hindee–urdoo vivaad

bhaasha parivartan ki sthiti
faarasi ka vikalp urdoo 1837
hindi aur urdoo ko baraabari ka darja 1900
urdoo Pakistan mein ekamaatr raashtreeya bhaasha ghoshit 1948
hindi ko vishesh darja praapt hua aur bhaarateeya ganatantr mein ise urdoo evam anya bhaashaaon se upar raajabhaasha ka darja mila. 1950
Bhaarat mein raajamaarg chihnon mein urdoo aur hindi.

hindee–urdoo vivaad 19veen sadi mein aarambh hua bhaashaai vivaad hai. is vivaad ke anusaar urdoo aur hindi ko ek bhaasha (hindustaani dekhein.) ka darja dene aur uttar evam uttar prashchimi Bhaarat mein ek maanak bhaasha ke roop mein nirmit kiya jaana chaahiye. yadyapi yeh vivaad aadhikaarik roop se 1950 mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara hindi ko raajabhaasha ghoshit karne ke baad aarambh hua. vartamaan samay mein kuchh muslimon ke anusaar hinduon ne urdoo ko parityakt kiya jabki kuchh hinduon ka vishvaas hai ki muslim raaj ke dauraan urdoo ko krutrim roop se janit kiya gaya.[1]

hindi aur urdoo hindi bhaasha ki khadi boli ki roop ko kaha jaata hai aur yeh lagbhag Bhaarat ki 45% janasankhya ki bhaasha hai jise vibhinn hindi, hindustaani aur urdoo ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

hindi aur urdoo hindi ki khadi boli ke do bhinn saahityik roop hain. khadi boli ka ek faaraseekrut roop, jo vibhinnata se hindi, hindustaani aur urdoo kahalaata tha, dakshin Asia ke Delhi saltanat (1206-1526 AD) aur mugal saltanat (1526–1858 AD) ke dauraan aakaar lene lagi.[2] East India company ne aadhunik Bhaarat ke hindi bolne vaale uttari praanton mein faarasi bhaasha ki jagah urdoo lipi mein likhit urdoo ko sarkaari maanak bhaasha ka darraja de diya, angareji ke saath.

unneesaveen sadi ke aakhiri chand dahaaiyon mein uttar pashchimi praanton aur avadh mein hindi urdoo vivaad ka prasfutan hua, hindi aur urdoo ke samarthak kramash devanaagari aur faarasi lipi mein likhit hindustaani ki himaayat jo kar rahe the. hindi ke aandolan jo devanaagari ka vikaas aur aadhikaarik darje ko himaayat de rahe the uttari hind mein sthaapit hue. babu Shiv prasaad aur madanamohan maalaveeya is aandolan ke aarambh ke ullekhaneeya samarthak the. is ke nateeje mein urdoo aandolanon ka nirmaan hua, jinhon ne urdoo ke aadhikaarik darje ko samarthan diya; Sayyed Ahmad Khan un ka ek prasiddh samarthak tha.

san 1900 mein, sarkaar ne hindi aur urdoo dono ko samaan prateekaatmak darja pradaan kiya jiska muslimon ne virodh kiya aur hindooon ne khushi vyakt ki. hindi aur urdoo ka bhaashaayi vivaad badhta gaya kyonki hindi mein faarasi-vyutpann shabdon ke tulya aupachaarik aur shaikshik shabdaavali ka mool sanskrut ko liya gaya. isse hindu-muslim matabhed badhne lage aur mahaatma Gandhi ne maanakon ka pun: shuddhikran karke paaramparik shabd hindustaani ke andar urdoo athva devanaagari lipi kaam mein lene ka sujhaav diya. iska Congress ke sadasyon tatha Bhaarat ke svatantrata aandolan mein shaamil kuchh netaaon ne samarthan kiya. iske falasvaroop 1950 mein bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke liye bani sanstha ne angreji ke saath urdoo ke sthaan par hindi ko devanaagari lipi mein raajabhaasha ke roop mein sveekaar kiya.

