hindi naatak

hindi mein naatakon ka praarambh bhaaratendu harishchandr se maana jaata hai. us kaal ke bhaaratendu tatha unke samakaaleen naatakakaaron ne lok chetna ke vikaas ke liye naatakon ki rachana ki isliye us samay ki saamaajik samasyaaon ko naatakon mein abhivyakt hone ka achha avsar mila.

jaisaaki kaha ja chuka hai, hindi mein avyaavasaayik saahityik rangamanch ke nirmaan ka shreeganesh aagaahasan 'amaanat' lakhanavi ke 'indar sabha' naamak geeti-roopak se maana ja sakta hai. par sach to yeh hai ki 'indar sabha' ki vaastav mein rangamancheeya kruti naheen thi. ismein shaamiyaane ke neeche khula stage rahata tha. nautanki ki tarah teen or darshak baithate the, ek or takht par raaja indar ka aasan laga diya jaata tha, saath mein pariyon ke liye kursiyaaain rakhi jaati theen. saajindon ke peechhe ek laal rang ka parda lataka diya jaata tha. isi ke peechhe se paatron ka pravesh karaaya jaata tha. raaja indar, pariyaaain aadi paatr ek baar aakar vaheen upasthit rahate the. ve apne samvaad bolakar vaapas naheen jaate the.

us samay naatyaarangan itna lokapriya hua ki amaanat ki 'indar sabha' ke anukaran par kai sabhaaeain rachi gayi, jaise 'madaareelaal ki indar sabha', 'daryaai indar sabha', 'havaai indar sabha' aadi. paarasi naatak mandaliyon ne bhi in sabhaaon aur majaliseparistaan ko apnaaya. ye rachanaaeain naatak naheen thi aur na hi inse hindi ka rangamanch nirmit hua. isi se bhaaratendu harishchandr inko 'naatakaabhaas' kehte the. unhonne inki pairodi ke roop mein 'bandar sabha' likhi thi.

anukram

hindi rangamanch aur bhaaratendu harishchandr

is prakaar bhaaratendu se poorv hindi rangamanch aur naatya-rachana ke vyaavasaayik tatha avyaavasaayik saahityik prayaas to hue par hindi ka vaastavik aur sthaayi rangamanch nirmit aur viksit naheen ho paaya tha. san 1850 E. se san 1868 E. tak hindi rangamanch ka udaya aur prachaar-prasaar to hua par usaka suruchipoorn vikaas aur sthaayi nirmaan naheen ho saka tha. paarasi naatak mandaliyon ke atirikt kuchh aur bhi chhutaput vyaavasaayik mandaliyaaain vibhinn sthaanon par nirmit huin par saahityik suruchi sampannata ka unamein bhi abhaav hi raha.

vyaavasaayik mandaliyon ke prayatn mein hindi rangamanch ki jo rooparekha bani thi, prachaar aur prasaar ka jo kaam hua tha tatha inke kaaran jo kuchh achhe naatakakaar hindi ko mile the-us avsar aur paristhiti ka laabh naheen uthaaya ja saka tha.

bhaaratendu ke naatak likhne ki shuruaat bangala ke vidyaasundar (1867) naatak ke anuvaad se hoti hai. yadyapi naatak unke pehle bhi likhe jaate rahe kintu niyamit roop se khadeeboli mein anek naatak likhkar bhaaratendu ne hi hindi naatak ki neenv ko sudrudh banaaya. bhaaratendu ke poorvavarti naatakakaaron mein reeva naresh vishvanaath Singh (1846-1911) ke brujabhaasha mein likhe gaye naatak 'aanand raghunandan' aur gopaalachandr ke 'nahush' (1841) ko anek vidvaan hindi ka pratham naatak maanate hain. yahaaain yeh jaanana rochak ho sakta hai ki gopaalachandr, bhaaratendu harishchandr ke pita the.

hindi ke vishuddh saahityik rangamanch aur naatya-srujan ki parampara ki drushti se san 1868 E. ka bada mahattv hai. bhaaratendu ke naatak-lekhan aur mancheekaran ka shreeganesh isi varsh hua. iske poorv na to paatron ke pravesh-gaman, drushya-yojana aadi se yukt koi vaastavik naatak hindi mein racha gaya tha. bhaaratendu ke pita gopaalachandar chit 'nahush' tatha mahaaraaj vishvanaathasinh rachit 'aanandaraghunandan' bhi poorn naatak naheen the, na pardon aur drushyon aadi ki yojana wala viksit rangamanch hi nirmit hua tha; naatyaarangan ke adhiktar prayaas bhi abhi tak Mumbai aadi ahindi bhaashi kshetron mein hi hue the aur bhaasha ka svaroop bhi hindi-urdoo ka mishrit khichdi roop hi tha.

