hindi patrakaarita

hindi patrakaarita ki kahaani bhaarateeya raashtreeyata ki kahaani hai. hindi patrakaarita ke aadi unnaayak jaateeya chetna, yugabodh aur apne mahat daayitv ke prati poorn sachet the. kadaachit isliye videshi sarkaar ki daman-neeti ka unhein shikaar hona pada tha, uske nrushans vyavahaar ki yaatana jhelni padi thi. unneesaveen shataabdi mein hindi gadya-nirmaan ki cheshtha aur hindi-prachaar aandolan atyant pratikool paristhitiyon mein bhayankar kathinaaiyon ka saamana karte hue bhi kitna tej aur pusht tha iska saakshya 'bhaaratamitr' (san 1878 E, mein) 'saar sudhaanidhi' (san 1879 E.) aur 'uchit vakta' (san 1880 E.) ke jeern prushthon par mukhar hai.

vartamaan mein hindi patrakaarita mein angreji patrakaarita ke dabadabe ko khatm kar diya hai. pehle desh-videsh mein angreji patrakaarita ka dabadaba tha lekin aaj hindi bhaasha ka jhanda chanhudish lahara raha hai. 30 May ko 'hindi patrakaarita diwas' ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.

anukram

bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein patrakaarita ka aarambh aur hindi patrakaarita

bhaaratavarsh mein aadhunik dhang ki patrakaarita ka janm athaarahaveen shataabdi ke chaturth charan mein Calcutta, Mumbai aur Madras mein hua. 1780 E. mein prakaashit hike (Hickey) ka "Calcutta gajt" kadaachit is or pehla prayatn tha. hindi ke pehle patra udant maartand (1826) ke prakaashit hone tak in nagaron ki aingloindiyn angreji patrakaarita kaafi viksit ho gayi thi.

in antim varshon mein faarasi bhaasha mein bhi patrakaarita ka janm ho chuka tha. 18veen shataabdi ke faarasi patra kadaachit hastalikhit patra the. 1801 mein 'hindusthaan intelligence oriaintal ainthaulauji' (Hindusthan Intelligence Oriental Anthology) naam ka jo sankalan prakaashit hua usamein uttar Bhaarat ke kitne hi "akhbaaron" ke uddharan the. 1810 mein maulavi ikaraam Ali ne Calcutta se leetho patra "hindostaani" prakaashit karna aarambh kiya. 1816 mein gangaakishor Bhattacharya ne "Bengal gazette" ka pravartan kiya. yeh pehla bangala patra tha. baad mein shreeraamapur ke paadariyon ne prasiddh prachaarapatr "samaachaar darpan" ko (27 May 1818) janm diya. in praarambhik patron ke baad 1823 mein hamein baingala bhaasha ke 'samaachaarachandrika' aur "samvaad kaumudi", faarasi urdoo ke "jaame jahaaainnuma" aur "shamasul akhbaar" tatha gujaraati ke "Mumbai samaachaar" ke darshan hote hain.

yeh spasht hai ki hindi patrakaarita bahut baad ki cheej naheen hai. Delhi ka "urdoo akhbaar" (1833) aur maraathi ka "digdarshan" (1837) hindi ke pehle patra "udant maartand" (1826) ke baad hi aae. "udant maartand" ke sampaadak pandit jugalakishor the. yeh saaptaahik patra tha. patra ki bhaasha pachhaaainhi hindi rahati thi, jise patra ke sampaadkon ne "madhyadesheeya bhaasha" kaha hai. yeh patra 1827 mein band ho gaya. un dinon sarkaari sahaayata ke bina kisi bhi patra ka chalana asambhav tha. company sarkaar ne mishnariyon ke patra ko daak aadi ki suvidha de rakhi thi, parantu cheshta karne par bhi "udant maartand" ko yeh suvidha praapt naheen ho saki.

hindi patrakaarita ka pehla charan

1826 E. se 1873 E. tak ko ham hindi patrakaarita ka pehla charan kah sakte hain. 1873 E. mein bhaaratendu ne "harishchandr maigajeen" ki sthaapana ki. ek varsh baad yeh patra "harishchandr chandrika" naam se prasiddh hua. vaise bhaaratendu ka "kavivchan sudha" patra 1867 mein hi saamane aa gaya tha aur usane patrakaarita ke vikaas mein mahatvapoorn bhaag liya tha; parantu nai bhaashaashaili ka pravartan 1873 mein "harishchandr maigajeen" se hi hua. is beech ke adhikaansh patra prayog maatr kahe ja sakte hain aur unke peechhe patrakala ka gyaan athva nae vichaaron ke prachaar ki bhaavana naheen hai. "udant maartand" ke baad pramukh patra hain :

bangadoot (1829), prajaamitr (1834), banaaras akhbaar (1845), maartand panchabhaasheeya (1846), jnyaaanadeep (1846), maalava akhbaar (1849), jagaddeep bhaaskar (1849), sudhaakar (1850), saamyadand maartand (1850), majaharulasaroor (1850), buddhiprakaash (1852), gvaaliyr gajet (1853), samaachaar sudhaavarshan (1854), dainik Calcutta, prajaahitaishi (1855), sarvahitkaarak (1855), soorajaprakaash (1861), jagalaabhachintak (1861), sarvopakaarak (1861), prajaahit (1861), lokamitr (1835), bhaaratakhandaamrut (1864), tatvabodhini patrika (1865), jnyaaanapradaayini patrika (1866), somaprakaash (1866), satyadeepak (1866), vruttaantavilaas (1867), jnyaaanadeepak (1867), kavivchanasudha (1867), dharmaprakaash (1867), vidyaavilaas (1867), vruttaantadarpan (1867), vidyaadarsh (1869), brahmajnyaaanaprakaash (1869), alamoda akhbaar (1870), Agra akhbaar (1870), buddhivilaas (1870), hindu prakaash (1871), prayaagadoot (1871), bundelakhand akhabar (1871), premapatr (1872) aur bodha samaachaar (1872).

in patron mein se kuchh maasik the, kuchh saaptaahik. dainik patra keval ek tha "samaachaar sudhaavarshan" jo dvibhaasheeya (bangala hindi) tha aur Calcutta se prakaashit hota tha. yeh dainik patra 1871 tak chalta raha. adhikaansh patra Agra se prakaashit hote the jo un dinon ek bada shikshaakeindr tha aur vidyaartheesamaaj ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti karte the. shesh brahmasamaaj, sanaatan dharm aur mishnariyon ke prachaar kaarya se sambandhit the. bahut se patra dvibhaasheeya (hindi urdoo) the aur kuchh to panchabhaasheeya tak the. isse bhi patrakaarita ki aparipkv dasha hi soochit hoti hai. hindeepradesh ke praarambhik patron mein "banaaras akhbaar" (1845) kaafi prabhaavashaali tha aur usi ki bhaashaaneeti ke virodh mein 1850 mein taaraamohan maitr ne kaashi se saaptaahik "sudhaakar" aur 1855 mein raaja lakshmanasinh ne Agra se "prajaahitaishi" ka prakaashan aarambh kiya tha. raaja shivprasaad ka "banaaras akhbaar" urdoo bhaashaashaili ko apanaata tha to ye donon patra panditaaoo tatsamapradhaan shaili ki or jhukate the. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki 1867 se pehle bhaashaashaili ke sambandh mein hindi patrakaar kisi nishchit shaili ka anusaran naheen kar sake the. is varsh 'kavi vachanasudha' ka prakaashan hua aur ek tarah se ham use pehla mahatvapoorn patra kah sakte hain. pehle yeh maasik tha, fir paakshik hua aur ant mein saaptaahik. bhaaratendu ke bahuvidh vyaktitv ka prakaashan is patra ke maadhyam se hua, parantu sach to yeh hai ki "harishchandr maigajeen" ke prakaashan (1873) tak ve bhi bhaashaashaili aur vichaaron ke kshetr mein maarg hi khojate dikhaai dete hain.

hindi patrakaarita ka doosra yug : bhaaratendu yug

hindi patrakaarita ka doosra yug 1873 se 1900 tak chalta hai. is yug ke ek chhor par bhaaratendu ka "harishchandr maigajeen" tha or naagareeprachaarini sabha dvaara anumodanapraapt "sarasvati". in 27 varshon mein prakaashit patron ki sankhya 300-350 se oopar hai aur ye Nagpur tak faile hue hain. adhikaansh patra maasik ya saaptaahik the. maasik patron mein nibandh, naval katha (upanyaas), vaarta aadi ke roop mein kuchh adhik sthaayi sampatti rahati thi, parantu adhikaansh patra 10-15 prushthon se adhik naheen jaate the aur unhein ham aaj ke shabdon mein "vichaarapatr" hi kah sakte hain. saaptaahik patron mein samaachaaron aur unapar tippaniyon ka bhi mahatvapoorn sthaan tha. vaastav mein dainik samaachaar ke prati us samay vishesh aagrah naheen tha aur kadaachit iseeliye un dinon saaptaahik aur maasik patra kaheen adhik mahatvapoorn the. unhonne janajaagaran mein atyant mahatvapoorn bhaag liya tha.

unneesaveen shataabdi ke in 25 varshon ka aadarsh bhaaratendu ki patrakaarita thi. "kavivchanasudha" (1867), "harishchandr maigajeen" (1874), shri harishchandr chandrika" (1874), baalabodhini (streejan ki patrik, 1874) ke roop mein bhaaratendu ne is disha mein pathapradarshan kiya tha. unki teekaatippaniyon se adhikri tak ghabaraate the aur "kavivchanasudha" ke "panch" par rusht hokar kaashi ke magistrate ne bhaaratendu ke patron ko shiksha vibhaag ke liye lena bhi band kara diya tha. ismein sandeh naheen ki patrakaarita ke kshetr bhi bhaaratendu poornataya nirbheek the aur unhonne nae nae patron ke liye protsaahan diya. "hindi pradeep", "bhaaratajeevan" aadi anek patron ka naamakaran bhi unhonne hi kiya tha. unke yug ke sabhi patrakaar unhein agrani maanate the.

bhaaratendu ke baad

bhaaratendu ke baad is kshetr mein jo patrakaar aae unamein pramukh the pandit rudradatt sharma, (bhaaratamitr, 1877), baalakrushn bhatt (hindi pradeep, 1877), durgaaprasaad mishr (uchit vakta, 1878), pandit sadaanand mishr (saarasudhaanidhi, 1878), pandit vansheedhar (sajjan-keertti-sudhaakar, 1878), badareenaaraayan chaudhari "premadhan" (aanandakaadanbini, 1881), devakeenandan tripaathi (prayaag samaachaar, 1882), raadhaacharan Goswami (bhaaratendu, 1882), pandit gaureedatt (devanaagari prachaarak, 1882), raaj Rampal Singh (Hindustan, 1883), prataapanaaraayan mishr (braahman, 1883), anbikaadatt vyaas, (peeyooshapravaah, 1884), babu raamakrushn varma (bhaaratajeevan, 1884), pan. raamagulaam avasthi (shubhachintak, 1888), yogeshachandr vasu (hindi bangavaasi, 1890), pan. kundanalaal (kavi va chitrakaar, 1891) aur babu devakeenandan khatri evam babu jagannaathadaas (saahitya sudhaanidhi, 1894). 1895 E. mein "naagareeprachaarini patrika" ka prakaashan aarambh hota hai. is patrika se gambhir saahityasameeksha ka aarambh hua aur isliye ham ise ek nishchit prakaashastanbh maan sakte hain. 1900 E. mein "sarasvati" aur "sudarshan" ke avataran ke saath hindi patrakaarita ke is doosare yug par pataakshep ho jaata hai.

in 25 varshon mein hindi patrakaarita anek dishaaon mein viksit hui. praarambhik patra shikshaaprasaar aur dharmaprachaar tak seemit the. bhaaratendu ne saamaajik, raajaneetik aur saahityik dishaaeain bhi viksit keen. unhonne hi "baalaabodhini" (1874) naam se pehla stri-maasik-patra chalaaya. kuchh varsh baad mahilaaon ko swayam is kshetr mein utarate dekhte hain - "bhaaratabhagini" (haradevi, 1888), "sugruhini" (hemantakumaari, 1889). in varshon mein dharm ke kshetr mein aaryasamaaj aur sanaatan dharm ke prachaarak vishesh sakriya the. brahmasamaaj aur raadhaasvaami mat se sambandhit kuchh patra aur mirjaapur jaise isaai keindron se kuchh isaai dharm sambandhi patra bhi saamane aate hain, parantu yug ki dhaarmik pratikriyaaon ko ham aaryasamaaj ke aur pauraanikon ke patron mein hi paate hain. aaj ye patra kadaachit utane mahatvapoorn naheen jaan padte, parantu ismein sandeh naheen ki unhonne hindi ki gadyashaili ko pusht kiya aur janta mein nae vichaaron ki jyoti bhi. in dhaarmik vaadavivaadon ke falasvaroop samaaj ke vibhinn varg aur sanpradaaya sudhaar ki or agrasar hue aur bahut sheegra hi saampradaayik patron ki baadh aa gayi. saikadon ki sankhya mein vibhinn jaateeya aur vargeeya patra prakaashit hue aur unhonne asankhya janon ko vaani di.

