hindi shabdasaagar

hindi shabdasaagar hindi bhaasha ke liye banaaya gaya ek vruhat shabd-sangrah tatha pratham maanak kosh hai. 'hi‍an‍aadi shab‍aadasaagar' ka ni‍amaarn naagari prachaarini sabha, kaashi ne ki‍aya tha. iska pratham prakaashan 1922 - 1929 ke beech hua. yeh vaigyaanik evam vidhivt shabdakosh mool roop mein chaar khandon mein bana. iske pradhaan sampaadak shyaamasundar das the tatha baalakrushn bhatt, laala bhagavaanadeen, ameer Singh evam jaganmohan the. aachaarya raamachandr shukl evam aachaarya raamachandr varma ne bhi is mahaan kaarya mein sarvashreshth yogadaan kiya. ismein lagbhag ek lakh shabd the. baad mein san 1965 - 1976 ke beech iska ka parivrdhit sanskaan 11 khandon mein prakaashit hua.

anukram

sankshipt itihaas

  • hindi mein sarvaagapoorn aur bruhat kosh ka abhaav naagareeprachaarini sabha ke sanchaalakon ko 1893 i0 mein hi khataka tha aur unhonne ek uttam kosh banaane ke vichaar se aarthik sahaayata ke liye darabhangaanaresh mahaaraaja sar lakshmeeshvar Singh ji se praarthana ki thi. mahaaraaja ne bhi shishu sabha ke uddeshya ki saraahana karte hue 125 roopaye usaki sahaayata ke liye bheje the aur uske saath sahaanubhooti prakat ki thi.
  • 23 August san 1907 ko sabha ke param hitaishi aur utsaahi sadasya shreeyukt revareind i0 greevs ne sabha ki prabandhakaarini samiti mein yeh prastaav upasthit kiya ki hindi ke ek bruhat aur sarvaagapoorn kosh banaane ka bhaar sabha apne oopar le liya aur saath hi yeh bhi batalaaya ki yeh kaarya kis pranaali se kiya jaaya. sabha ne mi0 greevs ke prastaav par vichaar karke is vishay mein uchit paraamarsh dene ke liye nimnalikhit sajjanon ki ek upasamiti niyat kar di - revareind i0 greevs, mahaamahopaadhyaaya pandit sudhaakar Dwivedi, pandit raamanaaraayan mishr bee0 e0, babu govindadaas, babu indranaaraayan Singh ema0 e0, chhotelaala, munshi sankataaprasaad, pandit maadhavaprasaad paathak aur shyaamasundar das.
  • 9 November 1907 ko is upasamiti ne apni report di, jismein sabha ko paraamarsh diya gaya ki sabha hindeebhaasha ke do bade kosh banavaave jinmein se ek mein to hindi shabdon ke arth hindi mein hi rahein aur doosare mein hindi shabdon ke arth aaingareji mein hon.
  • sabha ne is kaarya ke liye anek raaja mahaaraajon se aarthik sahaayata praapt ki.
  • sabha ne nishchit kiya ki shabdasangrah ka kaam vetan dek kuchh logo se karaaya jaaya. tadanusaar praay: 16—aa17 aadmi shabdasangrah ke kaam ke liye niyukt kar diye gaye aur ek nishchit pranaali par shabdasangrah ka kaam hone laga.
  • aarambh mein kosh ke sahaayak sampaadak pandit baalakrushn bhatt, pandit raamachandr shukl, laala bhaagavaanadeen aur babu ameer Singh ke atirikt babu jaganmohan varma, babu raamachandr varma, pandit vaasudev mishr, pandit raamavachanesh mishr, pandit brajabhooshan ojha, shreeyut veshi kavi aadi anek sajjan bhi is shabdasangrah ke kaam mein sanmilit the. aarambh mein sabha ne yeh nishchit naheen kiya tha ki kosh ka sampaadak kaun banaaya jaaya, par doosare varsh sabha ne shyaamasundar das ko kosh ka pradhaan sampaadak banaana nishchit kiya.
  • san 1910 ke aarambh mein shabdasangrah ka kaarya samaapt ho gaya. jin slipon par shabd likhe gaye the, unki sankhya anumaanat: 10 lakh thi, jinmein se aasha ki gayi thi ki praay: 1 lakh (bina duharaaye) shabd nikleinge aur praay: yahi baat ant mein hui bhi.
  • May, 1912 mein chhapaai ka kaarya aarambh hua aur ek hi varsh ke andar 96-96 prushthon ki chaar sankhyaaeain chhapakar prakaashit ho gayi, jinmein 8666 shabd the. sarvasaadhaaran mein in prakaashit sankhyaaon ka bahut achha aadar hua.
  • is prakaar 1917 tak baraabar kaam chalta raha aur kosh ki 15 sankhyaaen chhapakar prakaashit ho gayi tatha graahakasankhya mein bahut kuchh vruddhi ho gayi.
  • san 1924 mein kosh ke sambandh me ek haanikaarak durghatana ho gayi thi. aarambh mein shabdasangrah ki jo slipein taiyaar hui thi, unke 22 bandal kosh kaaryaalaya se chori chale gaye. unamein 'vivvok' se 'shan' tak ki aur 'shaya' se 'sahi' tak ki slipein thi.
  • January, 1929 ko yeh kaarya samaapt hua.
  • is prakaar yeh bruhat aayojan 20 varsh ke nirantar udyog, parishram aur adhyavasaaya ke anantar samaapt hua. isasein sab milaakar 93,115 shabdon ke arth tatha vivran diye gaye the aur aarambh mein hindi bhaasha aur saahitya ke vikaas ka itihaas bhi de diya gaya tha jise aachaarya raamachandr shukl ne taiyaar kiya tha. is samast kaarya mein sabha ka tabatak 10,27,35 roopaye hue, jismein chhapaai aadi ka bhi vyaya sanmilit hai.

parichay

dau॰ shyaanasundaradaas ke netrutv mein aur aachaarya raamachandr shakl jaise marmajnya aalochak aur hidi saahityavijnya ke sahaayakatv mein tatha baalakrushn bhatt shri ameer sih, shri jaganmohan varma shri (laala) bhagavaanadeen aur shri raamachandr varm ke sanpaadakatv mein anek vidvaanon, kaaryakartaaon ke sahayog se sanpaadit aur nirmit yeh kosh ek mahaan prayaas tha. saadhan aur paristhitiyon ke vichaar se is mahaakosh ke sanpaadan mein sabha ke karnadhaaron aur kosh ke kaaryakartaaon ko mahaan safalta praapt hui. iski kuchh upalabdhiyaaain hai jo stutya aur abhinandaneeya hain. yeh bhi kaha ja sakta hai ki hidi shabdasaagar ke anantar bane hidi ke sabhi chhote bade koshon ka yahi mahaakosh upajeevya aur aadhaar raha.

hindi koshakala ke labdhapratishth sampaadak shri raamachandr varma ke is prashansaneeya kaarya ka upajeevya bhi mukhyat: hindi shabdasaagar hi hai. usaka mool kalevar taatvik roop mein shabdasaagar se hi adhikaanshat: pariklit hai. hindi ke anya koshon mein bhi adhikaansh saamagri isi kosh se li gayi hai.

poorvavarti adhikaansh hindi koshon ki bhaaainti hindi shabdasaagar ek vyakti dvaara nirmit na hokar bhaasha aur saahitya ke marmajnya anek sudhiyon dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya. shabdasankalan ke liye keval puraane koshon ka hi aadhaar na lekar granthon aur vyavaaharayakt bhaasha aur boliyon ke praay: samast upalabdh saamaanya aur vishesh shabdon ke sangrah ka usame prayaas hua. praay: pratyek shabd ka mool srot dekhne ke prayaas ke saath saath vibhinn bhaashaamoolak sroton ka nirdesh karne ki cheshta hui. vyutpattiyaaain badyapi bahut si aisi hain jo sandigdh aur bhraamak athva kaheen kaheen ashuddh bhi hain tathaapi uske liye yathaasaadhan aur yathaashakti jo prayaas hai vah bhi apne aapame bada mahatva rakhata hai.

vyaakaranamoolak vyavastha aur tadanusaar shabd evam arth ke vyavasthit nirdesh ka hindi shabdasaagar mein atyant praudh viniyojan dikhaai deta hai. paryaaya-nirdeshan par jahaaain ek or sanskrut koshon ka vyaapak prabhaav hai aur praay: adhikaadhik yaugik pado ka ullekh bhi sanskrut vyaakaran par adhikt: aadhaarit hai vahaaain doosari or hindi ki prakruti aur prayog-parampara ka aakalan aur sankalan bhi bade yatn aur manoyog ke saath kiya gaya hai. hindi ke muhaavaron aur lokoktiyon ya prayogon athva kriyaaprayogon ki prayaagaparanpara se aagat arthon ki vyaakhya bhi ismein paryaapt praudh hai.

shabdasaagar mein arthanirdhaaran mein vyaakhyaatmak paddhati apnaai gayi hain. par saath hi mukhya shabdon ke antargat adhikt: paryaaya bhi rakh diye gaye hain. is kaaran kabhi kabhi aisa bhi lagta hai ki yeh kosh aadhunik dhang ka paryaayavaachi aur naanaarthak kosh ek saath ban gaya hai. vyaakhyaatmak paddhati ke antargat vyakti, vishay, vastu aadi ka pauraanik, aitihaasik, shaastreeya aur paramparaagat anek prakaar ke parichay evam vivran yathaasthaan diye gaye hai. is kaaran yeh kosh vishvakosh, jnyaaanakosh, charitkosh aur paaribhaashik kosh ke parivesh ka bhi yatr tatr sparsh karta dekhaai deta hai.

ismein kuchh kamiyaaain bhi ginaai ja sakateen hain. shabdon ke samast arthon ki prayogapushti aur praamaanikta ke nimit sarvat udaaharan naheen hain. jahaaain hain vahaaain bhi bahudha granthon ke naamamaatr hi nirdisht hain. unek prasangasthal aur sanskaran ka ullekh naheen hai. unek sthalon par bolachaal ke svanirmit udaaharan bhi niyojit kiye gaye hain. sab samaalakar ismein shabdasangrah aur arthavivruti donon ki paridhi ko yayaasanbhav vyaayak aur vistrut banaaya gaya hai. is kshetr mein vibhinn peshon aur varg ke janajeevan se sangruheet shabdabhandaar ki sanyojana se is kosh ka mahatva bahut badh gaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadi