hind-aarya bhaashaaon mein shva vilopan

shva vilopan vah pratikriya hai jismein hindi, Kashmiri, punjabi, gujaraati, maraathi, bangaali, maithili aur bahut-si anya aadhunik hind-aarya bhaashaaoain mein sahi uchchaaran ke liye unki lipiyon ke vyanjanon mein nihit shva ki dhvani (jo ki hindi mein 'a' hai) ko tyaagana anivaarya hai.[1][2] yeh vilopan karna un bhaashaaoain ke maatrubhaashiyon ke dvaara samajhe jaane ke liye aur bolne vaale ka lahaja sahi prateet hone ke liye bahut zaroori hai. is shva vilopan ke bina vaachak ya to spasht gair-maatrubhaashi lagta hai ya fir use samajhne mein hi kathinaai ho sakti hai. shva vilopan kampayootar dvaara likhit saamaagri ko padhne mein (masalan netraheen logon ki suvidha ke liye) aur bhaashaaoain ko seekhane vaalon ke liye chunauti hoti hai kyonki in bhaashaaoain ki lipiyaaain aksar yeh spasht naheen karti ki shva kahaaain rakhana chaahiye aur kahaaain tyaagana chaahiye.[3]

anukram

hindi mein shva vilopan

aadhunik hindi ko likhne ke liye devanaagari lipi ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jismein aupachaarik roop se har vyanjan ke ant mein agar halant na laga ho to 'a' ki dhvani jodi jaati hai. lekin hindi ke sahi uchchaaran ke liye hindi ka 'shva vilopan niyam' kehta hai ki shabdon ke ant mein aur kuchh aur paristhitiyon mein aksar yeh shva hata diya jaata hai. ise kabhi-kabhi is prakaar se likha jaata hai: 'a -> ø | svar vyanjan _vyanjan svar'. iska arth hai ki agar lipi ke anusaar kisi svar ke uparaant aane vaale vyanjan ke baad shva ('a' dhvani) aata hai aur uske baad ek vyanjan aata hai jiske peechhe bhi ek svar laga ho, to us beech ke shva ko tyaag diya jaata hai. masalan 'ajagar' shabd ko dekha jaae to yeh 'a+j+a+g+a+r+a' hai lekin shabd ke ant wala 'a' aur 'a+j' aur 'g+a' ke beech ka 'a' donon hata diye jaate hain, jis se 'ajagar' shabd ka saadhaaran bolachaal mein sahi hindi uchchaaran 'ajgar' hai. aksar yeh baat angreji mein lipyaantaran karne mein spasht ho jaati hai. 'Patna' shahar ko dekha jaae to lipi ke anusaar yeh 'p+a+t+a+n+aa' hai, jo angreji mein 'patanā' likha jaaega ('ā' deergh 'aa' ki dhvani hai). lekin shva vilopan niyam beech ka shva hata deta hai, isliye vaastav mein sahi uchchaaran 'p+a+t+n+aa' hai, yaani 'pat.nā'. usi tarah 'uttar pradesh' ko agar aupachaarik lipi ke anusaar dekha jaae to yeh 'uttara pradesha' hona chaahiye, lekin shva vilopan ki vajah se yeh 'uttar pradesh' ban jaata hai.[4][5]

dhyaan deejiye ki shva vilopan ke kaaran kuchh aksharon ke guton ka uchchaaran unki shabd mein pareesthiti ke anusaar badal jaata hai. 'saral' ka uchchaaran 's+a+r+a+l' (saral 'saral') hai jismein ant ka shva vilopit hai. lekin 'sarala' mein niymaanusaar beech ke 'r' ka 'a' hata diya jaata hai, yaani 's+a+r+l' (sarla 'sar.lā'). usi tarah 'paalak' (paalak pāalak) aur 'paalaki' (paalki 'pāal.ki') mein beech ke 'l' ka shva pehle to rakha jaata hai lekin dusare shabd se hata diya jaata hai. usi tarah 'dil ki dhadkane' mein 'dhadkane' ka sahi uchchaaran 'dhadkane' (dhad.kane) hai, yaani 'd' ka shva hataaya gaya. lekin 'dil dhadkane laga' mein 'dhadkane' ka sahi uchchaaran 'dhadkne' (dhadak.ne) hai, yaani is dafa 'd' ka shva rakha gaya lekin 'k' ka shva hataaya gaya. hindi ke maatrubhaashi in shabdon ko bina soche aaraam se sahi uchchaarit karte hain, lekin gair-maatibhaashiyon aur kampayootaron ke liye yeh kathinaai paida karte hain. aksar unke glat uchchaaran se unki boli 'ajeeb' aur 'sunane vaale ke liye samajhanein mein kathin' lagti hai.[6]

