hindi vartani maanakeekaran

bhaasha ki vartani ka arth us bhaasha mein shabdon ko varnon se abhivyakt karne ki kriya ko kehte hain. hindi mein iski aavashyakta kaafi samay tak naheen samajhi jaati thi; jabki anya kai bhaashaaon, jaise angreji va urdoo mein iska mahattv tha. angreji va urdoo mein ardhashataabdi pehle bhi vartani (angreji:speling, urdoo:hijjon) ki rataai ki jaati thi jo aaj bhi abhyaas mein hai. hindi bhaasha ka pehla aur bada gun dhvanyaatmakata hai. hindi mein uchcharit dhvaniyon ko vyakt karna bada saral hai. jaisa bola jaae, vaisa hi likh jaae. yeh devanaagari lipi ki bahumukhi visheshata ke kaaran hi sambhav tha aur aaj bhi hai. parantu yeh baat shat-pratishat ab theek naheen hai. iske anek kaaran hai - kshetreeya aanchalik uchchaaran ka prabhaav, anekaroopata, bhram, parampara ka nirvaah aadi. jab yeh anubhav kiya jaane laga ki ek hi shabd ki kai-kai vartani milti hain to inko abhivyakt karne ke liye kisi saarthak shabd ki talaash hui ('hui' shabd ki vividhta drashtavya hai - hui, hui, huvi). is kaaran se maanakeekaran ki aavashyakta mahasoos ki jaane lagi.

Hindi devnagari.png Hindi dot.svg
Hindi vowel chart.png Aryabhata-code-table.png
hindi shabd likhne ki do prachalit vartaniyaaain (oopar),
(neeche)hindi fonolauji saarani (baaen), aaryabhaatt saarani (daaen)

anukram

"vartani" shabd ka itihaas

hindi varnamaala, poorn vivran sahit

hindi shabdasaagar tatha sankshipt hindi shabdasaagar ke praarambhik sanskaranon ke saath hi san 1950 mein prakaashit praamaanik hindi kosh (aachaarya raamachandr varma) mein iska prayog na hona yeh sanket karta hai ki is shataabdi ke madhya tak is shabd ki koi aavashyakta naheen samajhi gayi.[1] chhathe dashak mein vartani shabd ko sthaan mila, jiska sandarbh tab prakaashit hui do pustakon mein milta hai:

  • shuddh akshari kaise seekhein -pro. muraleedhar shreevaastav,[2] evam
  • hindi ki vartani-pro. ramaapati shukl,[3]

pro. shreevaastav ke anusaar, hindi ki varnamaala poornat: dhvanyaatmak hone ke kaaran hindi ki vartani ki samasya utani gambhir naheen jitni angreji ki; kyonki hindi mein aaj bhi likhit roop se shabd apne uchcharit roop se adhik bhinn naheen.

inhonne akshari shabd ka prayog kiya, jo prachalan mein naheen aa saka; kyonki usi samay lekhak ne silebil ke liye akshar ka prayog apne dauktaret ke granth hindi bhaasha mein 'akshar' tatha shabd ki seema' mein sthir kar diya. us samay tak Bihar mein 'vivran' Bengal mein 'banaan' shabd hijje speling ke liye chal rahe the. iske alaava prachalan mein kuchh anya shabd the -aksharanyaas, akshar vinyaas, varnanyaas, varn vinyaas, aadi. shiksha ke professor Krishna gopaal rastogi ne akshar vinyaas shabd ka prayog bahut samay tak kiya. yahi varn vinyaas hai. amarakosh mein lipi ke liye akshar vinyaas: tatha likhitm ka prayog bhi paryaaya ke roop mein milta hai.

uparyukt sabhi shabdon ke hote hue bhi ab is arth mein 'vartani' hi maanya ho gaya aur Bhaarat sarkaar ke keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya, nai Delhi ne na keval is shabd ko maanyata di, varan ekaroopata ki drushti se kuchh niyam bhi sthir kiye hain. vartani shabd bhi sanskrut bhaasha ka hai, jiski vyutpattiyaaain dete hue aachaarya nishaantaketu ne 'vartani' shabd ke koshagat arth bataae hain:- maarg, path, jeena, jeevan aur doosra arth hai: peesana, choorn banaana, takuaa[4]. jnyaaanamandal, Varanasi dvaara prakaashit 'bruhad hindi kosh' mein pehli baar vartani ka arth hijje diya gaya. kaafi vivechan ke baad vartani ki badi vyaapak paribhaasha sthir ki gayi:

bhaasha-saamraajya ke antargat bhi shabdon ki seema mein aksharon ki jo aachaar sahita athva unka anushaasanagat samvidhaan hai, use hi ham vartani ki sanjnyaa de sakte hain.....vartani bhaasha ka vartamaan hai. vartani bhaasha ka anushaasit aavartan hai, vartani shabdon ka sanskaarita pad vinyaas hai. vartani ateet aur bhavishya ke madhya ka setu sootr hai. yeh akshar sansthaan aur varn kram vinyaas hai.[5]

aachaarya raghunaath prasaad chaturvedi ne sanskrut vyaakaran ke vaartik se iska sambandh sthaapit karte hue vyakt kiya. vaartik evam vartani donon shabdon ke dhvanisaamya evam arthasaamya mein samaanata hai. sootr ke dvaara shabd saadhana ka vaigyaanik vishleshan hota hai tatha vaartik mein sootron dvaara trutipoorn kathan par poorn vichaar kiya jaata hai. vartani bhi isi samaanaantar prakriya se gujarati hai. vartani ka bhi saamoohik vishuddh svaroop hi bhaasha ki samruddhi ke liye graahruya hai.[6] vartani shabd ke virodhi hote hue bhi aachaarya Vajpayee is shabd ke utthaan hetu inka yogadaan tatha hindi ki vartani tatha shabd vishleshan ullekhaneeya hain.[7]

maanakeekaran sansthaaen evam prayaas

maanak hindi vartani ka kaaryakshetr kendreeya hindi nideshaalaya ka hai. is disha mein kai diggajon ne apna yogadaan diya, jinmein se aachaarya kishoreedaas Vajpayee tatha aachaarya raamachandr varma ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. hindi bhaasha ke sangh aur kuchh raajyon ki raajabhaasha sveekrut ho jaane ke falasvaroop desh ke bheetar aur baahar hindi seekhane vaalon ki sankhya mein paryaapt vruddhi ho jaane se hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karna aavashyak aur kaalochit laga, taaki hindi shabdon ki vartaniyon mein adhikaadhik ekaroopata laai ja sake. tadanusaar, shiksha mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1961 mein hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karne ke liye ek visheshagya samiti niyukt ki. is samiti ne April 1962 mein antim report di. samiti ki chaar baithakein huin jinmein gambhir vichaar-vimarsh ke baad vartani ke sambandh mein ek niymaavali nirdhaarit ki gayi. samiti ne tadanusaar, 1962 mein apni antim sifaarishein prastut keen jo sarkaar dvaara anumodit ki gain aur antat: hindi bhaasha ke maanakeekaran ki sarkaari prakriya ka shreeganesh hua. yeh prakriya to satat hai, kintu mukhya nirdesh tay ho chuke hain. ye kendreeya hindi sansthaan se evam Bhaarat ke sabhi sarkaari kaaryaalayon mein prasaarit kiye gaye hain. inka anupaalan sunishchit karne hetu bhi sansthaan kaaryarat hai.

sandarbh

  1. vimisaahitya par hindi mein vartani
  2. shreevaastav, pro. muraleedhar (1960). shuddh akshari kaise seekhein. Patna: bhaarati bhavan.
  3. shukl, pro. ramaapati (1960). shuddh akshari kaise seekhein. Varanasi: shabdalok prakaashan.
  4. (aapte ka kosh)
  5. Bhatia, Kailash chandr (prabhaat prakaashan). hindi ki maanak vartani. nai Delhi: prabhaat prakaashan. pp. 144. 2645. ka prushth 2
  6. (navabhaarat times dinaank 19.3.14)
  7. aachaarya Vajpayee aajeevan is samasya se joohjte rahe, patra-patrikaaon mein nirantar likhte rahe aur pustakein bhi prakaashit karte rahe, jinmein se shabd meemaansa pratham sanskaran, 1958 E.) tatha hindi ki vartani tatha shabd vishleshan ullekhaneeya hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain