hindi saahitya

hindi ka vikiportal bhi dekhein: hindi praveshadvaar

chandrakaanta ka mukhaprushth

hindi Bhaarat aur vishv mein sarvaadhik boli jaane waali bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. usaki jadein praacheen Bhaarat ki sanskrut bhaasha mein talaashi ja sakti hain. parantu hindi saahitya ki jadein madhyayugeen Bhaarat ki brajabhaasha, avadhi, maithili aur maaravaadi jaisi bhaashaaon ke saahitya mein pai jaati hain. hindi mein gadya ka vikaas bahut baad mein hua aur isne apni shuruaat kavita ke maadhyam se jo ki jyaadaatar lokabhaasha ke saath prayog kar viksit ki gayi. hindi mein teen prakaar ka saahitya milta hai. gadya padya aur champoo. hindi ki pehli rachana kaun si hai is vishay mein vivaad hai lekin jyaadaatar saahityakaar devakeenandan khatri dvaara likhe gaye upanyaas chandrakaanta ko hindi ki pehli praamaanik gadya rachana maanate hain.

anukram

hindi saahitya ka itihaas

mukhya lekh hindi saahitya ka itihaas

hindi saahitya ka aarambh aathaveen shataabdi se maana jaata hai. yeh vah samay hai jab samraat harsh ki mrutyu ke baad desh mein anek chhote-chhote shaasan kendra sthaapit ho gaye the jo paraspar sangharsharat raha karte the. videshi musalmaanon se bhi inki takkar hoti rahati thi. hindi saahitya ke vikaas ko aalochak suvidha ke liye paaainch aitihaasik charanon mein vibhaajit kar dekhte hain, jo kramavaar nimnalikhit hain:-

  • aadikaal (1400 isavi se pehle)
  • bhakti kaal (1375-1700)
  • reeti kaal (1600-1900)
  • aadhunik kaal (1850 isvi ke pashchaat)
  • navyottar kaal (1980 isvi ke pashchaat)

aadikaal (1400 isavi se pehle)

hindi saahitya ke aadikaal ko aalochak 1400 isavi se poorv ka kaal maanate hain jab hindi ka udabhav ho hi raha tha. hindi ki vikaas-yaatra Delhi, kannauj aur Ajmer kshetron mein hui maani jaati hai. pruthveeraaj chauhaan ka us vakt Delhi mein shaasan tha aur chandabaradaai naamak usaka ek darabaari kavi hua karta tha.chandavaradaai ki rachana 'pruthveeraajaraaso ' hai,jismein unhonne apne mitr pruthveeraaj ki jeevan gaatha kahi hai.'pruthveeraaj raaso'hindi saahitya mein sabse bruhat rachana maani gayi hai.kannauj ka antim Rathore shaasak jayachand tha jo sanskrut ka bahut bada sanrakshak tha.

bhakti kaal (1375 – 1700)

hindi saahitya ka bhakti kaal 1375 vi0 se 1700 vi0 tak maana jaata hai. yeh kaal pramukh roop se bhakti bhaavana se otaprot kaal hai. is kaal ko samruddh banaane waali do kaavya-dhaaraaen hain -1.nirgun bhaktidhaara tatha 2.sagun bhaktidhaara . nirgun bhaktidhaara ko aage do hisson mein baanta ja sakta hai,santakaavya (jise jnyaaanaashrayi shaakha ke roop mein jaana jaata hai,is shaakha ke pramukh kavi , kabeer,naanak,daadoodayaal,raidaas,malookadaas, sundaradaas, dharamadaas aadi hain. nirgun bhaktidhaara ka doosra hissa soofi kaavya ka hai.ise premaashrayi shaakha bhi kaha jaata hai. is shaakha ke pramukh kavi hain- maalik mohammad jaayasi,kutaban,manjhan, shekh nabi,kaasim shaah, noor mohammad aadi. bhaktikaal ki doosari dhaara ko sagun bhakti dhara ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. sagun bhaktidhaara do shaakhaao mein vibhkt hai- raamaashrayi shaakha,tatha krushnaashrayi shaakha. raamaashrayi shaakha ke pramukh kavi hain- tulaseedaas,agradaas,naabhaadaas,keshavadaas,hrudayanaath,praananaath chauhaan,mahaaraaj vishvanaath Singh ,raghunaath Singh. krushnaashrayi shaakha ke pramukh kavi hain- sooradaas,nandadaas, kumbhanadaas, chhit svaami, govind svaami, chaturbhuj das, krushnadaas, meera, rasakhaan,raheem aadi . chaar pramukh kavi jo apni-apni dhaara ka pratinidhitv karte hain. ye kavi hain kramash::

kabeeradaas (1399)-(1518) malik mohammad jaayasi (1477-1542) sooradaas (1478-1580) tulaseedaas (1532-1602)

reeti kaal (1600-1900)

hindi saahitya ka reeti kaal samvat 1600 se 1900 tak maana jaata hai yaani 1643i0 se 1843i0 tak. reeti ka arth hai bana banaaya raasta ya bandhi-bandhaai paripaati. is kaal ko reetikaal kaha gaya kyonki is kaal mein adhikaansh kaviyon ne shrrungaar varnan, alankaar prayog, chhand baddhata aadi ke bandhe raaste ki hi kavita ki. haalaanki ghanaanand, bodha, thaakur, gobind Singh jaise reeti-mukt kaviyon ne apni rachana ke vishay mukt rakhe.

keshav (1546-1618), bihaari (1603-1664), bhooshan (1613-1705), matiraam, ghanaanand , senaapati aadi is yug ke pramukh rachanaakaar rahe.

aadhunik kaal (1850 isvi ke pashchaat)

aadhunik kaal hindi saahitya pichhli do sadiyon mein vikaas ke anek padaavon se gujra hai. jismein gadya tatha padya mein alag alag vichaar dhaaraaon ka vikaas hua. jahaan kaavya mein ise chhaayaavaadi yug, pragativaadi yug, prayogavaadi yug aur yathaarthavaadi yug in chaar naamon se jaana gaya, vaheen gadya mein isko, bhaarateindu yug, Dwivedi yug, raamachanda‍ shukl va premachand yug tatha adyatan yug ka naam diya gaya.

adyatan yug ke gadya saahitya mein anek aisi saahityik vidhaaon ka vikaas hua jo pehle ya to theen hi naheen ya fir itni viksit naheen theen ki unako saahitya ki ek alag vidha ka naam diya ja sake. jaise daayari, ya‌atra vivran, aatmakatha, roopak, radio naatak, patakatha lekhan, film aalekh ityaadi.

navyottar kaal (1980 isvi ke pashchaat)

navyottar kaal ki kai dhaaraaen hain - ek, pashchim ki nakal ko chhod ek apni vaani paana; do, atishya alankaar se pare saralata paana; teen, jeevan aur samaaj ke prashnon par asandigdh vimarsh.

computer ke aam prayog mein aane ke saath saath hindi mein computer se judi nai vidhaaon ka bhi samaavesh hua hai, jaise- chitthaalekhan aur jaalaghar ki rachanaaen. hindi mein anek stareeya hindi chitthe, jaalaghar va jaal patrikaayein hain. yeh computer saahitya keval Bhaarat mein hi naheen apitu vishv ke har kone se likha ja raha hai. iske saath hi adyatan yug mein pravaasi hindi saahitya ke ek nae yug ka aarambh bhi maana ja sakta hai.

hindi ki vibhinn boliyon ka saahitya

bhaasha ke vikaas-kram mein apabhransh se hindi ki or aate hue Bhaarat ke alag-alag sthaanon par alag-alag bhaasha-shailiyaan janmeen. hindi inmein se sabse adhik viksit thi, at: usako bhaasha ki maanyata mili. anya bhaasha shailiyaan boliyaan kahalaain. inmein se kuchh mein hindi ke mahaan kaviyon ne rachana ki jaise tulasi ne raamacharit maanas ko avadhi mein likha aur soor ne apni rachanaaon ke liye bruj bhaasha ko chuna, vidyaapati ne maithili mein aur meeraabaai ne raajasthaani ko apnaaya.

hindi ki vibhinn boliyon ka saahitya aaj bhi lokapriya hai aur aaj bhi anek kavi aur lekhak apna lekhan apni-apni kshetreeya bhaashaaon mein karte hain.

hindi ke pramukh granth

pramukh hindi saahityakaar

yeh bhi dekhein

british hindi saahitya
ameriki hindi saahitya
madhyapoorv Asiaee hindi saahitya
maarishs ka hindi saahitya
feeji ka hindi saahitya
trinidaad ka hindi saahitya

baahari kadiyaaain