aaj vahi patra hamaari itihaasachetana mein vishesh mahatvapoorn hain jinhonne bhaasha shaili, saahitya athva raajaneeti ke kshetr mein koi apratim kaarya kiya ho. saahityik drushti se "hindi pradeep" (1877), braahman (1883), kshatriypatrika (1880), aanandakaadanbini (1881), bhaaratendu (1882), devanaagari prachaarak (1882), vaishnav patrika (pashchaat peeyooshapravaah, 1883), kavi ke chitrakaar (1891), naagari neerad (1883), saahitya sudhaanidhi (1894) aur raajaneetik drushti se bhaaratamitr (1877), uchit vakta (1878), saar sudhaanidhi (1878), bhaaratodaya (dainik, 1883), Bhaarat jeevan (1884), bhaaratodaya (dainik, 1885), shubhachintak (1887) aur hindi bangavaasi (1890) vishesh mahatvapoorn hain. in patron mein hamaare 19veen shataabdi ke saahityarasikon, hindi ke karmath upaasakon, shaileekaaron aur chintakon ki sarvashreshth nidhi surakshit hai. yeh kshobh ka vishay hai ki ham is mahatvapoorn saamagri ka patron ki faailon se uddhaar naheen kar sake. baalakrushn bhatt, prataapanaaraayan mishr, sadaanan mishr, rudradatt sharma, anbikaadatt vyaas aur baalamukund gupt jaise sajeev lekhakon ki kalam se nikle hue na jaane kitne nibandh, tippani, lekh, panch, haas parihaas aup skech aaj mein hamein alabhya ho rahe hain. aaj bhi hamaare patrakaar unase bahut kuchh seekh sakte hain. apne samay mein to ve agrani the hi.

teesara charan : beesaveen shataabdi ke pratham bees varsh

beesaveen shataabdi ki patrakaarita hamaare liye apekshaakrut nikat hai aur usamein bahut kuchh pichhle yug ki patrakaarita ki hi vividhta aur bahuroopata milti hai. 19veen shati ke patrakaaron ko bhaasha-shaileekshetr mein avyavastha ka saamana karna pada tha. unhein ek or angreji aur doosari or urdoo ke patron ke saamane apni vastu rakhani thi. abhi hindi mein ruchi rakhanevaali janta bahut chhoti thi. dheere-dheere paristhiti badli aur ham hindi patron ko saahitya aur raajaneeti ke kshetr mein netrutv karte paate hain. is shataabdi se dharm aur samaajasudhaar ke aandolan kuchh peechhe pad gaye aur jaateeya chetna ne dheere-dheere raashtreeya chetna ka roop grahan kar liya. falat: adhikaansh patra, saahitya aur raajaneeti ko hi lekar chale. saahityik patron ke kshetr mein pehle do dashakon mein aachaarya Dwivedi dvaara sanpaadit "sarasvati" (1903-1918) ka netrutv raha. vastut: in bees varshon mein hindi ke maasik patra ek mahaan saahityik shakti ke roop mein saamane aae. shrunkhalit upanyaas kahaani ke roop mein kai patra prakaashit hue - jaise upanyaas 1901, hindi naavil 1901, upanyaas lahari 1902, upanyaasasaagar 1903, upanyaas kusumaanjali 1904, upanyaasabahaar 1907, upanyaas prachaar 19012. keval kavita athva samasyaapoorti lekar anek patra unneesaveen shatabdi ke antim varshon mein nikalne lage the. ve chale rahe. samaalochana ke kshetr mein "samaalochak" (1902) aur aitihaasik shodh se sambandhit "itihaas" (1905) ka prakaashan bhi mahatvapoorn ghatanaaeain hain. parantu sarasvati ne "misleni" () ke roop mein jo aadarsh rakha tha, vah adhik lokapriya raha aur is shreni ke patron mein uske saath kuchh thode hi patron ka naam liya ja sakta hai, jaise "bhaaratendu" (1905), naagari hitaishini patrika, baaainkeepur (1905), naagareeprachaarak (1906), mithilaamihir (1910) aur indu (1909). "sarasvati" aur "indu" donon hindi ki saahityachetana ke itihaas ke liye mahatvapoorn hain aur ek tarah se ham unhein us yug ki saahityik patrakaarita ka sheershamani kah sakte hain. "sarasvati" ke maadhyam se aachaarya mahaaveeraprasaad Dwivedi aur "indu" ke maadhyam se pandit roopanaaraayan paandeya ne jis sampaadkeeya satarkata, adhyavasaaya aur imaandaari ka aadarsh hamaare saamane rakha vah hindi patrakaarita ko ek nai disha dene mein samarth hua.