3 April san 1868 ko pan. sheetalaaprasaad tripaathi rachit 'jaanki mangal' naatak ka abhinay 'banaaras theatre' mein aayojit kiya tha. kehte hain ki jis ladke ko Lakshman ka abhinay part karna tha vah achaanak us din beemaar pad gaya. Lakshman ke abhinay ki samasya upasthit ho gayi aur us din yuvak bhaaratendu sthiti ko na sainbhaalate to naatyaayojan sthagit karna padta. bhaaratendu ne ek-dedh ghante mein hi na keval Lakshman ki apni bhoomika yaad kar li apitu poore 'jaanki mangal' naatak ko hi mastishk mein jama liya. bhaaratendu ne apne abhijaatya ki paravaah naheen ki.

un dinon uchch kul ke log abhinay karna apni pratishtha ke anukool naheen samajhte the. is prakaar is naatak se bhaaratendu ne rangamanch par sakriya bhaag lena aarambh kiya. isi samay-unhonne naatya-srujan bhi aarambh kiya.

bhaaratendu ne san 1868 E. se san 1885 E. tak apne svalp aur atyant vyast jeevan se shesh 17 varshon mein anek naatakon ka srujan kiya, anek naatakon mein swayam abhinay kiya, anek rangashaalaaeain nirmit karaain aur hindi rangamanch ke sthaapan ka stutya prayaas kiya. yahi naheen, bhaaratendu ke anek lekhakon aur rangakarmiyon ko naatya-srujan aur abhinay ke liye prerit kiya. bhaaratendu ke sadudyog evam prerana se kaashi, prayaag, Kanpur aadi kai sthaanon par hindi ka avyaavasaayik saahityik rangamanch sthaapit hua.

bhaaratendu ke hi jeevan kaal mein ye kuchh rang-sansthaaeain sthaapit ho chuki theen :

  • (1) kaashi mein bhaaratendu ke sanrakshan mein national theatre ki sthaapana hui. bhaaratendu apna 'andher nagari' prahasan isi theatre ke liye ek hi raat mein likha tha,
  • (2) prayaag mein 'aarya naatyasabha' sthaapit hui jismein laala shreenivaasadaas ka 'rangadheer premamohini' pratham baar abhineet hua tha,
  • (3) Kanpur mein bhaaratendu ke sahayogi pan. prataapanaaraayan mishr ne hindi rangamanch ka netrutv kiya aur bhaaratendu ke 'vaidiki hinsa hinsa na bhavati', 'satya harishchandr', 'Bhaarat-durdasha', 'andher nagari' aadi naatakon ka abhinay karaaya.

inke atirikt baliya, dumaraaainv, Lucknow aadi uttar pradesh ke kai sthaanon aur Bihar pradesh mein bhi hindi rangamanch aur naatya-srujan ki drudh parampara ka nirmaan hua.

prerana-srot

bhaaratendu aur unke sahayogi lekhakon ne naatya-srujan ki prerana kahaaain-kahaaain se praapt ki, yeh prashn paryaapt mahattv ka hai. is prashn ka mahattv is drushti se aur bhi badh jaata hai, jab ham dekhte hain ki hindi mein naatya-rachana ka sootrapaat bhaaratendu ki hi nav-pravartanakaari pratibha se hua. yadyapi bhaaratendu se poorv naatya-shaili mein kuchh srujan-prayaas hue the, par naatak ke vaastavik roop ka udbhav sarvapratham bhaaratendu ki hi lekhini se hua. astu, jab hindi mein is saahityi-vidha ka abhaav tha, to bhaaratendu ne naatya-srujan ki prerana kahaaain se li ?

saahityik prerana

saahityik prerana ki khoj ki jaaya to kaha ja sakta hai ki bhaaratendu ne sanskrut tatha praakrut ki poorvavarti bhaarateeya naatya-parampara aur baingala ki samasaamayik naatyadhaara ke saath angreji prabhaav-dhaara se prerana li. yadyapi hamaare yahaaain bhaas, kaaleedaas, bhavabhooti, shoodrak aadi poorvavarti sanskrut naatakakaaron ki samruddh naatya-parampara vidyamaan thi, par yeh khed ki baat hai ki bhaaratendu babu ne us samruddh sanskrut naatya-parampara ko apne sammukh rakha. praakrut-apabhransh kaal mein arthaat isa ki 9veen-10 veen shataabdi ke baad sanskrut naatak hraasonmukh ho gaya tha. praakrut aur apabhransh mein bhi naatya-srujan vaisa utkrusht naheen hua jaisa poorvavarti sanskrut-naatya-saahitya tha. at: bhaaratendu ke saamane sanskrut-praakrut ki yeh poorvavarti hraasagaami parampara rahi. sanskrut ke muraari, raajashekhar, jayadev aadi ki kramash: 'anargharaaghav', 'baalaraamaayan', 'prasannaraaghav' aadi rachanaaeain hi bhaaratendu tatha unke sahayogi lekhakon ka aadarsh bani. inmein na kathya- ya vishay-vastu ka vah gaambheerya tha, jo kaalidaas aadi ki amar krutiyon mein tha, na un jaisi shaili-shilp ki shreshthata thi. yahi kaaran hai ki bhaaratendu-poorv hindi naatak sarvatha nishpraan raha aur yadyapi bhaaratendu ne usamein saamayik, saamaajik aur saanskrutik jeevan ki jhalak paida kar navonmesh aur kinchit sapraanata ka prayaas kiya, par unke prayatnon ke baavajood bhaaratendukaaleen hindi naatak kathya aur shilp donon ki hi drushti se shaishav kaal mein hi pada raha, vishesh utkarsh ko praapt naheen hua.

bhaaratendu ke pashchaat

is prakaar bhaaratendu harishchandr ke satyaprayatnon se hindi ke saahityik rangakarm aur naatya-lekhan ki drudh parampara chali. par san 1885 E. mein bhaaratendu ke nidhan ke pashchaat vah utsaah kuchh mand pad gaya. 19 veen shati ke antim dashak mein fir kuchh chhutaput prayaas hue. kai naatak mandaliyon ki sthaapana hui, jaise prayaag ki 'shreeraamaleela naatak mandali' tatha 'hindi naatya samiti', bhaaratendu ji ke bhateejon- shreekrushnachandr aur shri brajachandr-dvaara kaashi mein sthaapit 'shri bhaaratendu naatak mandali' tatha 'kaashi naagari naatak mandali.' in naatak mandaliyon ke prayatn se us samay 'mahaaraana prataap', 'satya harishchandr', 'mahaabhaarat', 'subhadraaharan', 'bheeshmapitaamah', 'bilv mangal', 'sansaar svapn', 'kaliyug' aadi anek naatakon ka abhinay hua.

par ye prayaas bhi bahut din naheen chal sake. dhanaabhaav tatha sarkaari aur gair-sarkaari protsaahan ke abhaav mein saahityik rangamanch ki sthaapana ke prayatn kaalaantar mein sab so gaye. in chhutaput prayaason ke antargat tatkaaleen saahityik naatakon ka abhinay hua aur hindi mein kuchh achhe rangamanchaanukool saahityik naatakon ki rachana hui. paarasi naatak companiyon ke dushprabhaav ka to yeh prayaas achha javaab tha, kintu yeh prayaas tha bahut hi svalp. doosare, is saahityik rangaandolan se bhi hindi ka rangamanch vishesh viksit naheen hua, kyonki yeh rangamanch paarasi rangamanch se vishesh bhinn aur viksit naheen tha- vahi pardon ki yojana, vaisa hi drushya-vidhaan aur sangi aadi ka prabandh rahata tha. vaigyaanik saadhanon se sampann ghoomane vaale rangamanch ka vikaas 19 veen shati mein naheen ho saka tha. dhvani-yantr aadi ki sthaapana ke prayaas bhi hindi rangamanch ke vikaas ki disha mein koi mahattvapoorn yog naheen de paae. haaain, inka yahi laabh hua ki paarasi naatak companyon ke bhrasht prachaar ko kuchh dhakka laga tatha kuchh rangamancheeya hindi naatak prakaash mein aae.

