hindi saahitya ka itihaas

hindi saahitya par yadi samuchit pariprekshya mein vichaar kiya jaae to spasht hota hai ki hindi saahitya ka itihaas atyant vistrut va praacheen hai. suprasiddh bhaasha vaigyaanik Dr haradev baahari ke shabdon mein, 'hindi saahitya ka itihaas vastut: vaidik kaal se aarambh hota hai. yeh kehna hi theek hoga ki vaidik bhaasha hi hindi hai. is bhaasha ka durbhaagya raha hai ki yug-yug mein iska naam parivrtit hota raha hai. kabhi 'vaidik', kabhi 'sanskrut', kabhi 'prakrut', kabhi 'apabhransh' aur ab - hindi.[1] aalochak kah sakte hain ki vaidik sanskrut aur hindi mein to jameen-aasmaan ka antar hai. par dhyaan dene yogya hai ki hibroo, roosi, cheeni, jarman aur tamil aadi jin bhaashaaon ko 'bahut puraani' bataaya jaata hai, unke bhi praacheen aur vartamaan roopon mein jameen-aasmaan ka hi antar hai. par logon ne un bhaashaaon ke naam naheen badle aur unke parivrtit svaroopon ko 'praacheen', 'madhyakaaleen', 'aadhunik' aadi kaha gaya jabki hindi ke sandarbh mein pratyek yug ki bhaasha ka naya naam rakha jaata raha.

kintu hindi bhaasha ke udbhav aur vikaas ke sambandh mein prachalit dhaaranaaon par vichaar karte samay hamaare saamane hindi bhaasha ki utpatti ka prashn dasveen shataabdi ke aaspaas ki praakrutaabhaas bhaasha tatha apabhransh bhaashaaon ki or jaata hai. apabhransh shabd ki vyutpatti aur jain rachanaakaaron ki apabhransh krutiyon ka hindi se sambandh sthaapit karne ke liye jo tark aur pramaan hindi saahitya ke itihaas granthon mein prastut kiye gaye hain un par vichaar karna bhi aavashyak hai. saamaanyat: praakrut ki antim apabhransh avastha se hi hindi saahitya ka aavirbhaav sveekaar kiya jaata hai. us samay apabhransh ke kai roop the aur unamein saataveen-aathaveen shataabdi se hi padya rachana praarambh ho gayi thi.

saahitya ki drushti se padyabaddh jo rachanaaeain milti hain ve doha roop mein hi hain aur unke vishay, dharm, neeti, upadesh aadi pramukh hain. raajaashrit kavi aur chaaran neeti, shrungaar, shaurya, paraakram aadi ke varnan se apni saahitya-ruchi ka parichay diya karte the. yeh rachana-parampara aage chalakar shairaseni apabhransh ya praakrutaabhaas hindi mein kai varshon tak chalti rahi. puraani apabhransh bhaasha aur bolachaal ki deshi bhaasha ka prayog nirntar badhta gaya. is bhaasha ko vidyaapati ne desi bhaasha kaha hai, kintu yeh nirnaya karna saral naheen hai ki hindi shabd ka prayog is bhaasha ke liye kab aur kis desh mein praarambh hua. haaain, itna avashya kaha ja sakta hai ki praarambh mein hindi shabd ka prayog videshi musalmaanon ne kiya tha. is shabd se unka taatparya 'bhaarateeya bhaasha' ka tha.

anukram

hindi saahitya ke itihaas-lekhan ka itihaas

aaranbhik kaal se lekar aadhunik va aaj ki bhaasha mein aadhunikottar kaal tak saahitya itihaas lekhakon ke shataadhik naam ginaaye ja sakte hain. hindi saahitya ke itihaas shabdabaddh karne ka prashn adhik mahatvapoorn tha.

hindi saahitya ke itihaasakaar aur unke granth

hindi saahitya ke mukhya itihaasakaar aur unke granth nimnaanusaar hain -

1. gaarsa the taasi : istavaar the la literaatyoor aindui aindustaani (French bhaasha mein; French vidvaan, hindi saahitya ke pehle itihaasakaar)

2. shivsinh seingar : Shiv Singh saroj

3. George griyrsan : the modern varnekyoolar litraichar of hindostaan

4. mishr bandhu : mishr bandhu vinod

5. raamachandr shukl : hindi saahitya ka itihaas

6. hajaari prasaad Dwivedi : hindi saahitya ki bhoomika; hindi saahitya ka aadikaal; hindi saahitya :udbhav aur vikaas