anukram

prushthabhoomi

dono samudaayon (hindi aur muslim) mein matabhed ka mukhya kaaran apni-apni saanskrutik vichaaron ka prasaar karne sambandhi aakaankshaayein ho sakti hain jo Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke dauraan khule vivaad ke roop mein ubhari. muslim apni saanskrutik prerana srot muslim umma ko maanate hain jabki hindu saamaanyat: vaidik aur pauraanik sanskruti ko apna prerana srot maanate hain. muslim shaasan (jiske sansthaapak pashchimi Asia se the) ke dauraan islaam dharm sveekaar karne vaale logon ne us sanskruti ko apna liya. faarasi bhaasha ko us samay madhya Asia jaise islaami kshetron mein sabse mahattvapoorn aur pratishthit bhaash maani jaati thi. Bhaarat mein islaam shaasan ke sansthaapak vibhinn jaateeyata ke the jaise toork, mangol, arabi, afgaan aadi tatha un sabne faarasi ko hi apni saamaanya bhaasha evam adaalati bhaasha ke roop mein kaam mein liya. hinduon ne ise videshi sanskruti ke roop mein dekha. samay ke saath sanskrut bhaasha, dhoti aur aayurved jaise vishyon ko hindu dharm se jodkar dekha jaane laga aur faarasi bhaasha, yoonaani chikitsa paddhati ko muslimon se jodkar dekha jaane laga.[3] isse dono samudaayon ke vyanjanon aur sanskruti mein aur adhik antar aane lag gaya.

atthaarahaveen sadi aur uske baad se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke muslim shaasit bhaagon mein urdoo ko adaalati bhaasha (nyaayalaya ki bhaasha) ban gayi. yeh arabi, faarasi aur turkeeyaai bhaasha ke prabhaav waali tatha Delhi evam iske aas-paas ke kshetron mein boli jaane waali khadeeboli se viksit hui. jaise jaise muslim shaasan uttari Bhaarat mein badha vaise vaise urdoo anya sthaanon ki mool bhaashaaon ke saath judti gayi aur vahaaain ke mool shabdon ke sthaan par kuchh faarasi shabd sthaapit ho gaye. isi tarah samay ke saath-saath yeh ek nayi bhaasha ke roop mein viksit ho gayi. hindi bhi khadeeboli se hi viksit hui, yadyapi ismein adhiktar shabd ghareloo boli aur sanskrut se aaye.

vibhinn kaarakon ke prabhaav se hindi aur urdoo mein dooriyaaain badhaayi. muslim shaasakon ne urdoo ko devanaagari lipi ke sthaan par urdoo lipi mein likhna chuna. isi samay mein mukhyat: 18veen aur 19veen sadi mein urdoo bhaasha ne apna vikaas likhit urdoo saahitya ke roop mein kiya. iske kaaran un hinduon mein vibhaajan aarambh ho gaya jo hindustaani ko devanaagari mein likhte the aur anya jo hindustaani ko urdoo lipi mein likhne lag gaye the. unneesaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein hindi vikaas ke aandolanon ne vivaad ko aur badha diya.[4]

pro॰ paul aara॰ braas ne apni pustak laingvej, rilijn end paulitiks in North India (Language, Religion and Politics in North India; hindi: uttar Bhaarat mein bhaasha, dharm aur raajaneeti),

The Hindi-Urdu controversy by its very bitterness demonstrates how little the objective similarities between language groups matter when people attach subjective significance to their languages. Willingness to communicate through the same language is quite a different thing from the mere ability to communicate.[4]


vivaad

britaani bhaasha niti

san 1837 mein, britaani East indiya company ne vibhinn praanton mein faarasi bhaasha ke sthaan vahaaain ki ghareloo bhaasha se aadhikaarik (raajabhaasha) aur nyaayaalayi bhaasha ke roop mein maanyata pradaani ki. haalaanki bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke uttari kshetron mein faarasi bhaasha ko pratisthaapit karne ke liye hindi ko devanaagari mein rakhane ke sthaan par urdoo ko urdoo lipi mein raajabhaasha aur nyaaya bhaasha ke roop mein laagoo kiya.[4][5] vivaad ka sabse taatkaalik kaaran 1860 ke dashak mein uttar Bhaarat mein virodhi bhaashaayi niti ko maana jaata hai. yadyapi tatkaaleen sarkaar ne vidyaalayi shiksha mein hindi aur urdoo donon ko hi maadhyam ke roop mein protsaahit kiya tha lekin us samay hindi athva naagari lipi ko raajakaaryon mein hatotsaahit kiya tha. isse sarkaari naukariyon mein hindi aur urdoo maadhyam mein shikshit vidyaarthiyon mein sangharsh ka kaaran ban gaya jisne baad mein saampradaayik roop le liya.[6]