parantu raajaneetik kshetr mein hindi patrakaarita ko netrutv praapt naheen ho saka. pichhle yug ki raajaneetik patrakaarita ka kendra Calcutta tha. parantu Calcutta hindi pradesh se door padta tha aur swayam hindi pradesh ko raajaneetik disha mein jaagruk netrutv kuchh der mein mila. hindi pradesh ka pehla dainik raaja raamapaalasinh ka dvibhaasheeya "Hindustan" (1883) hai jo angreji aur hindi mein kaalaakaaainkar se prakaashit hota tha. do varsh baad (1885 mein), babu seetaaraam ne "bhaaratodaya" naam se ek dainik patra Kanpur se nikaalna shuroo kiya. parantu ye donon patra deerghajeevi naheen ho sake aur saaptaahik patron ko hi raajaneetik vichaaradhaara ka vaahan banana pada. vaastav mein unneesaveen shatabdi mein Calcutta ke Bhaarat mitr, vangavaasi, saarasudhaanidhi aur uchit vakta hi hindi pradesh ki raaneetik bhaavana ka pratinidhitv karte the. inmein kadaachit "bhaaratamitr" hi sabse adhik sthaayi aur shaktishaali tha. unneesaveen shataabdi mein Bengal aur Maharashtra lok jaagrati ke kendra the aur ugr raashtreeya patrakaarita mein bhi ye hi praant agrani the. hindi pradesh ke patrakaaron ne in praanton ke netrutv ko sveekaar kar liya aur bahut dinon tak unka svatantr raajaneetik vyaktitv viksit naheen ho saka. fir bhi ham "abhyudaya" (1905), "prataap" (1913), "karmayogi", "hindi kesari" (1904-1908) aadi ke roop mein hindi raajaneetik patrakaarita ko kai Doug aage badhaate paate hain. pratham mahaayuddh ki uttejana ne ek baar fir kai dainik patron ko janm diya. Calcutta se "Calcutta samaachaar", "svatantr" aur "vishvamitr" prakaashit hue, Mumbai se "veinkateshvar samaachaar" ne apna dainik sanskaran prakaashit karna aarambh kiya aur Delhi se "vijay" nikla. 1921 mein kaashi se "aaj" aur Kanpur se "vartamaan" prakaashit hue. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki 1921 mein hindi patrakaarita fir ek baar karavatein leti hai aur raajaneetik kshetr mein apna naya jeevan aarambh karti hai. hamaare saahityik patron ke kshetr mein bhi nai pravruttiyon ka aarambh isi samay se hota hai. falat: beesaveen shati ke pehle bees varshon ko ham hindi patrakaarita ka teesara charan kah sakte hain.

aadhunik yug

1921 ke baad hindi patrakaarita ka samasaamayik yug aarambh hota hai. is yug mein ham raashtreeya aur saahityik chetna ko saath saath pallavit paate hain. isi samay ke lagbhag hindi ka pravesh vishvavidyaalayon mein hua aur kuchh aise kruti sampaadak saamane aae jo angreji ki patrakaarita se poornat: parichit the aur jo hindi patron ko angreji, maraathi aur baingala ke patron ke samakaksh laana chaahate the. falat: saahityik patrakaarita mein ek nae yug ka aarambh hua. raashtreeya aandolanon ne hindi ki raashtrabhaasha ke liye yogyata pehli baar ghoshit ki or jaise-jaise raashtreeya aandolanon ka bal badhne laga, hindi ke patrakaar aur patra adhik mahatva paane lage. 1921 ke baad Gandhi ji ke netrutv mein raashtreeya aandolan madhyavarg tak seemit na rahakar graameenon aur shramikon tak pahunch gaya aur uske is prasaar mein hindi patrakaarita ne mahatvapoorn yog diya. sach to yeh hai ki hindi patrakaar raashtreeya aandolanon ki agr pankti mein the aur unhonne videshi satta se datakar morcha liya. videshi sarkaar ne anek baar nae nae kaanoon banaakar samaachaarapatron ki svatantrata par kuthaaraaghaat kiya parantu jail, jurmaana aur anekaanek maanasik aur aarthik kathinaaiyaaain jhelate hue bhi hindi patrakaaron ne svatantr vichaar ki deepashikha jalaae rakhi.