beesaveen shataabdi

20 veen shataabdi ke teesare dashak mein cinema ke aagaman ne paarasi rangamanch ko sarvatha samaapt kar diya. par avyaavasaayik rangamanch idhar-udhar nae roopon mein jeevit raha. ab hindi ka rangamanch keval schoolon aur collegeon mein hi hai. yeh rangamanch bade naatakon ki apeksha ekaankiyon ko adhik apnaakar chala. iske do mukhya kaaran hain- ek to aaj ka darshak kam-se-kam samay mein apne manoranjan ki poorti karna chaahata hai, doosare, aayojakon ke liye bhi bade naatak ka pradarshan yahaan bahut kathinaai utpann karta hai vahaaain ekaanki ka pradarshan saral hai-rangamanch, drushya-vidhaan aadi ekaanki mein saral hote hain, paatr bhi bahut kam rahate hain. at: sabhi shikshaalayon, saanskrutik aayojanon aadi mein aajkal ekaankiyon ka hi pradarshan hota hai. Dr. Rajkumar varma, upendranaath ashk, seth govind das, jagadeeshachandr maathur aadi hamaare anek naatakakaaron ne sundar abhinay-upayogi ekaanki naatakon tatha deergh naatakon ki rachana ki hai.

prasaad ji ne uchchakoti ke saahityik naatak rach kar hindi naatak saahitya ko samruddh kiya tha, par anek naatak rangamanch par kuchh kathinaai utpann karte the. fir bhi kuchh kaat-chhaaaint ke saath prasaad ji ke praaya: sabhi naatakon ka abhinay hindi ke avyaavasaayik rangamanch par hua. George barnaard shau, ibsan aadi paashchaatya naatakakaaron ke prabhaav se uparyukt prasaadottar aadhunik naatakakaaron ne kuchh bahut sundar rangamancheeya naatakon ki srushti ki. in naatakakaaron ke anek poore naatak bhi rangamanchon se pradarshit hue.

svatantrata ke pashchaat

svatantrata ke paashchaat hindi rangamanch ke sthaayi nirmaan ki disha mein anek sarkaari-gair-sarkaari prayatn hue hain. sarkaar ki or se bhi kai gair-sarkaari sansthaaon ko rangamanch ki sthaapana ke liye aarthik sahaayata mili hai. purushon ke saath ab striyaaain bhi abhinay mein bhaag lene lagi hain. schoolon-collegeon mein kuchh achhe naatakon ka ab achha pradarshan hone laga hai.

anek saamaajik-saanskrutik sansthaaon se sambaddh kuchh achhe sthaayi rangamanch bane hain, jaise theatre center ke tattvaavadhaan mein Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Allahabad, Hyderabad, bangalaur, shaantiniketan aadi sthaanon par sthaayi rangamanch sthaapit hain. kendreeya sarkaar bhi is or paryaapt dhyaan de rahi hai. par in sarvabhaashaayi rangamanchon par hindi bhikhaarini-si hi prateet hoti hai.

kendreeya sarkaar ne sangeet naatak academy ki sthaapana ki hai, jismein achhe naatakakaaron aur kalaakaaron ko protsaahan diya jaata hai.

vyaavasaayik rangamanch ke nirmaan ke bhi pichhle dinon kuchh prayatn hue hain. prasiddh kalaakaar svargeeya pruthveeraaj Kapoor ne kuchh varsh hue pruthvi theatre ki sthaapana ki thi. unhonne kai naatak prastut kiye hain, jaise 'deevaar', 'gaddaar', 'pathaan', 'kalaakaar', 'aahooti' aadi. dhan ki haani uthaakar bhi kuchh varsh is company ne utsaahapoorvak achha kaarya kiya. par itne prayaas par bhi Mumbai, Delhi ya kisi jagah hindi ka sthaayi vyaavasaayik rangamanch naheen ban saka hai. is maarg mein kathinaaiyaaain hain.

pramukh hindi naatakaar

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain