uttar upalabdh naheen hai.

kriya ka ling evam kaal:

kriya ka ling karta ke ling ke anusaar hota hai. udaaharan - rona : ladka rota hai. ladki roti hai. ladka rota tha. ladki roti thi. ladka roega. ladki roegi.

mukhya kriya ke saath aakar kaam ke hone ya kiye jaane ka bodh karaane waali kriyaaen sahaayak kriyaaen kahalaati hain. jaise - hai, tha, ga, honge aadi shabd sahaayak kriyaaeain hain.

sahaayak kriya ke prayog se vaakya ka arth aur adhik spasht ho jaata hai. isse vaakya ke kaal ka tatha kaarya ke jaari hone, poorn ho chukane athva aarambh na hone ki sthiti ka bhi pata chalta hai. udaaharan - kutta bhaunk raha hai. (vartamaan kaal jaari). kutta bhaunk chuka hoga. (bhavishya kaal poorn).

kriya visheshan

kisi bhi kriya ki visheshata bataane vaale shabd ko kriya visheshan kehte hain. udaaharan -

'mohan murali ki apeksha kam padhta hai.' yahaaain "kam" shabd "padhne" (kriya) ki visheshata bataata hai isliye vah kriya visheshan hai.
'mohan bahut tej chalta hai.' yahaaain "bahut" shabd "chalana" (kriya) ki visheshata bataata hai isliye yeh kriya visheshan hai.
'mohan murali ki apeksha bahut kam padhta hai.' yahaaain "bahut" shabd "kam" (kriya visheshan) ki visheshata bataata hai isliye vah kriya visheshan hai.

kriya visheshan ke bhed:

  • 1. reetivaachak kriya visheshan : mohan ne achaanak kaha.
  • 2. kaalavaachak kriya visheshan :' mohan ne kal kaha tha.
  • 3. sthaanavaachak kriya visheshan : mohan yahaaain aaya tha.
  • 4. parimaanavaachak kriya visheshan : mohan kam bolata hai.

samuchchaya bodhak

do shabdon ya vaakyon ko jodne vaale sanyojak shabd ko samuchchaya bodhak kehte hain. udaaharan -

'mohan aur sohan ek hi shaala mein padhte hain.' yahaaain "aur" shabd "mohan" tatha "sohan" ko aapas mein jodta hai isliye yeh sanyojak hai.
'mohan ya sohan mein se koi ek hi kaksha kaptaan banega.' yahaaain "ya" shabd "mohan" tatha "sohan" ko aapas mein jodta hai isliye yeh sanyojak hai.

vismayaadi bodhak

vismaya prakat karne vaale shabd ko vismaayaadibodhak kehte hain. udaaharan -

are! main to bhool hi gaya tha ki aaj mera janm din hai. yahaaain "are" shabd se vismaya ka bodh hota hai at: yeh vismayaadibodhak hai.

purush

ekavachan bahuvachan
uttam purush main ham
madhyam purush tum tum log / tum sab
anya purush yeh ye
vah ve / ve log
aap aap log / aap sab

hindi mein teen purush hote hain-

  • uttam purush- main, ham
  • madhyam purush - tum, aap
  • anya purush- vah, Ram aadi

uttam purush mein main aur ham shabd ka prayog hota hai, jismein ham ka prayog ekavachan aur bahuvachan donon ke roop mein hota hai. is prakaar ham uttam purush ekavachan bhi hai aur bahuvachan bhi hai.

misaal ke taur par yadi aisa kaha jaae ki "ham sab bhaaratavaasi hain", to yahaaain ham bahuvachan hai aur agar aisa likha jaae ki "ham vidyut ke kaarya mein nipun hain", to yahaaain ham ekavachan ke rup mein bhi hai aur bahuvachan ke roop mein bhi hai. hamako sirf tumase pyaar hai - is vaakya mein dekhein to, "ham" ekavachan ke rup mein prayukt hua hai.

vakta apne aapko maan dene ke liye bhi ekavachan ke roop mein ham ka prayog karte hain. lekhak bhi kai baar apne baare mein kehne ke liye ham shabd ka prayog ekavachan ke rup mein apne lekh mein karte hain. is prakaar ham ek ekavachan ke rup mein maanavaachak sarvanaam bhi hai.

vachan

hindi mein do vachan hote hain:

  • ekavachan- jaise Ram, main, kaala, aadi ekavachan mein hain.
  • bahuvachan- ham log, ve log, saare praani, pedon aadi bahuvachan mein hain.

ling

hindi mein sirf do hi ling hote hain: streeling aur pulling. koi vastu ya jaanavar ya vanaspati ya bhaavavaachak sanjnyaa streeling hai ya pulling, iska gyaan abhyaas se hota hai. kabhi-kabhi sanjnyaa ke ant-svar se bhi iska pata chal jaata hai.

  • pulling- purush jaati ke liye prayukt shabd pulling mein kahe jaate hain. jaise - Ajay, bail, jaata hai aadi
  • streeling- stri jaati ke bodhak shabd jaise- nirmala, cheenti, pahaadi, khelati hai, kaali bakari doodh deti hai aadi.

kaarak

8 kaarak hote hain.

karta, karm, karan, sampradaan, apaadaan, sanbandh, adhikran, sambodhan.

kisi bhi vaakya ke sabhi shabdon ko inheen 8 kaarakon mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan- Ram ne amarood khaaya. yahaaain 'Ram' karta hai, 'khaana' karm hai.

do vastuon ke madhya sanbandh bataane vaale shabd ko sanbandhakaarak kehte hain. udaaharan -

'yeh mohan ki pustak hai.' yahaaain "ki" shabd "mohan" aur "pustak" mein sanbandh bataata hai isliye yeh sanbandhakaarak hai.

upasarg

ve shabd jo kisi doosare shabd ke aarambh mein lagaaye jaate hain. inke lagaane se shabdon ke arth parivartan ya vishishtata aa sakti hai. pr+ mod = pramod, su + sheel = susheel

upasarg prakruti se paratantr hote haiain. upasarg chaar prakaar ke hote haiain -

  • 1) sanskrut se aae hue upasarg,
  • 2) kuchh avyaya jo upasargon ki tarah prayukt hote hai,
  • 3) hindi ke apne upasarg (tadbhav),
  • 4) videshi bhaasha se aae hue upasarg.

pratyaya

ve shabd jo kisi shabd ke ant mein jode jaate hain, unhein pratyaya (prati + aya = baad mein aane wala) kehte hain. jaise- gaadi + vaan = gaadeevaan, apna + pan = apanaapan

sandhi

do shabdon ke paas-paas hone par unako jod dene ko sandhi kehte hain. jaise- soorya + udaya = sooryodaya, ati + aavashyak = atyaavashyak, sannyaasi = sam + nyaasi

samaas

do shabd aapas mein milkar ek samast pad ki rachana karte hain. jaise-raaj+putr = raajaputr, chhote+bade = chhote-bade aadi
samaas chh: hote hain:

dvand, dvigu, tatpurush, karmadhaaraya, avyayeebhaav aur bahubreehi .

vaakya vichaar

vaakya vichaar hindi vyaakaran ka teesara khand hai jismein vaakya ki paribhaasha, bhed-upabhed, sanrachana aadi se sambandhit niyamon par vichaar kiya jaata hai.

vaakya

shabdon ke samooh ko jiska poora poora arth niklata hai, vaakya kehte hain. vaakya ke do anivaarya tattv hote hain-

  1. uddeshya aur
  2. vidheya

jiske baare mein baat ki jaaya use uddeshya kehte hain aur jo baat ki jaaya use vidheya kehte hain. udaaharan ke liye mohan prayaag mein rahata hai. ismein uddeshya- mohan hai aur vidheya hai- prayaag mein rahata hai. vaakya bhed do prakaar se kiye ja sakte hain-

1- arth ke aadhaar par vaakya bhed
2- rachana ke aadhaar par vaakya bhed

arth ke aadhaar par aath prakaar ke vaakya hote hain-

1-vidhaan vaachak vaakya, 2- nishedhavaachak vaakya, 3- prashnavaachak vaakya, 4- vismyaadivaachak vaakya, 5- aajnyaaavaachak vaakya, 6- ichhaavaachak vaakya, 7- sandehavaachak vaakya.

kaal

vaakya teen kaal mein se kisi ek mein ho sakte hain:

vartamaan kaal jaise main khelne ja raha hooain.
bhootakaal jaise 'jaya hind' ka naara netaaji subhaash chandr Bose ne diya tha aur
bhavishya kaal jaise agale mangalvaar ko main naani ke ghar jaauainga.
vartamaan kaal ke teen bhed hote hain- saamaanya vartamaan kaal, sandigdh vartamaanakaal tatha apoorn vartamaan kaal.
bhootakaal ke bhi chhe bhed hote hain samaanya bhoot, aasann bhoot, poorn bhoot, apoorn bhoot, sandigdh bhoot aur hetumad bhoot.
bhavishya kaal ke do bhed hote hain- saamaanya bhavishyakaal aur sanbhaavya bhavishyakaal.

padabandh

chhand vichaar

chhand vichaar hindi vyaakaran ka chautha khand hai jiske antargat vaakya ke saahityik roop mein prayukt hone se sambandhit vishyon var vichaar kiya jaata hai. ismein chhand ki paribhaasha, prakaar aadi par vichaar kiya jaata hai.

yeh bhi dekhe

baahari kadiyaaain