kuchh udaaharan

shabd sahi uchchaaran lipyantaran glat lipyantaran tippani
jalan jalan jalan jalana aaainkhon mein jalan - antim akshar 'na' par halant na lage hone ke baavajood halant-jaisa uchchaaran anivaarya hai
jalana jalna jalnā jalanā aaainkhon ka jalana - is roop mein shabd ke madhya akshar 'l' par na likhe hone par bhi halant lagta hai
dhadkane dhadkane dhaṛaakaneṅ dhaṛaaakaneṅ dil dhadkane laga - yahaaain 'd' par shva grahan laagoo hai
dhadkanein dhadknein dhaṛaaakne dhaṛaaakane dil ki dhadkanein - yahaaain 'k' par shva grahan laagoo hai
namak namak namak namaka ahindi lahaje se bolne vaale antim varn ('k') par kabhi-kabhi shva vilopan naheen karte jo hindi maatrubhaashiyon ko 'namaka' sa prateet hota hai
namakeen namkeen namkīaan namakīaana namak mein 'k' par shva vilopan hua tha, lekin 'namakeen' mein shva vilopan, shabd ke madhya mein 'm' aur shabd ke ant mein 'na' par hai; ahindi lahaje se bolne vaale in varnon par kabhi-kabhi shva grahan naheen karte jo hindi maatrubhaashiyon ko 'namaakeena' sa prateet hota hai
uttar pradesh uttar pradesh uttar pradesh uttara pradesha ahindi lahaje se bolne vaale in varnon par kabhi-kabhi shva vilopan naheen karte jo hindi maatrubhaashiyon ko 'uttara pradesha' sa prateet hota hai
tulasi tulsi tulsī tulasī shabd ke madhya vaale 'l' par shva vilopan na karne se shabd hindi maatrubhaashiyon ko 'tulaasi' sa prateet hota hai
palak palak palak palaka aaainkh ki palak - ekavachan shabd 'palak' mein 'k' par shva vilopan hai
palakein palkein palkeṅ palakeṅ aaainkhon ki palakein - bahuvachan shabd 'palakon' mein shva vilopan 'k' se hat ke 'l' par lag jaata hai

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Language, speech, and mind, Larry M. Hyman, Victoria Fromkin, Charles N. Li, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-00311-3, ... The implicit /a/ is not read when the symbol appears in word-final position or in certain other contexts where it is obligatorily deleted (via the so-called schwa-deletion rule which plays a crucial role in Hindi word phonology ...
  2. Indian linguistics, Volume 37, Linguistic Society of India, 1976, ... the history of the schwa deletion rule in Gujarati has been examined. The historical perspective brings out the fact that schwa deletion is not an isolated phenomenon; the loss of final -a has preceded the loss of medial -a-; ...
  3. A history of the Hindi grammatical tradition: Hindi-Hindustani grammar, grammarians, history and problems, Tej K. Bhatia, BRILL, 1987, ISBN 90-04-07924-6, ... Hindi literature fails as a reliable indicator of the actual pronunciation because it is written in the Devanagari script ... the schwa syncope rule which operates in Hindi ...
  4. A Diachronic Approach for Schwa Deletion in Indo Aryan Languages, Monojit Choudhury, Anupam Basu and Sudeshna Sarkar, Proceedings of the Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Phonology (SIGPHON), July 2004, Association for Computations Linguistics, ... schwa deletion is an important issue for grapheme-to-phoneme conversion of IAL, which in turn is required for a good Text-to-Speech synthesizer ... Sanskrit rəaacəaana, Hindi rəaacna, Bengali rɔaacona ...
  5. Prosodic rules for schwa-deletion in hindi text-to-speech synthesis, Naim R. Tyson, Ila Nagar, International Journal of Speech Technology, 2009 (12:15–25), ... Without the appropriate deletion of schwas, any speech output would sound unnatural. Since the orthographical representation of Devanagari gives little indication of deletion sites, modern TTS systems for Hindi implemented schwa deletion rules based on the segmental context where schwa appears ...
  6. A Rule Based Schwa Deletion Algorithm for Hindi, Monojit Choudhury and Anupam Basu, Proceedings of the International Conference On Knowledge-Based Computer Systems, July 2004, ... Without any schwa deletion, not only the two words will sound very unnatural, but it will also be extremely difficult for the listener to distinguish between the two, the only difference being nasalization of the e at the end of the former. However, a native speaker would pronounce the former as dha.D-kan-eM and the later as dha.Dak-ne, which are clearly distinguishable ...