1921 ke baad saahityakshetr mein jo patra aae unamein pramukh hain-

svaarth (1922), maadhuri (1923), maryaada, chaaaind (1923), manorama (1924), samaalochak (1924), chitrapat (1925), kalyaan (1926), sudha (1927), vishaalabhaarat (1928), tyaagabhoomi (1928), hans (1930), ganga (1930), vishvamitr (1933), roopaabh (1938), saahitya sandesh (1938), kamala (1939), madhukar (1940), jeevanasaahitya (1940), vishvabhaarati (1942), sangam (1942), Kumar (1944), naya saahitya (1945), paarijaat (1945), himaalaya (1946) aadi.

vaastav mein aaj hamaare maasik saahitya ki praudhta aur vividhta mein kisi prakaar ka sandeh naheen ho sakta. hindi ki anekaanek pratham shreni ki rachanaaeain maasikon dvaara hi pehle prakaash mein I aur anek shreshth kavi aur saahityakaar patrakaarita se bhi sambandhit rahe. aaj hamaare maasik patra jeevan aur saahitya ke sabhi angon ki poorti karte hain aur ab visheshajnyaata ki or bhi dhyaan jaane laga hai. saahitya ki pravruttiyon ki jaisi vikaasamaan jhalak patron mein milti hai, vaisi pustakon mein naheen milti. vahaaain hamein saahitya ka sakriya, sapraan, gatisheel roop praapt hota hai.

raajaneetik kshetr mein is yug mein jin patrapatrikaaon ki dhoom rahi ve hain -

karmaveer (1924), sainik (1924), svadesh (1921), shreekrushnasandesh (1925), hindoopanch (1926), svatantr Bhaarat (1928), jaagaran (1929), hindi milaap (1929), sachitr darbaar (1930), svaraajya (1931), navayug (1932), harijn sevak (1932), vishvabandhu (1933), navashakti (1934), yogi (1934), hindu (1936), deshadoot (1938), raashtreeyata (1938), sangharsh (1938), chingaari (1938), navajyoti (1938), sangam (1940), janayug (1942), raamaraajya (1942), sansaar (1943), lokavaani (1942), saavdhaan (1942), hunkaar (1942) aur sanmaarg (1943), janavaarta (1972).

inmein se adhikaansh saaptaahik hain, parantu janaman ke nirmaan mein unka yogadaan mahatvapoorn raha hai. jahaaain tak patra kala ka sambandh hai vahaaain tak ham spasht roop se kah sakte hain ki teesare aur chauthe yug ke patron mein dharati aur aakaash ka antar hai. aaj patrasanpaadan vaastav mein uchch koti ki kala hai. raajaneetik patrakaarita ke kshetr mein "aaj" (1921) aur uske sampaadak svargeeya baabooraav vishnu paraadkar ka lagbhag vahi sthaan hai jo saahityik patrakaarita ke kshetr mein aachaarya mahaaveeraprasaad Dwivedi ko praapt hai. sach to yeh hai ki "aaj" ne patrakala ke kshetr mein ek mahaan sanstha ka kaam kiya hai aur usane hindi ko beesiyon patrasanpaadak aur patrakaar diye hain.

