hindi ki vibhinn boliyaaain aur unka saahitya

'hindi' shabd videshiyon ka diya hua hai. faarasi mein sanskrut ki 's' dhvani h ho jaati hai, at: sindh se hind aur sindhi se hindi bana. shabdaarth ki drushti se hind (Bhaarat) ki kisi bhaasha ko hindi kaha ja sakta hai. praacheenakaal mein musalmaanon ne iska prayog is arth mein kiya bhi hai par vartamaanakaal mein saamaanyat: iska vyavahaar us vistrut bhookhand ko bhaasha ke liye hota hai jo pashchim mein jailasamer, uttar pashchim mein Ambala, uttar mein Shimla se lekar Nepal ki taraai, poorv mein Bhaagalpur, dakshin poorv mein Raipur tatha dakshin-pashchim mein khandava tak faili hui hai. hindi ke mukhya do bhed hain - pashchimi hindi tatha poorvi hindi.

hindi ki anek boliyaaain (upabhaashaaeain) hain. inmein se kuchh mein atyant uchch shreni ke saahitya ki rachana hui hai. aisi boliyon mein brajabhaasha aur avadhi pramukh hain. yeh boliyaaain hindi ki vividhta hain aur usaki shakti bhi. ve hindi ki jadon ko gahra banaati hain. hindi ki boliyaaain aur un boliyon ki upaboliyaaain hain jo na keval apne mein ek badi parampara, itihaas, sabhyata ko samete hue hain varan svatantrata sangraam, janasangharsh, vartamaan ke baajaaravaad ke khilaaf bhi usaka rachana sansaar sachet hai.[1]

hindi ki boliyon mein pramukh hain- avadhi, brajabhaasha, kannauji, bundeli, bagheli, Bhojpuri, harayaanavi, raajasthaani, chhatteesagadhi, maalavi, jhaarakhandi, kumaauainni, magahi aadi.

anukram

pashchimi aur poorvi hindi

jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai, apne seemit bhaashaashaastreeya arth mein hindi ke do uparoop maane jaate hain - pashchimi hindi aur poorvi hindi.

pashchimi hindi

pashchimi hindi ke antargat paaainch boliyaaain hain - khadi boli, baangaroo, braj, kannauji aur bundeli. khadi boli apne mool roop mein Meerut, bijnaur ke aaspaas boli jaati hai. isi ke aadhaar par aadhunik hindi aur urdoo ka roop khada hua. baangaroo ko jaatoo ya hariyaanavi bhi kehte hain. yeh Punjab ke dakshin poorv mein boli jaati hai. kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar baangaroo khadi boli ka hi ek roop hai jise punjabi aur raajasthaani ka mishran hai. brajabhaasha Mathura ke aaspaas brajamandal mein boli jaati hai. hindi saahitya ke madhyayug mein brajabhaasha mein uchch koti ka kaavya nirmit hua. isliye ise boli na kehkar aadarapoorvak bhaasha kaha gaya. madhyakaal mein yeh boli sampoorn hindi pradesh ki saahityik bhaasha ke roop mein maanya ho gayi thi. par saahityik brajabhaasha mein braj ke theth shabdon ke saath anya praanton ke shabdon aur prayogaan ka bhi grahan hai. kannauji ganga ke madhya doaab ki boli hai. iske ek or brajamandal hai aur doosari or avadhi ka kshetr. yeh brajabhaasha se itni milti julati hai ki ismein racha gaya jo thoda bahut saahitya hai vah brajabhaasha ka hi maana jaata hai. bundeli bundelakhand ki upabhaasha hai. bundelakhand mein brajabhaasha ke achhe kavi hue hain jinki kaavyabhaasha par bundeli ka prabhaav hai.

poorvi hindi

poorvi hindi ki teen shaakhaaeain hain - avadhi, bagheli aur chhatteesagadhi. avadhi ardhamaagadhi praakrut ki parampara mein hai. yeh avadh mein boli jaati hai. iske do bhed hain - poorvi avadhi aur pashchimi avadhi. avadhi ko baisavaadi bhi kehte hain. tulasi ke raamacharitmaanas mein adhikaanshat: pashchimi avadhi milti hain aur jaayasi ke padamaavat mein poorvi avadhi. bagheli baghelakhand mein prachalit hai. yeh avadhi ka hi ek dakshini roop hai. chhatteesagadhi palaamoo (Bihar) ki seema se lekar dakshin mein bastar tak aur pashchim mein baghelakhand ki seema se udeesa ki seema tak faile hue bhoobhaag ki boli hai. ismein praacheen saahitya naheen milta. vartamaan kaal mein kuchh lokasaahitya racha gaya hai.

bihaari, raajasthaani aur pahaadi

hindi pradesh ki teen upabhaashaaeain aur hain - bihaari, raajasthaani aur pahaadi hindi.

