hindi svaravijnyaaan

vyanjan

sparsh : hindi mein (prakaaryaatmak star par mahattvapoorn) 16 sparsh vyanjan svanim ke roop mein prayog kiye jaate hain.

chaar dvayoshthya sparsh vyanjan hain jinmein ghoshatv evam praanatv jaise do svanimik abhilkshanon dvaara chaar dvayoshthya sparsh svanim praapt hote hain - in chaaro ke liye prayukt devanaagari varnamaala ke chaar varn yahaan diye gaye hain.

isi prakaar ke anya teen sparsh vyanjan varg hain -

dantya (t, the, th, dh)

moordhanya (t, d, th, dh) aur

kanthya (k, g, kh, gh)

taalavya dhvaniyon ka aisa hi vyanjan varg sparsh-sangharshi vyanjan dhvaniyon ke antargat aata hai yadyapi ise bhi kuchh bhaashaavidon ne sparsh dhvaniyon ke saath rakha hai. ye vyanjan svanim hain (ch, j, chh, jh).

sangharshi - vyanjan dhvaniyon mein teen svanim hain : dantya / vartsya dhvani /s/ ke liye "varn" prayog kiya jaata hai to /h/ ke liye 'h' varn prayukt hota hai /s~/ ka uchchaaran hindi bhaasha ke vikaas ki dhaara mein kisi star par do alag-alag roopon mein kiya jaata tha arthaat taalavya /s~/ evam moordhanya /s/ do alag svanim maane jaate the aur in do ke liye do varn bhi prayog kiye jaate the - sh-taalavya evam-moordhanya jo ki aaj bhi devanaagari lipi mein jyon ke tyon prayog hote hain parantu aaj in donon mein dhvani star par adhik antar naheen rah gaya hai, keval taalavya sangharshi vyanjan svanim /s~/ jiska roop moordhanya dhvaniyon ke saath taalavya na rahakar moordhanya ho jaata hai. jaise kasht, nasht. drushti aadi shabdon mein moordhanya "t"se pehle. iseeliye inhein ek hi svanim ke do upasvan maanana anuchit na hoga.

iske atirikt chaar sangharshi dhvaniyaan arabi faarasi shabdon ke maadhyam se hindi mein aakar ab hindi ki dhvani vyavastha ka ang ban chuki hain. ye dhvaniyaan hain - f dvayoshthya sangharshi vyanjan svanim /ङ/, za jo ki dantya dhvani s ka hi saghosh roop hai /ai/ aur kanthya dhvaniyaan kh /d/ aghosh kanthya sangharshi aur isi ka saghosh dhvani roop g.

naasikya - devanaagari varnamaala mein hamein pratyek sparsh athva sparsh-sangharshi vyanjan varg ke ant mein ek naasikya vyanjan varn bhi milta hai jaise kanthya dhvaniyon ke saath a kanthya naasikya dhvani [b] hai to moordhanya dhvaniyon ke saath n, moordhanya naasikya [n] hai, taalavya dhvaniyon ke saath nya, taalavya naasikya [n] hai aur dantya evam dvayoshthya naasikya ke saath na evam m, kramash: dantya naasikya [n] evam dvayoshthya naasikya /m/ likha jaata hai. prakaarya ki drushti se dekha jaae to a evam nyaa kanthya evam taalavya naasikya vyanjan keval "na" naasikya ke upasvanon ke roop mein prayog kiye jaate hain jabki m, na, n ka svatantr svanimon ke roop mein prayog hota hai. arthaat m-na-n arthabhed prakaarya karne waali naasikya dhvaniyaan hain jab ki a evam nya, na naasikya ke saath paripoorak vitran mein milti hain - na ka uchchaaran kanthya dhvaniyon ke poorv kanthya naasikya a ke roop mein hota hai to taalavya dhvaniyon ke poorv taalavya naasikya nya dhvani ke roop mein hota hai.

paarshvik evam lunthit dhvaniyaan - ye dhvaniyaan kramash: /E/ evam /r/ donon hindi ke do svatantr svanim hain jinke liye devanaagari lipi me l evam r lipi chinhon ka prayog hota hai. lunthit dhvani ke saath vyatirek dikhaate hue utkshipt dhvaniyaan d /r/ evam iska mahaapraan roop dh /rh/ bhi do bhinn svanim hain. ye donon dhvaniyaan aur moordhanya naasikya vyanjan n shabdon ke shuroo mein prayog naheen kiye jaate.

in vyanjan dhvaniyon ke atirikt hindi mein do ardhasvar /y/ evam /t/ bhi hai jinke liye kramash: ya evam va lipi chinhon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. ya ek svanim hai aur b svanim ke upasvanon ke roop mein ek or dantyoshthya sangharshi, saghosh dhvani hai to doosari or dvayoshthya ardhasvar hai jinhein upasvanon ke roop mein is prakaar dikhaaya ja sakta hai [t. v].