7. Ramkumar varma : hindi saahitya ka aalochanaatmak itihaas

8. Dr dheerendr varma : hindi saahitya

9. Dr nagendr : hindi saahitya ka itihaas; hindi vaandmaya 20veen shati

10. raamasvaroop chaturvedi : hindi saahitya aur samvedna ka vikaas, lokabhaarati prakaashan, Allahabad, 1986

11. Bachchan Singh : hindi saahitya ka doosra itihaas, raadhaakrushn prakaashan, nai Delhi

12. daa0 mohan avasthi : hindi saahitya ka adyatan itihaas

13. babu gulaab rai : hindi saahitya ka subodh itihaas

hindi saahitya ke vikaas ke vibhinn kaal

hindi saahitya ka aarambh aathaveen shataabdi se maana jaata hai. yeh vah samay hai jab samraat harsh ki mrutyu ke baad desh mein anek chhote chhote shaasanakendr sthaapit ho gaye the jo paraspar sangharsharat raha karte the. videshi musalmaanon se bhi inki takkar hoti rahati thi. dhaarmik kshetr astavyast the. in dinon uttar Bhaarat ke anek bhaagon mein bauddh dharm ka prachaar tha. bauddh dharm ka vikaas kai roopon mein hua jinmein se ek vajrayaan kahalaaya. vajrayaani taantrik the aur siddh kahalaate the. inhonne janta ke beech us samay ki lokabhaasha mein apne mat ka prachaar kiya. hindi ka praacheenatam saahitya inheen vajrayaani siddhon dvaara tatkaleen lokabhaasha puraani hindi mein likha gaya. iske baad naathapanthi saadhuon ka samay aata hai. inhonne bauddh, shaankar, tantr, yog aur shaiv maton ke mishran se apna naya panth chalaaya jismein sabhi vargon aur varnon ke liye dharm ka ek saamaanya mat pratipaadit kiya gaya tha. lokaprachalit puraani hindi mein likhi inki anek dhaarmik rachanaaeain upalabdh hain. iske baad jainiyon ki rachanaaeain milti hain. svayanbhoo ka "paumachariu' athva raamaayan aathaveen shataabdi ki rachana hai. bauddhon aur naathapanthiyon ki rachanaaeain muktak aur keval dhaarmik hain par jainiyon ki anek rachanaaeain jeevan ki saamaanya anubhootiyon se bhi sambaddh hain. inmein se kai prabandhakaavya hain. isi kaal mein abdularahamaan ka kaavya "sandesharaasak' bhi likha gaya jismein paravarti bolachaal ke nikat ki bhaasha milti hai. is prakaar gyaarahaveen shataabdi tak puraani hindi ka roop nirmit aur viksit hota raha.

aadikaal (1000 se 1300 E)

gyaarahaveen sadi ke lagbhag deshabhaasha hindi ka roop adhik sfut hone laga. us samay pashchimi hindi pradesh mein anek chhote chhote rajput raajya sthaapit ho gaye the. ye paraspar athva videshi aakramanakaariyon se praaya: yuddharat raha karte the. inheen raajaaon ke sanrakshan mein rahanevaale chaaranon aur bhaaton ka raajaprashastimoolak kaavya veeragaatha ke naam se abhihit kiya gaya. in veeragaathaaon ko raaso kaha jaata hai. inmein aashrayadaata raajaaon ke shaurya aur paraakram ka ojasvi varnan karne ke saath hi unke premaprasangon ka bhi ullekh hai. raaso granthon mein sangharsh ka kaaran praaya: prem dikhaaya gaya hai. in rachanaaon mein itihaas aur kalpana ka mishran hai. raaso veerageet (beesaladevaraaso aur aalha aadi) aur prabandhakaavya (pruthveeraajaraaso, khamanaraaso aadi) - in do roopon mein likhe gaye. in raaso granthon mein se anek ki upalabdh pratiyaaain chaahe aitihaasik drushti se sandigdh hon par in veeragaathaaon ki maukhik parampara ansadigdh hai. inmein shaurya aur prem ki ojasvi aur saras abhivyakti hui hai.

isi kaalaavadhi mein maithil kokil vidyaapati hue jinki padaavali mein maanaveeya saundarya or prem ki anupam vyanjana milti hai. keertilta aur keertiptaaka inke do anya prasiddh granth hain. ameer khusaro ka bhi yahi samay hai. inhonne theth khadi boli mein anek paheliyaaain, mukariyaaain aur do sakhun rache hain. inke geeton, dohon ki bhaasha brajabhaasha hai.

bhaktikaal (1300 se 1650 E.)

terahaveen sadi tak dharm ke kshetr mein badi astavyastata aa gayi. janta mein siddhon aur yogiyon aadi dvaara prachalit andhavishvaas fail rahe. the, shaastrajnyaaanasanpann varg mein bhi roodhiyon aur aadanbar ki pradhaanata ho chali thi. maayaavaad ke prabhaav se lokavimukhata aur nishkriyta ke bhaav samaaj mein panapane lage the. aise samay mein bhaktiaandolan ke roop mein aisa bhaaratavyaapi vishaal saanskrutik aandolan utha jisne samaaj mein utkarshavidhaayak saamaajik aur vaiyaktik moolyon ki pratishtha ki.

bhakti aandolan ka aarambh dakshin ke aalavaar santon dvaara dasveen sadi ke lagbhag hua. vahaaain shankaraachaarya ke advaitamat aur maayaavaad ke virodh mein chaar vaishnav sanpradaaya khade hue. in chaaron sanpradaayon ne uttar Bhaarat mein vishnu ke avataaron ka prachaaraprasaar kiya. inmein se ek ke pravartak raamaanujaachaarya the, jinki shishyaparanpara mein aanevaale raamaanand ne (pandrahaveen sadi) uttar Bhaarat mein raamabhakti ka prachaar kiya. raamaanand ke Ram brahm ke sthaanaapann the jo raakshason ka vinaash aur apni leela ka vistaar karne ke liye sansaar mein avateern hote hain. bhakti ke kshetr mein raamaanand ne ooainchaneech ka bhedabhaav mitaane par vishesh bal diya. Ram ke sagun aur nirgun do roopon ko maananevaale do bhakton - kabeer aur tulasi ko inhonne prabhaavit kiya. vishnusvaami ke shuddhaadvait mat ka aadhaar lekar isi samay ballabhaachaarya ne apna pushtimaarg chalaaya. baarahaveen se solahaveen sadi tak poore desh mein puraanasammat krushnacharit‌ ke aadhaar par kai sanpradaaya pratishthit hue, jinmein sabse jyaada prabhaavashaali vallabh ka pushtimaarg tha. unhonne shaankar mat ke viruddh brahm ke sagun roop ko hi vaastavik kaha. unke mat se yeh sansaar mithya ya maaya ka prasaar naheen hai balki brahm ka hi prasaar hai, at: satya hai. unhonne Krishna ko brahm ka avataar maana aur usaki praapti ke liye bhakt ka poorn aatmasamarpan aavashyak batalaaya. bhagavaan‌ ke anugrah ya pushti ke dvaara hi bhakti sulabh ho sakti hai. is sanpradaaya mein upaasana ke liye gopeejanavallabh, leelaapurushottam Krishna ka madhur roop sveekrut hua. is prakaar uttar Bhaarat mein vishnu ke Ram aur Krishna avataaron pratishtha hui.

is prakaar in vibhinn maton ka aadhaar lekar hindi mein nirgun aur sagun ke naam se bhaktikaavya ki do shaakhaaeain saath saath chaleen. nirgunamat ke do upavibhaag hue - jnyaaanaashrayi aur premaashrayi. pehle ke pratinidhi kabeer aur doosare ke jaayasi hain. sagunamat bhi do upadhaaraaon mein pravaahit hua - raamabhakti aur krushnabhakti. pehle ke pratinidhi tulasi hain aur doosare ke sooradaas.

jnyaaanashrayi shaakha ke pramukh kavi kabeer par taatkaalik vibhinn dhaarmik pravruttiyon aur daarshanik maton ka sammilit prabhaav hai. unki rachanaaon mein dharmasudhaarak aur samaajasudhaarak ka roop vishesh prakhar hai. unhonne aacharan ki shuddhata par bal diya. baahyaadanbar, roodhiyon aur andhavishvaason par unhonne teevr kashaaghaat kiya. manushya ki kshamata ka udghosh kar unhonne nimnashreni ki janta mein aatmagaurav ka bhaav jagaaya. is shaakha ke anya kavi raidaas, daadoo hain.

premaashrayi dhaara ke sarvapramukh kavi jaayasi hain jinka "padamaavat' apni maarmik premavyanjana, kathaaras aur sahaj kalaavinyaas ke kaaran vishesh prashansit hua hai. inki anya rachanaaon mein "akharaavat' aur "aakhiri kalaam' aadi hain, jinmein soofi sanpradaayasangat baatein hain1 is dhaara ke anya kavi hain kutaban, manjhan, usamaan, shekh, nabi aur noor muhammad aadi.

aaj ki drushti se is sampoorn bhaktikaavya ka mahatva usak dhaarmikta se adhik lokajeevanagat maanaveeya anubhootiyon aur bhaavon ke kaaran hai. isi vichaar se bhaktikaal ko hindi kaavya ka svarn yug kaha ja sakta hai.

reetikaal (1650 se 1850 E.)

1700 E. ke aas paas hindi kavita mein ek naya mod aaya. ise visheshat: taatkaalik darabaari sanskruti aur sanskrutasaahitya se uttejana mili. sanskrut saahityashaastr ke katipya anshon ne use shaastreeya anushaasan ki or pravrutt kiya. hindi mein 'reeti' ya 'kaavyareeti' shabd ka prayog kaavyashaastr ke liye hua tha. isliye kaavyashaastrabaddh saamaanya srujanapravrutti aur ras, alankaar aadi ke niroopak bahusankhyak lakshanagranthon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue is samay ke kaavya ko 'reetikaavya' kaha gaya. is kaavya ki shrungaari pravruttiyon ki puraani parampara ke spasht sanket sanskrut, praakrut, apabhransh, faarasi aur hindi ke aadikaavya tatha krushnakaavya ki shrungaari pravruttiyon mein milte hain.

reetikaavya rachana ka aarambh ek sanskrutajnya ne kiya. ye the aachaarya keshavadaas, jinki sarvaprasiddh rachanaaeain kavipriya, rasikpriya aur raamachandrika hain. keshav ke kai dashak baad chintaamani se lekar athaarahaveen sadi tak hindi mein reetikaavya ka ajasr srot pravaahit hua jismein nar-naari-jeevan ke ramaneeya pakshon aur tatsanbandhi saras sanvedanaaon ki atyant kalaatmak abhivyakti vyaapak roop mein hui.

reetikaal ke kavi raajaaon aur raison ke aashray mein rahate the. vahaaain manoranjan aur kalaavilaas ka vaataavaran svaabhaavik tha. bauddhik aanand ka mukhya saadhan vahaaain uktivaichitraya samjha jaata tha. aise vaataavaran mein likha gaya saahitya adhiktar shrungaaramoolak aur kalaavaichitraya se yukt tha. par isi samay prem ke svachhand gaayak bhi hue jinhonne prem ki gaharaaiyon ka sparsh kiya hai. maatra aur kaavyagun donon hi drushtiyon se is samay ka nar-naari-prem aur saundarya ki maarmik vyanjana karanevaala kaavyasaahitya mahatvapoorn hai.

reetikaavya mukhyat: maansal shrungaar ka kaavya hai. ismein nar-naareejeevan ke smaraneeya pakshon ka sundar udghaatan hua hai. adhik kaavya muktak shaili mein hai, par prabandhakaavya bhi hain. in do sau varshon mein shrungaarakaavya ka apoorv utkarsh hua. par dheere dheere reeti ki jakad badhti gayi aur hindi kaavya ka bhaavakshetr sankeern hota gaya. aadhunik yug tak aate aate in donon kamiyon ki or saahityakaaron ka dhyaan vishesh roop se aakrusht hua.

aadhunik kaal (1850 se ab tak)

inhein bhi dekhein -

hindi saahitya ka aadhunik kaal,
aadhunik hindi padya ka itihaas,
aadhunik hindi gadya ka itihaas

unneesaveen shataabdi

yeh aadhunik yug ka aarambh kaal hai jab bhaarateeyon ka Europeeya sanskruti se sampark hua. Bhaarat mein apni jadein jamaane ke kaam mein aaingareji shaasan ne bhaarateeya jeevan ko vibhinn staron par prabhaavit aur aandolit kiya. nai paristhitiyon ke dhakke se sthitisheel jeevanavidhi ka dhaaaincha tootane laga. ek nae yug ki chetna ka aarambh hua. sangharsh aur saamanjasya ke nae aayaam saamane aae.

nae yug ke saahityasrujan ki sarvochch sanbhaavanaaeain khadi boli gadya mein nihit theen, isliye ise gadya-yug bhi kaha gaya hai. hindi ka praacheen gadya raajasthaani, maithili aur brajabhaasha mein milta hai par vah saahitya ka vyaapak maadhyam banane mein ashakt tha. khadeeboli ki parampara praacheen hai. ameer khusaro se lekar madhyakaaleen bhooshan tak ke kaavya mein iske udaaharan bikhre pade hain. khadi boli gadya ke bhi puraane namoone mile hain. is tarah ka bahut sa gadya faarasi aur gurumukhi lipi mein likha gaya hai. dakshin ki musalim riyaasaton mein "dakhini' ke naam se iska vikaas hua. athaarahaveen sadi mein likha gaya raamaprasaad niranjani aur daulataraam ka gadya upalabdh hai. par nai yugachetana ke sanvaahak roop mein hindi ke khadi boli gadya ka vyaapak prasaar unneesaveen sadi se hi hua. kalakatte ke fort William kaalej mein, navaagat aaingarej afsaron ke upayog ke liye, lalloo laal tatha sadal mishr ne gadya ki pustakein likhkar hindi ke khadi boli gadya ki poorvaparanpara ke vikaas mein kuchh sahaayata di. sadaasukhalaal aur inshaaalla khaaain ki gadya rachanaaeain isi samay likhi gayi. aage chalakar press, patrapatrikaaon, isaai dharmaprachaarakon tatha naveen shiksha sansthaaon se hindi gadya ke vikaas mein sahaayata mili. Bengal, Punjab, Gujarat aadi vibhinn praanton ke nivaasiyon ne bhi iski unnati aur prasaar mein yog diya. hindi ka pehla samaachaarapatr "udant maartad' 1826 E. mein kalakatte se prakaashit hua. raaja shivprasaad aur raaja lakshmanasinh hindi gadya ke nirmaan aur prasaar main apne apne dhang se sahaayak hue. aaryasamaaj aur anya saanskrutik aandolanon ne bhi aadhunik gadya ko aage badhaaya.

gadyasaahitya ki vikaasamaan parampara unneesaveen sadi ke uttaraardh se agrasar hui. iske pravartak aadhunik yug ke pravartak aur pathapradarshak bhaarateindu harishchandr the jinhonne saahitya ka samakaaleen jeevan se ghanishth sambandh sthaapit kiya. yeh sankraanti aur navajaagaran ka yug tha. aaingarejon ki kootaneetik chaalon aur aarthik shoshan se janta santrast aur kshubdh thi. samaaj ka ek varg paashchaatya sanskaaron se aakraant ho raha tha to doosra varg roodhiyon mein jakada hua tha. isi samay nai shiksha ka aarambh hua aur saamaajik sudhaar ke aandolan chale. naveen gyaan vigyaan ke prabhaav se navashikshiton mein jeevan ke prati ek naya drushtikon viksit hua jo ateet ki apeksha vartamaan aur bhavishya ki or vishesh unmukh tha. saamaajik vikaas mein utpann aastha aur jaagrat samudaayachetana ne bhaarateeyon mein jeevan ke prati naya utsaah utpann kiya. bhaarateindu ke samakaaleen saahitya mein visheshat: gadyasaahitya mein tatkaaleen vaichaarik aur bhautik parivesh ki vibhinn avasthaaon ki spasht aur jeevant abhivyakti hui. is yug ki naveen rachanaaeain deshbhakti aur samaajasudhaar ki bhaavana se paripoorn hain. anek nai paristhitiyon ki takaraahat se raajaneetik aur saamaajik vyang ki pravrutti bhi udbuddh hui. is samay ke gadya mein bolachaal ki sajeevata hai. lekhakon ke vyaktitv se sanprukt hone ke kaaran usamein paryaapt rochakata aa gayi hai. sabse adhik nibandh likhe gaye jo vyaktipradhaan aur vichaarapradhaan tatha varnanaatmak bhi the. anek shailiyon mein kathaasaahitya bhi likha gaya, adhiktar shikshaapradhaan. par yathaarthavaadi drushti aur nae shilp ki vishishtata shreenivaasadaas ke "pareekshaaguru' mein hi hai. devakeenandan ka tilsmi upanyaas 'chandrakaanta' isi samay prakaashit hua. paryaapt parimaan mein naatakon aur saamaajik prahasanon ki rachana hui. bhaarateindu, prataapanaaraayan, shri nivaasadaas, aadi pramukh naatakakaar hain. saath hi bhakti aur shrungaar ki bahut si saras kavitaaeain bhi nirmit hui. par jin kavitaaon mein saamaajik bhaavon ki abhivyakti hui ve hi nae yug ki srujanasheelata ka aaranbhik aabhaas deti hain. khadi boli ke chhitfut prayogon ko chhod shesh kavitaaeain brajabhaasha mein likhi gayi. vaastav mein naya yug is samay ke gadya mein hi adhik pratiflit ho saka.

beesaveen shataabdi

is kaalaavadhi ki sabse mahatvapoorn ghatanaaeain do hain - ek to saamaanya kaavyabhaasha ke roop mein khadi boli ki sveekruti aur doosare hindi gadya ka niyman aur parimaarjan. is kaarya mein sarvaadhik sashakt yog sarasvati sampaadak mahaaveeraprasaad Dwivedi ka tha. Dwivedi ji aur unke sahakarmiyon ne hindi gadya ki abhivyaktikshamata ko viksit kiya. nibandh ke kshetr mein Dwivedi ji ke atirikt baalamukund, chandradhar sharma guleri, poornasinh, padmasinh sharma jaise ek se ek saavdhaan, sashakt aur jeevant gadyashaileekaar saamane aae. upanyaas anek likhe gaye par usaki yathaarthavaadi parampara ka ullekhaneeya vikaas na ho saka. yathaarthaparak aadhunik kahaaniyaaain isi kaal mein janami aur vikaasamaan hui. guleri, kaushik aadi ke atirikt premachand aur prasaad ki bhi aaranbhik kahaaniyaaain isi samay prakaash mein I. naatak ka kshetr avashya soona sa raha. is samay ke sabse prabhaavashaali sameekshak Dwivedi ji the jinki sanshodhanavaadi aur maryaadaanishth aalochna ne anek samakaaleen saahitya ko paryaapt prabhaavit kiya. mishrabandhu, krushnabihaari mishr aur padmasinh sharma is samay ke anya sameekshak hain par kul milaakar is samay ki sameeksha baahyapakshapradhaan hi rahi.

sudhaaravaadi aadarshon se prerit ayodhyaasinh upaadhyaaya ne apne "priypravaas' mein raadha ka lokasevika roop prastut kiya aur khadeeboli ke vibhinn roopon ke prayog mein nipunata bhi pradarshit ki. maithileesharan gupt ne "Bhaarat bhaarati' mein raashtreeyata aur samaajasudhaar ka svar ooaincha kiya aur "saaket' mein urmila ki pratishtha ki. is samay ke anya kavi Dwivedi ji, shreedhar paathak, baalamukund gupt, Nathuram sharma, gayaaprasaad shukl aadi hain. brajabhaasha kaavyaparanpara ke pratinidhi ratnaakar aur satyanaaraayan kavirtn hain. is samay khadi boli kaavyabhaasha ke parimaarjan aur saamayik parivesh ke anuroop rachana ka kaarya sampann hua. nae kaavya ka adhikaansh vichaaraparak aur varnanaatmak hai.

san‌ 1920-40 ke do dashakon mein aadhunik saahitya ke antargat vaichaarik aur kalaatmak pravruttiyon ka anek roop utkarsh dikhaai pada. sarvaadhik lokapriyta upanyaas aur kahaani ko mili. kathaasaahitya mein ghatanaavaichitya ki jagah jeete jaagate smaraneeya charitron ki srushti hui. nimn aur madhyavargeeya samaaj ke yathaarthaparak chitr vyaapak roop mein prastut kiye gaye. varnan ki sajeev shailiyon ka vikaas hua. is samay ke sarvapramukh kathaakaar premachand hain. vrundaavanalaal varma ke aitihaasik upanyaas bhi ullekhya hai. hindi naatak is samay jayashankar prasaad ke saath srujan ke naveen star par aarohan karta hai. unke romantic aitihaasik naatak apni jeevant chaaritryasrushti, naatakeeya sangharshon ki yojana aur sanvedaneeyata ke kaaran vishesh mahatva ke adhikaari hue. kai anya naatakakaar bhi sakriya dikhaai pade. hindi aalochna ke kshetr mein raamachandr shukl ne soor, tulasi aur jaayasi ki sookshm bhaavasthitiyon aur kalaatmak visheshataaon ka maarmik udghaatan kiya aur saahitya ke saamaajik moolyon par bal diya. anya aalochak hai shri nandadulaare Vajpayee, da. nageindr tatha da. hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi.

kaavya ke kshetr mein yeh chhaayaavaad ke vikaas ka yug hai. poorvavarti kaavya vastunishth tha, chhaayaavaadi kaavya bhaavanishth hai. ismein vyaktivaadi pravruttiyon ka praadhaanya hai. sthool varnan vivran ke sthaan par chhaayaavaadi kaavya mein vyakti ki svachhand bhaavanaaon ki kalaatmak abhivyakti hui. sthool tathya aur vastu ki apeksha binbavidhaayak kalpana chhaayaavaadiyon ko adhik priya hai. unki saundaryachetana vishesh viksit hai. prakrutisaundarya ne unhein vishesh aakrusht kiya. vaiyaktik sanvegon ki pramukhata ke kaaran chhaayaavaadi kaavya moolat: prageetaatmak hai. is samay khadi boli kaavyabhaasha ki abhivyaktikshamata ka apoorv vikaas hua. jayashankar prasaad, maakhanalaal, sumitraanandan pant, sooryakaant tripaathi "niraala', mahaadevi, naveen aur dinkar chhaayaavaad ke utkrusht kavi hain.

san‌ 1940 ke baad chhaayaavaad ki sanveganishth, saundaryamoolak aur kalpanaapriya vyaktivaad pravruttiyon ke virodh mein pragativaad ka sanghabaddh aandolan chala jiski drushti samaajabaddh, yathaarthavaadi aur upayogitaavaadi hai. saamaajik vaishamya aur vargasangharsh ka bhaav ismein vishesh mukhar hua. isne saahitya ko saamaajik kraanti ke astr ke roop mein grahan kiya. apni upayogitaavaadi drushti ki seemaaon ke kaaran pragativaadi saahitya, visheshat: kavita mein kalaatmak utkarsh ki sanbhaavanaaeain adhik naheen theen, fir bhi usane saahitya ke saamaajik paksh par bal dekar ek nai chetna jaagrat ki.

pragativaadi aandolan ke aarambh ke kuchh hi baad nae manovijnyaaan ya manovishleshanashaastr se prabhaavit ek aur vyaktivaadi pravrutti saahitya ke kshetr mein sakriya hui thi jise san‌ 1943 ke baad prayogavaad naam diya gaya. isi ka sanshodhit roop vartamaanakaaleen nai kavita aur nai kahaaniyaaain hain.

is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki dviteeya mahaayuddh aur uske uttarakaaleen saahitya mein jeevan ki vibheeshika, kuroopata aur asangatiyon ke prati ansatosh tatha kshobh ne kuchh aage peechhe do prakaar ki pravruttiyon ko janm diya. ek ka naam pragativaad hai, jo maarks ke bhautikvaadi jeevanadarshan se prerana lekar chala; doosra prayogavaad hai, jisne paramparaagat aadarshon aur sansthaaon ke prati apne ansatosh ki teevr pratikriyaaon ko saahitya ke naveen roopagat prayogon ke maadhyam se vyakt kiya. ispar nae manovijnyaaan ka gahra prabhaav pada.

pragativaad se prabhaavit kathaakaaron mein yashapaal, upeindranaath ashk, amrutalaal naagar aur naagaarjun aadi vishisht hain. aalochakon mein raamavilaas sharma,naamavar Singh, vijay Dave Narayan saahi pramukh hain. kaviyon mein kedaaranaath Agrawal, naagaarjun, raangeya raaghav, shivmangal Singh 'suman' aadi ke naam prasiddh hain. nibndh vidha mein is daur mein aachhaarya hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi, vidya nivaas mishr aur kuberanaath rai ne vishesh khyaati arjit ki|

nae manovijnyaaan se prabhaavit prayogon ke liye sachesht kathaakaaron mein ajnyaeya pramukh hain. manovijnyaaan se gambhir roop mein prabhaavit ilaachandr Joshi aur jaineindr hain. in lekhakon ne vyaktimn ke avachetan ka udghaatan kar naya naitik bodh jagaane ka prayatn kiya. jaineindr aur ajnyaeya ne katha ke paramparaagat dhaaainche ko todkar shaileeshilp sambandhi nae prayog kiye. paravarti lekhakon aur kaviyon mein vaiyaktik pratikriyaaeain adhik prakhar huin. samakaaleen parivesh se ve poornat: sansakt hain. unhonne samaaj aur saahitya ki maanyataaon par gahra prashnachihn laga diya hai. vyaktijeevan ki laachaari, kuntha, aakrosh aadi vyakt karne ke saath hi ve vaiyaktik star par nae jeevanamoolyon ke anveshan mein lage hue hain. unki rachanaaon mein ek or saarvabhaum santraas aur vibheeshika ki chhatapataahat hai to doosari or vyakti ke astitv ki anivaaryata aur jeevan ki sambhaavnaaon ko rekhaankit karne ka upakram bhi. hamaara samakaaleen saahitya aatyantik vyaktivaad se grast hai aur yeh usaki seema hai. par usaka sabse bada bal usaki jeevanamayata hai jismein bhavishya ki sashakt sanbhaavanaaeain nihit hain.

hindi evam uske saahitya ka itihaas

  • 750 isa poorv - sanskrut ka vaidik sanskrut ke baad ka kramabaddh vikaas.
  • 500 isa poorv - bauddh tatha jain ki bhaasha praakrut ka vikaas (poorvi Bhaarat).
  • 400 isa poorv - paanini ne sanskrut vyaakaran likha (pashchimi Bhaarat). vaidik sanskrut se paanini ki kaavya sanskrut ka maanakeekaran.

sanskrut ka udgam

  • 322 isa poorv - mauryon dvaara braahmi lipi ka vikaas.
  • 250 isa poorv - aadi sanskrut ka vikaas. (aadi sanskrut ne dheere dheere 100 isa poorv tak praakati ka sthaan liya.)
  • 320 A. di. (isavi)- gupt ya siddh maatrika lipi ka vikaas.

apabhransh tatha aadi-hindi ka vikaas

  • 400 - kaaleedaas ne "vikramorvasheeyam" apabhransh mein likhi.
  • 550 - vallabhi ke darshan mein apabhransh ka prayog.
  • 769 - siddh sarahapad (jinhein hindi ka pehla kavi maanate hain) ne "dohaakosh" likhi.
  • 779 - udayotan suri ki "kuvalayamal" mein apabhransh ka prayog.
  • 800 - sanskrut mein bahut si rachanaayein likhi gain.
  • 993 - devasen ki "shavakachar" (shaayad hindi ki pehli pustak).
  • 1100 - aadhunik devanaagari lipi ka pratham svaroop.
  • 1145-1229 - hemachandraachaarya ne apabhransh-vyaakaran ki rachana ki.

apabhransh ka ast tatha aadhunik hindi ka vikaas

  • 1283 - ameer khusaro ki paheli tatha mukariyaaain mein "hindavi" shavd ka sarvapratham upayog.
  • 1370 - "hansavaali" ki aasahaat ne prem kathaaon ki shuruaat ki.
  • 1398-1518 - kabeer ki rachanaaon ne nirgun bhakti ki neenv rakhi.
  • 1400-1479 - apabhransh ke aakhri mahaan kavi raghu.
  • 1450 - raamaanand ke saath "sagun bhakti" ki shuruaat.
  • 1580 - shuruaati dakkhini ka kaarya "kaalamitul hakaayat"—aburhanuddin janam dvaara.
  • 1585 - naabhaadaas ne "bhaktamaal" likhi.
  • 1601 - banaaraseedaas ne hindi ki pehli aatmakatha "ardh kathaanak" likhi.
  • 1604 - guru arjun Dave ne kai kaviyon ki rachanaaon ka sankalan "aadi granth" nikaala.
  • 1532-1623 - Goswami tulaseedaas ne "raamacharit maanas" ki rachana ki.
  • 1623 - jaatamal ne "gora baadal ki katha" (khadi boli ki pehli rachana) likhi.
  • 1643 - aachaarya keshav das ne "reeti" ke dvaara kaavya ki shuruaat ki.
  • 1645 - urdoo ka aarambh

aadhunik hindi

sandarbh

  1. hindi - udbhav, vikaas aur svaroop; ashtam sanskaran, 1984, prusht 15

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