aadhunik saahitya ke anek angon ki bhaaainti hindi patrakaarita bhi nai koti ki hai aur usamein bhi mukhyat: hamaare madhyavitt varg ki saamaajik, saanskrutik, saahityik au raajaneetik halchalon ka pratibinb bhaasvar hai. vaastav mein pichhle 200 varshon ka sachcha itihaas hamaari patrapatrikaaon se hi sankalit ho sakta hai. baingala ke "kaler katha" granth mein patron ke avataranon ke aadhaar par Bengal ke unneesaveen shataabdi ke madhyavitteeya jeevan ke aakalan ka prayatn hua hai. hindi mein bhi aisa prayatn vaanchhaneeya hai. ek tarah se unneesaveen shati mein saahitya kahi ja sakanevaali cheej bahut kam hai aur jo hai bhi, vah patron ke prushthon mein hi pehle-pahal saamane I hai. bhaashaashaili ke nirmaan aur jaateeya shaili ke vikaas mein patron ka yogadaan atyant mahatvapoorn raha hai, parantu beesaveen shati ke pehle do dashakon ke ant tak maasik patra aur saaptaahik patra hi hamaari saahityik pravruttiyon ko janm dete aur viksit karte rahe hain. Dwivedi yug ke saahitya ko ham "sarasvati" aur "indu" mein jis prayogaatmak roop mein dekhte hain, vahi us saahitya ka asli roop hai. 1921 E. ke baad saahitya bahut kuchh patrapatrikaaon se svatantr hokar apne pairon par khada hone laga, parantu fir bhi vishisht saahityik aandolanon ke liye hamein maasik patron ke prushth hi ulatane padte hain. raajaneetik chetna ke liye to patrapatrikaaeain hain hi. vastut: patrapatrikaaeain jitni badi janasankhya ko chhooti hain, vishuddh saahitya ka utani badi janasankhya tak pahuainchana asambhav hai.

1990 ke baad

90 ke dashak mein bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke akhbaaron, hindi patrakaarita ke kshetr mein amar ujaala, dainik bhaaskar, dainik jaagaran aadi ke nagaron-kasbon se kai sanskaran nikalne shuroo hue. jahaan pehle mahaanagaron se akhbaar chhapate the, bhoomandaleekaran ke baad aayi nayi takaneek, behtar sadak aur yaataayaat ke sansaadhanon ki sulabhata ki vajah se chhote shaharon, kasbon se bhi nagar sanskaran ka chhapana aasaan ho gaya. saath hi in dashakon mein graameen ilaakon, kasbon mein failate baajaar mein nayi vastuon ke liye naye upabhoktaaon ki talaash bhi shuroo hui. hindi ke akhbaar in vastuon ke prachaar-prasaar ka ek jariya ban kar ubhara hai. saath hi saath akhbaaron ke in sanskaranon mein sthaaneeya khabaron ko pramukhata se chhaapa jaata hai. isse akhbaaron ke paathakon ki sankhya mein kaafi badhotri hui hai. media visheshagya sevanti ninaan ne ise 'hindi ki saarvajanik duniya ka punarvishkaar' kaha hai. ve likhti hain, “aprint media ne sthaaneeya ghatnaaon ke coverage dvaara jila star par hindi ki maujood saarvajanik duniya ka vistaar kiya hai aur saath hi akhbaaron ke sthaaneeya sanskaranon ke dvaara anajaane mein iska punarvishkaar kiya hai.

1990 mein raashtreeya paathak sarvekshan ki report bataati thi ki paanch aguva akhbaaron mein hindi ka keval ek samaachaar patra hua karta tha. pichhle (sarve) ne saabit kar diya ki ham kitni teji se badh rahe hain. is baar (2010) sabse adhik padhe jaane vaale paanch akhbaaron mein shuroo ke chaar hindi ke hain.

ek utsaahajanak baat aur bhi hai ki aaiaaraes sarve mein jin 42 shaharon ko sabse teji se ubharata maana gaya hai, unamein se jyaadaatar hindi hrudaya pradesh ke hain. matlab saaf hai ki agar pichhle teen dashak mein dakshin ke raajyon ne vikaas ki jabaradast peengein badhaain to aane vaale dashak ham hindi vaalon ke hain. aisa naheen hai ki akhbaar ke adhyayan ke maamale mein hi yeh pradesh aguva saabit ho rahe hain. IT industry ka ek aankada bataata hai ki hindi aur bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein net par padhne-likhne vaalon ki taadaad lagaataar badh rahi hai.

matlab saaf hai. hindi ki aakaankshaaon ka yeh vistaar patrakaaron ki or bhi dekh raha hai. pragati ki chetna ke saath samaaj ki nichli kataar mein baithe log bhi samaachaar patron ki panktiyon mein dikhne chaahiye. pichhle aaiees, IIT aur tamaam shiksha parishdon ke parinaamon ne saabit kar diya hai ki hindi bhaashiyon mein sabse nichli seedhiyon par baithe log bhi jabaradast uchhaal ke liye taiyaar hain. hindi ke patrakaaron ko unase ek kadam aage chalana hoga taaki us jagah ko fir se haasil sakein, jise pichhle chaar dashakon mein humne lagaataar khoya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain