hind-aarya bhaashaaon ki soochi

hind-aarya bhaashaaeain, esaaaiel ke anusaar samooheekrut: █a█ madhya aur poorv madhya kshetr █a█ uttari kshetr █a█ uttarapoorvi kshetr █a█ poorvi kshetr █a█ dakshini kshetr █a█ dveepeeya

hind-aarya bhaashaaon mein lagbhag 210 (esaaaiel anumaan) bhaashaaeain aur boliyaaain aati hain jo Asia mein bahut se logon dvaara boli jaati hain; yeh bhaasha parivaar hind-Irani bhaasha parivaar ka bhaag hai.


anukram

aitihaasik

  • praacheen hind (1500-300 E.poo.)
    • aaranbhik praacheen hind: vaidik sanskrut (1500 se 500 E.poo.)
    • atikaalik praacheen hind: mahaakaavyik sanskrut, shaastreeya sanskrut (500 se 300 E.poo.)
  • madhya hind (300 E.poo. se 1500 isvi)
    • praarambhik charan: 3ri shataabdi E.poo.
      • ashok-praakrut (3ri shataabdi E.poo. kshetreeya boliyaaain)
      • paali (bauddh siddhaant ki bhaasha)
      • aaranbhik ardhamagadhi (sabse puraane jain sootron ki bhaasha)
    • madhya charan (200 E.poo. se 700 isvi)
      • niya praakrut
      • ardhamagadhi (atikaalik jain siddhaant)
      • naatakeeya praakrut (maurya kaal)
      • sinhali praakrut
      • sankar sanskrut (mahaayaan siddhaant)
    • atikaalik charan: apabhransh (700 isvi se 1500 isvi)
      • abahatt (magadhi apabhransh)
      • iloo (sinhali apabhransh)
  • aaranbhik aadhunik hind (mugal kaal, 1500 se 1800)
    • aaranbhik dakkhani (kaalamitul-hakaayat 1580)
    • khadeeboli ka udbhav (gora-baadal ki katha, 1620 ka daur)
    • Delhi ke kile par "urdoo" ka ubharana (1670 ka daur)

samakaaleen bhaashaaeain

yeh vargeekaran kausan ka paalan karta hai (2005). esaaaiel se bhinnata ullekhit hai. (esaaaiel hind-aarya bhaashaaon mein nuristaani bhaashaaon ko sammilit karta hai)

daardi bhaashaaeain

(doosari hind-aarya bhaashaaon se is parivaar ka sambandh aspasht hai; ethnolog ise pashchimottar kshetr mein sammilit karta hai, iske pashchaat bhi ki in bhaashaaon ki vyaakaran sanrachana shaastreeya hind-aarya bhaashaaon se bahut alag hai.)

kunar (kunad) bhaashaaeain
chitraal bhaashaaeain
kohistaani bhaashaaeain
sheena bhaashaaeain
Kashmiri

uttari kshetr (pahaadi)

uttar pashchimi kshetr

kshetr ke maanachitr jahaan dogari-kaangadi bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain
dogari-kaangadi bhaashaaeain

(esaaaiel dvaara pahaadi mein sammilit)

  • dogari - kaangadi
  • gaddi
  • churahi
  • bhaattiyaali
  • bilaasapuri
  • harijn kinnauri
  • chambaali
  • mandaali
  • mahaasoo pahaadi
  • jaunasaari
  • pangvaali
  • potvaari (meerapuri ya pothohari ke naam se bhi jaani jaati hai aur kabhi-kabhi lahanda ke saath samooheekrut)
punjabi

(esaaaiel dvaara keindreeya kshetr mein sammilit)

  • poorvi ya keindreeya punjabi
    • maajhi ya majhail
    • maalavi ya malavai
    • doabi
    • povaadhi
saraiki bhaashaaeain
  • lahanda (pashchim punjabi)
  • potvaari (meerapuri ya pothohari ke naam se bhi jaani jaati hai aur aamtaur par pahaadi ke roop mein vargeekrut)
  • hindko
  • meerapuri punjabi
  • saraiki (dakshin punjabi ya mulataani)
  • uttari gujaraati
sindhi bhaashaaeain

pashchimi kshetr

(esaaaiel in bhaashaaon ko madhya kshetr mein sammilit karta hai)

raajasthaani bhaashaaen
  • maaravaadi (mevaari sammilit)
  • harauti
  • goariya
  • maalvi
  • nimaadi
  • gujri
  • baagadi
  • lanbaadi
  • loarki
gujaraati bhaashaaen
bheel bhaashaaeain
  • bheeli (gaamit sammilit)
khaanadeshi
domari-romaani

(klausen dvaara ek alag samooh ke roop mein maani jaati hai)

  • domari
  • romaani bhaashaaeain

keindreeya kshetr (madhya ya hindi)

indik, madhya kshetr
pashchim madhya kshetr (pashchimi hindi)
  • harayaanavi
  • braj bhaasa - kanauji
  • khadeeboli (hindustaani, maanak hindi, urdoo)
  • bundeli
  • bhaya
  • saansi
  • chamaari
  • ghera
  • govli
poorv madhya kshetr (poorvi hindi)

(esaaaiel dvaara hind-aarya ki alag shaakha nirmit)

poorvi kshetr (magadhan)

yeh bhaashaaeain ardhamagadhi dvaara magadhi praakrut se nikli hai.

bangaali-asamiya bhaashaaeain
  • asamiya
  • bangaali (bangla) (mal pahariya sammilit)
  • vishnupriya manipuri (imaar thaar)
  • chakama
  • chittaagoniyaai
  • haajong
  • raajavanshi
  • rohingya bhaasha
  • silheti
bihaari bhaashaaeain
  • angeeka
  • Bhojpuri (kairibiyaai hindustaani sammilit)
  • maithili
  • magahi
  • maajhi
  • musasa
  • oraanv saadari
  • saadari
udiya bhaasha
  • udiya
  • aadivaasi udiya
  • halbi
thaaroo

thaaroo, thaaroo logon ki bhaasha hai, lagbhag 10 lakh vaktaaon ke saath. thaaroo is prakaar upavibhaajit ki ja sakti hai

  • chitvaniya thaaroo (I S O 639-3: 1991 mein 80,000 vakta)
  • kochila thaaroo (I S O 639-3: 2003 mein 2,58,000 vakta), boliyaan: saptari, morangiya, Udaipur, sunasari, siraaha, mahottari, sarlaahi aur dhanusha
  • raana thaaroo (I S O 639-3: 2000 mein 3,68,000 vakta)

dakshini kshetr bhaashaaeain

konkani parivaar
  • katkaari
  • konkani, govaani
  • konkani
  • kookana
  • fudagi
  • samvedi
  • varali
dveepeeya hind

dveepeeya bhaashaaeain Sri Lanka, minikauya aur maaladeev ke dveepon par boli jaati hain. unamein kai visheshataaen jo unhein apni mahaadveepeeya bhagini bhaashaaon se bilkul alag karti hain. (esaaaiel unhein hind-aarya bhaashaaon ki alag shaakha maanata hai)

  • divehi (ya mahal)
  • sinhala
  • vedda

avargeekrut

nimnalikhit bhaashaaeain hind-aarya parivaar mein vargeekrut naheen ki gain hain.

  • tippera
  • kanjari
  • od
  • usui
  • vaagari booli
  • darai
  • kumhali
  • chinaali

inhein bhi dekhein

  • nuristaani bhaashaaeain
  • aadya-hind-Irani
  • Bhaarat ki bhaashaaon ki soochi

sandarbh