hindi evain urdoo

hindi ke aadhunik saahitya ki rachana khadi boli mein hui hai. khadi boli hindi mein arabi-faarasi ke mel se jo bhaasha bani vah 'urdoo' kahalaai. musalmaanon ne 'urdoo' ka prayog chhaavani, shaahi lashkar aur kile ke arth mein kiya hai. in sthaanon mein boli jaanevaali vyaavahaarik bhaasha 'urdoo ki jabaan' hui.

pehle-pehle bolachaal ke liye Delhi ke saamaanya musalmaan jo bhaasha vyavahaar mein laate the vah hindi hi thi. chaudahaveen sadi mein muhammad tugalak jab apni rajdhani Delhi se devagiri le gaya tab vahaaain jaanevaale pachhaaainh ke musalmaan apni saamaanya bolachaal ki bhaasha bhi apne saath lete gaye. praaya: pandrahaveen shataabdi mein Bijapur, golakunda aadi musalamaani raajyon mein saahitya ke star par is bhaasha ki pratishtha hui. us samay uttarabhaarat ke musalamaani raajya mein saahityik bhaasha faarasi thi. dakshinbhaarat mein telugu aadi Dravid bhaashaabhaashiyon ke beech uttar Bhaarat ki is aarya bhaasha ko faarasi lipi mein likha jaata tha. is dakhini bhaasha ko urdoo ke vidvaan‌ urdoo kehte hain. shuroo mein dakhini bolachaal ki khadi boli ke bahut nikat thi. ismein hindi aur sanskrut ke shabdon ka bahul prayog hota tha. chhand bhi adhiktar hindi ke hi hote the. par solahaveen sadi se soofiyon aur Bijapur, golakunda aadi raajyon ke darabaariyon dvaara dakhini mein arabi faarasi ka prachalan dheere-dheere badhne laga. fir bhi athaarahaveen shataabdi ke aarambh tak iska roop pradhaanataya hindi ya bhaarateeya hi raha.

san‌ 1700 ke aas paas dakhini ke prasiddh kavi shams valeeulla 'vali' Delhi aae. yahaaain aane par shuroo mein to vali ne apni kaavyabhaasha dakhini hi rakhi, jo bhaarateeya vaataavaran ke nikat thi. par baad mein unki rachanaaon par arabi-faarasi ki parampara pravartit hui. aarambh ki dakhini mein faarasi prabhaav kam milta hai. Delhi ki paravarti urdoo par faarasi shabdaavali aur videshi vaataavaran ka gahra rang chadhta gaya. hindi ke shabd dhooaindhakar nikaal feinke gaye aur unki jagah arabi faarasi ke shabd baithaae gaye. mugal saamraajya ke patanakaal mein jab Lucknow urdoo ka doosra kendra hua to usaka hindeepan aur bhi satarkata se door kiya. ab vah apne mool hindi se bahut bhinn ho gayi.

hindi aur urdoo ke ek mile jule roop ko hindustaani kaha gaya hai. Bhaarat mein aaingarej shaasakon ki kootaneeti ke falasvaroop hindi aur urdoo ek doosare se door hoti gain. ek ki sanskrutanishthata badhti gayi aur doosare ka faaraseepan. lipibhed to tha hi. saanskrutik vaataavaran ki drushti se bhi donon ka paarthakya badhta gaya. aisi sthiti mein aaingarejon ne ek aisi mishrit bhaasha ko hindustaani naam diya jismein arabi, faarasi ya sanskrut ke kathin shabd na prayukt hon tatha jo saadhaaran janta ke liye sahajabodhya ho. aage chalakar desh ke raajanayikon ne bhi is tarah ki bhaasha ko maanyata dene ki koshish ki aur kaha ki ise faarasi aur naagari donon lipiyon mein likha ja sakta hai. par yeh krutrim prayaas antatogatva vifal hua. is tarah ki bhaasha jyaada jhukaav urdoo ki or hi tha.

hindi aur urdoo ka advait

bhaashaavid hindi evam urdoo ko ek hi bhaasha maanate hain. hindi devanaagari lipi mein likhi jaati hai aur shabdaavali ke star par adhikaanshat: sanskrut ke shabdon ka prayog karti hai. urdoo urdoo lipi mein likhi jaati hai aur shabdaavali ke star par us par faarasi aur arabi bhaashaaon ka prabhaav adhik hai. vyaakaranik rup se urdoo aur hindi mein lagbhag shat-pratishat samaanata hai - keval kuchh vishesh kshetron mein shabdaavali ke strot (jaisa ki oopar likha gaya hai) mein antar hota hai. kuchh vishesh dhvaniyaaain urdoo mein arabi aur faarasi se li gayi hain aur isi prakaar faarasi aur arabi ki kuchh vishesh vyaakaranik sanrachana bhi prayog ki jaati hai. at: urdoo ko hindi ki ek vishesh shaili maana ja sakta hai.

profesar mahaaveer saran jain ne apne " hindi evam urdoo ka advait " sheershak aalekh mein hindi evam urdoo ki bhaashik ekta ka pratipaadan kiya hai saath hi hindi saahitya evam urdoo saahitya ke alagaav ke kaaranon ko bhi spasht kiya hai. profesar jain ke anusaar " hindi-urdoo ke 'graamar' mein koi antar naheen hai. apavaadasvaroop sambandhakaarak chinh tatha bahuvachan pratyaya ko chhodkar. hindi ki upabhaashaaon, boliyon, vyavahaarik hindi, maanak hindi mein bola jaata hai- 'gaalib ka deevaan'. urdoo ki theth style mein kaha jaaega - ' deevaane gaalib '. (ab dainik hindi samaachaar patron mein is prakaar ke prayog dhadlle se ho rahe hain.) hindi mein 'makaan' ka avikaari kaarak bahuvachan vaakya mein 'makaan' hi bola jaaega. 'uske teen makaan'. urdoo mein 'makaan' mein 'aat' jodkar bahuvachan prayog kiya jaata hai - 'makaanaat'. vikaari kaarak bahuvachan vaakya mein prayog hone par hindi-urdoo mein 'on' jodkar 'makaanon' hi bola jaaega. 'makaanon ko gira do ' - yeh prayog hindi mein bhi hota hai tatha urdoo mein bhi. kuchh shabdon ka prayog hindi mein streeling mein tatha urdoo mein pulling mein hota hai. hindi mein ' taaji khabarein ' tatha urdoo mein 'taaja khabarein '. is prakaar ka antar 'pashchimi-hindi' tatha 'poorvi-hindi' ki upabhaashaaon mein kai shabdon ke prayog mein milta hai. inko chhodkar hindi-urdoo ka graamar ek hai. chooainki inka graamar ek hai is kaaran hindi-urdoo bhaasha ki drushti se ek hai. isliye bolachaal mein donon mein frk naheen maaloom padta.

'saahityik bhaasha' mein bhaasha ke alaava anya bahut se tatv hote hain. saahitya mein kathaanak hota hai, vahaaain kisi ki kisi se upama (simili) di jaati hai, alakrunt shaili (oranet style) hoti hai, prateek roop mein (simbaulik) varnan hota hai, chhand (meter) hote hain. pratyek desh ke saahitya ki apni parampara hoti hai, katha, kathaanak, kathaanak-roodhiyon, alankaar-yojana, prateek-yojana, bimb-yojana, chhand-vidhaan ki visheshataaeain hoti hain. ek bhaasha-roop se 'hindi-urdoo' ki do saahityik shailiyaaain (staails) viksit huin. ek shaili 'aadhunik hindi saahitya' kahalaati hai jismein bhaarateeya prateekon, upamaanon, bimbon, chhandon tatha sanskrut ki tatsam evam Bhaarat ke janasamaaj mein prachalit shabdon ka prayog hota hai tatha jo devanaagari lipi mein likhi jaati hai. 'urdoo' style ke adabakaaron ne arabi evam faarasi-saahitya mein prachalit prateekon, upamaanon, bimbon, chhando ka adhik prayog kiya. jab arabi-faarasi adab ki parampara ke anuroop ya usase prabhaavit hokar saahitya likha jaata hai to rachana mein arabi saahitya tatha faarasi-saahitya mein prayukt hone vaale shabdon ka bahul prayog to hota hi hai, uske saath-saath shaileegat upaadaanon tatha laya aur chhand mein bhi antar ho jaata hai jisse rachana ki jameen aur aasmaan badle-badle nazar aane lagte hain. yadi kathaanak raamaayan ya mahaabhaarat par aadhaarit hote hain to 'rachana-vaataavaran' ek prakaar ka hota hai, yadi kathaanak 'laila-majnooain', 'yusuf-julekha', 'sheeri-frahaad' ki kathaaon par aadhaarit hote hain to 'rachana-vaataavaran' doosare prakaar ka hota hai.

upama 'kamal' se ya chaaaind se di jaati hai to ped ki ek shaakha par jis rang aur khushaboo vaale fool khilte hain, usase bhinn rang aur khushaboo vaale fool ped ki doosari shaakha par tab khilne lagte hain jab upamaan 'aabe jamajam', 'kohenoor', 'shama', 'bulabul' aadi ho jaate hai. bolachaal mein to 'hindi-urdoo' bolne vaale sabhi log roti, paani, kapda, makaan, hava, doodh, dahi, din, raat, haath, pair, kamar, pyaas, pyaar, neend, sapana aadi shabdon ka samaan roop se prayog karte hain, magar jab 'chaaaind uga' ke liye ek shaili ke saahityakaar 'chandr udit hua' tatha doosari shaili ke adabakaar 'maahataab uruj ho gaya likhne lagte hain to ek hi bhaasha-dhaara do bhinn pravaahon mein bahti hui dikhaai padne lagti hai. jab saahitya ki bhinn paramparaaon se prabhaavit evam prerit hokar likha jaata hai to paani ki un dhaaraaon mein alag-alag shailiyon ke bhinn rang milkar un dhaaraaon ko alag-alag rangon ka paani bana dete hain."

hindi aur urdoo ka vivaad

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