hindi aur urdoo aandolan

inhein bhi dekhein: urdoo aandolan

san 1867 mein Bhaarat mein britaani raaj ke dauraan Agra aur avadh ke sanyukt praant mein kuchh hinduon ne urdoo ke sthaan par hindi ko raajabhaasha banaane ki maang ki.[7] banaaras ke babu Shiv prasaad naagari lipi ke samarthakon mein se shuruaati ek samarthak the. nyaayaalaya ke gyaapan patron ke anusaar 1868 mein unhonne Bhaarat ke muslim shaasakon par unhein jabardasti faarasi sikhaane ka doshi bataaya. san 1897 mein madanamohan maalaveeya ne court karaiktar end primary education in North western provinses end avadh (uttar pashchimi praanton aur avadh mein nyaayaalaya akshar aur praathamik shiksha) naam se kathan aur dastaavejon ka ek sangrah prakaashit kiya jismein unhonne hindi ke liye majaboor prakaran bana diya.[6][8]

unneesaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh tatha beesaveen sadi ke poorvaarddh mein vibhinn hindi aandolan huye jismein 1893 mein banaaras mein naagareeprachaarini sabha, 1910 mein Allahabad mein hindi saahitya sammelan, 1918 mein dakshin Bhaarat prachaar sabha aur 1926 mein raashtra bhaasha prachaar samiti pramukh hain.[8] in aandolanon ko 1881 mein protsaahit kiya gaya jab Bihar ke najadeek ke kshetron mein raajabhaasha ke roop mein devanaagari lipi mein hindi ke sthaan par faarasi lipi mein urdoo ko maanyata pradaan ki gayi. unhonne vibhinn nagaron mein shiksha aayog ko 67,000 logon ke hastaakshar vaale 118 smrutiptr jama karavaaye.[4][8] hindi samarthakon ka tark tha ki yahaaain bahusankhyak aabaadi hindi bolti hai at: naagari lipi ka prastaav behtar shiksha tatha sarkaari padon par niyukti ki sambhaavana badhaayegi. unka yeh bhi tark tha ki urdoo lipi dastaavejon ko aspasht, jaal-saaji ka protsaahan tatha jatil arabi evam faarasi shabdon ke upayog ko protsaahit karegi.

anjuman tarakki-A-urdoo jaise sangathanon ka urdoo ki vakaalat karne ke liye nirmaan hua.[4] urdoo ki vakaalat karne vaalon ka tark th ki hindi lipi ko teji se naheen likha ja sakta aur ismein maanakeekaran evam shabdaavali ki kami ki bhi samasya hai. unka yeh bhi tark tha ki urdoo bhaasha ka udbhav Bhaarat mein hi hua hai jise adhikttar log dhaaraapravaah ke saath bol sakte hain aur yeh takaraar bhi shaamil kiya ki iske shiksha ke kshetr mein vistaar ke liye ise raajabhaasha ka darja dena aavashyak hai.

saampradaayik hinsa bhadkane lag gayi aur yeh tejatarraar ho gaya. Sayyed Ahmad Khan ne ek baar kaha, "main hinduon aur muslimon ko ek heen aaainkh se dekhta hooain & unhein ek dulhan ki do aaainkhon ki tarah dekhta hooain. raashtra se mera arth keval hindu aur muslim hai tatha aur kuchh bhi naheen. ham hindu aur muslim ek saath ek hi sarkaar ke adhin samaan mitti par rahate hain. hamaari ruchi aur samasyaayein bhi samaan hain at: donon guton ko main ek hi raashtra ke roop mein dekhta hooain." bhaashaayi vivaad se krodhit Varanasi ke Governor mistar sheksapeeyar ne ek baar kaha, "mujhe ab yakeen ho gaya hai ki hindu aur muslim kabhi bhi ek raashtra mein naheen rah sakte jaise ki unke dharm aur jeevan ka tarika ek doosare se poornat: pruthak hain."

unneesaveen sadi ke antim teen dashakon mein uttar pashchimi praanton tatha avadh mein kai baar vivaad bhadka. Bhaarat sarkaar ne shiksha ki pragati ki sameeksha ke liye hantar aayog ki sthaapana ki jise hindi aur urdoo ki vakaalat karne aur unke apne-apne kaaranon ke liye kaam mein liya.

hindustaani ke liye gaaaindheeji ka vichaar

hindi aur urdoo donon mein bhaashaayi aur saanskrutik dooriyaaain badh rahi thi. bhaashaayi aadhaar par hindi mein sanskrut se tatha urdoo mein faarasi, arabi aur Turkey se shabd rekhaankit kiye jaate rahe. saanskrutik roop se urdoo muslimon ki tatha hindi ko hinduon se jodkar dekha jaane laga. 1920 ke dashak mein Gandhiji ne is vistaar antar par dukh vyakt kiya aur unhonne donon bhaashaaon ke pun: vilay karke hindustaani ko naagari aur faarasi donon lipiyon mein likhne ka aahvaan kiya.[4] yadyapi vo hindustaani banner tale hindi aur urdoo ko laane ke apne prayaas mein asafal rahe lekin ise gair-hindi kshetron mein lokapriya kar diya.[8]

muslim alagaavavaad

yeh tark diya jaata hai ki hindee–urdoo vivaad ne dakshin Asia mein muslim pruthakkaran ke beej boye. kuchh logon ka tark hai ki Sayyed Ahmad ne is vivaad se kaafi pehle hi pruthakkaran alagaavavaadi vichaar vyakt kiye the.[4]

hindi evam urdoo

April 1900 ko, uttar-pashchimi praant ki aupaniveshik sarkaar ne naagari aur faarasi-arabi donon lipiyon ko samaan darja dene ka aadesh jaari kiya. is aadesh ka urdoo samarthakon ne kaafi virodh kiya aur hindi samarthakon ne samarthan kiya. haalaanki aadesh mein usase bhi adhik prateekaatmak yeh tha ki isne naagari lipi ke upayog ke liye koi vishesh praavadhaan naheen rakha hai. faarasi-rabi ne uttar pashchimi praant mein apna pramukh sthaan banaaye rakha aur avadh raajya mein svatantrata tak ise mukhya lekhan bhaasha ke roop mein jaari rakha.[6]

Madras praijidnsi ke tatkaaleen mukhyamantri chakravarti raajagopaalaachaari ne hindustaani ko maadhyamik star ki shiksha mein anivaarya bhaasha ke roop mein jodna prastaavit kiya yadyapi baad mein unhonne 1965 mein Madras gair-hindi aandolan ke samay hindi ke prastaav ka virodh kiya.[9] baal gangaadhar tilk ne raashtravaadi aandolan ke aavashyak ank ke roop mein devanaagari lipi ka samarthan kiya. Congress aur svatantrata aandolanakaariyon ne bhi apni bhaasha sambandhi nitiyon mein vaikalpik bhaasha ka vikalp rakha. svatantrata aandolan ko mein sthiti sudhaarane ke liye dhaarmik aur raajanetaaon, samaaj sudhaarakon, lekhakon aur buddhijeeviyon ne hindi ka samarthan kiya. hindi ko 1950 mein bhaarateeya samvidhaan sanstha ne angreji ke saath aadhikaarik bhaasha ka darja praapt hua.[8]

sandarbh

  1. abdul jameel Khan (2006) (angreji mein). Urdu/Hindi: an artificial divide [urdoo/hindi: ek krutrim vibhaajan]. alagora. pp. 290. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-87586-437-2.
  2. "A Historical Perspective of Urdu". National Council for Promotion of Urdu language. http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/pers_pp/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-15.
  3. The new Cambridge history of India, Volumes 3-5,page 180
  4. a aa i E u oo A paul aara॰ braus (angreji mein). Language, Religion and Politics in North India [uttar Bhaarat mein bhaasha dharm aur raajaneeti]. aaiyunivrs inkaurporeted. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-595-34394-2.
  5. John aara॰ maikalen (1970). The political awakening in India [Bhaarat ki raajaneetik jaagruti]. preintis-hall inkaurporeted, engalavud klif‍aas, new jersey. pp. 105.
  6. a aa i kenneth dablyoo॰ jauns (angreji mein). Religious Controversy in British India [britaani Bhaarat mein dhaarmik vivaad]. pa॰ 124. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7914-0827-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=EmY9fsUTjwYC&pg=PA123&dq=hindi+urdu+controversy#PPA124,M1.
  7. "Urdu-Hindi Controversy [urdoo-hindi vivaad]" (angreji mein). story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A133. abhigman tithi: 31 December 2014.
  8. a aa i E u Status Change of Languages by Ulrich Ammon, Marlis Hellinger
  9. veinkatachalapati, e॰aaara॰ (20 December 2007). "Tongue tied [avaak]" (angreji mein). indiya tude. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&issueid=32&task=view&id=2692&acc=high. abhigman tithi: 31 December 2014.

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