bihaari ki teen shaakhaaeain hain - Bhojpuri, magahi aur maithili. Bihar ke ek kasbe bhojapur ke naam par Bhojpuri boli ka naamakaran hua. par Bhojpuri ka prasaar Bihar se adhik uttar pradesh mein hai. Bihar ke shaahaabaad, chanpaaran aur saaran jile se lekar Gorakhpur tatha baaras kamishnari tak ka kshetr Bhojpuri ka hai. Bhojpuri poorvi hindi ke adhik nikat hai. hindi pradesh ki boliyon mein Bhojpuri bolanevaalon ki sankhya sabse adhik hai. ismein praacheen saahitya to naheen milta par graamageeton ke atirikt vartamaan kaal mein kuchh saahitya rachane ka prayatn bhi ho raha hai. magahi ke kendra Patna aur gaya hain. iske liye kaithi lipi ka vyavahaar hota hai. ismein koi saahitya naheen milta. maithili ganga ke uttar mein darabhaga ke aaspaas prachalit hai. iski saahityik parampara puraani hai. vidyaapati ke pad prasiddh hi hain. madhyayug mein likhe maithili naatak bhi milte hain. aadhunik kaal mein bhi maithili ka saahitya nirmit ho raha hai.

raajasthaani ka prasaar Punjab ke dakshin mein hai. yeh poore raajapootaane aur madhya pradesh ke maalava mein boli jaati hai. raajasthaani ka sambandh ek or brajabhaasha se hai aur doosari or gujaraati se. puraani raajasthaani ko dingal kehte hain. jismein chaaranon ka likha hindi ka aaranbhik saahitya upalabdh hai. raajasthaani mein gadya saahitya ki bhi puraani parampara hai. raajasthaani ki chaar mukhya boliyaaain ya vibhaashaaeain hain- mevaati, maalavi, jayapuri aur maaravaadi. maaravaadi ka prachalan sabse adhik hai. raajasthaani ke antargat kuchh vidvaan‌ bheeli ko bhi lete hain.

pahaadi upabhaasha raajasthaani se milti julati hain. iska prasaar hindi pradesh ke uttar himaalaya ke dakshini bhaag mein Nepal se Shimla tak hai. iski teen shaakhaaeain hain - poorvi, madhyavarti aur pashchimi. poorvi pahaadi Nepal ki pradhaan bhaasha hai jise nepaali aur paranbatiya bhi kaha jaata hai. madhyavarti pahaadi kumaayooain aur gadhvaal mein prachalit hai. iske do bhe hain - kumaauainni aur gadhvaali. ye pahaadi upabhaashaaeain naagari lipi mein likhi jaati hain. inmein puraana saahitya naheen milta. aadhunik kaal mein kuchh saahitya likha ja raha hai. kuchh vidvaan‌ pahaadi ko raajasthaani ke antargat hi maanate hain.

prayog-kshetr ke anusaar vargeekaran

hindi bhaasha ka bhaugolik vistaar kaafi door–door tak hai jise teen kshetron mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai:-

  • (k) hindi kshetr – hindi kshetr mein hindi ki mukhyat: satrah boliyaaain boli jaati hain, jinhein paaainch boli vargon mein is prakaar vibhkt kar ke rakha ja sakta hai- pashchimi hindi, poorvi hindi, raajasthaani hindi, pahaadi hindi aur bihaari hindi.
  • (kh) anya bhaasha kshetr– inmein pramukh boliyaaain is prakaar hain- dakkhini hindi (gulabargi, beedari, beejaapuri tatha haidaraabaadi aadi), bambaiya hindi, kalakatiya hindi tatha shilangi hindi (baajaar-hindi) aadi.
  • (g) bhaaratetar kshetr – Bhaarat ke baahar bhi kai deshon mein hindi bhaashi log kaafi badi sankhya mein base hain. seemaavarti deshon ke alaava Europe, America, Australia, Africa, rus, Japan, cheen tatha samast dakshin poorv va madhya Asia mein hindi bolne vaalon ki bahut badi sankhya hai. lagbhag sabhi deshon ki raajadhaaniyon ke vishvavidyaalayon mein hindi ek vishay ke roop mein padhi-padhaai jaati hai. Bhaarat ke baahar hindi ki pramukh boliyaaain – taajujbeki hindi, maarishsi hindi, feeji hindi, sooreenaami hindi aadi hain.[2]

hindi pradeshon ki hindi boliyaaain

pashchimi hindi

poorvi hindi

raajasthaani

pahaadi

  • poorvi pahaadi jismein nepaali aati hai
  • madhyavarti pahaadi jismein kumaaoonni aur gadhvaali aati hai.
  • pashchimi pahaadi jismein himaanchal pradesh ki anek boliyaan aati hain.

bihaari bhaasha

hindeetar pradeshon ki hindi boliyaaain

  • banbaiya hindi
  • kalakatiya hindi
  • dakkhini

videshon mein boli jaane waali hindi boliyaaain

  • Uzbekistan
  • maarishs
  • fiji
  • sooreenaam
  • madhyapoorv
  • treeneedaad aur Tobago
  • dakshin Africa

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh