hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar

hind - Europeeya bhaashaaon desh bol rahi hooain. gaadhe hare rang ke desh mein jo bahumat bhaasha hind - Europeeya parivaar hain, laait green ek desh vah hind jiska aadhikaarik bhaasha - Europeeya hai, lekin alpasankhyakon mein hai.

hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar sansaar ka sabse bada bhaasha parivaar (yaani ki sambandhit bhaashaaon ka samooh) hain. hind-Europeeya (ya bhaaropeeya) bhaasha parivaar mein vishv ki sainkadon bhaashaaeain aur boliyaaain sammilit hain. aadhunik hind Europeeya bhaashaaon mein se kuchh hain : hindi, urdoo, angreji, fraansisi, jarman, purtagaali, spainish, dach, faarasi, baangla, punjabi, roosi, ityaadi. ye sabhi bhaashaaeain ek hi aadim bhaasha se nikli hai, use aadim-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ka naam de sakta hai. yeh sanskrut se bahut milti-julati thi, jaise ki vah saanskrut ka hi aadim roop ho.

anukram

visheshataaen

in bhaashaaon ki visheshataaen hai ki sabhi praacheen hind-Europeeya bhaashaaon (jaise laiteen, praacheen yoonaani bhaasha, sanskrut, aadi) mein sanjnyaa, sarvanaam, visheshan aur kriya ke kai shabd-roop hote the, jo vaakya mein inka vyaakaranik roop dikhaate the. adhiktar ye shabd-roop shabd ke ant mein pratyaya dvaara banaaye jaati the (end-inflection). rojmarra ki cheejon, sage-sambandhiyon, saamaanya jaanvaron, kriyaaon ke liye kaam aane vaale shabd is parivaar ki sabhi praacheen bhaashaaon mein ek doosare se bahut milte-julate the aur is aadhaar par bhaashaavidon ne aadim-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ki parikalpana ki. in vibhinn bhaashaayon ke shabdon ke roop isliye milte-julate the kyonki yeh ek hi praacheen jad se utpann hue sajaateeya shabd the. neeche diye table mein kuchh praacheen aur nayi hind-Europeeya bhaashaaon ki aam shabdaavali ke kuchh shabd aur pariklpit aadim-hind-Europeeya ki punarrachana diye gaye hain (sabhi shabd aur devanaagari lipyaantaran poori tarah shuddh naheen hain aur itailiks mein praacheen bhaasha ke shabd diye gaye hain).

hindi sanskrut laitin praacheen yoonaani aadhunik jarman angreji aadim-hind-Europeeya
maaain maatru maater mater maitair meter mutar mutter madar mother *maater *mater
pita pitru paater pater paatair pater faatar vater faadar father *pater *pater
bhaai bhraatru fraater frater fraatair phrater broodar bruder brother brother *bhraater *bhrater
bahin svasru soror soror eor eor shvaistar schwester sistar sister *suesor *swesor
kutta (shvaan) shvan kaanis canis kyuon kyon hund hund haaund hound *kuon *k'won
asti est est esti esti ist ist ij is *esti *esti
par pattr penna penna pteros pteros fedar feder fedar feather *pet (udna) *pet
bhed avi ovis ovis ois ois aaua (bhedi) aue iua (bhedi) ewe *oui *owi
ashv ashv ekvu-us equus hippos hippos ehavaaj ehwaz eoh eoh *ekuo *ek'wo
man manas mens mens menos menos minn-a minne maaind mind *main *men
maanav maanav, manu - - mann mann main man *manu *manu
naam naaman nomen nomen onoma onoma naam-a name name name *nomn *nomn
too, tum tvam too tu soo su doo du daau thou *tu *tu
devata Dave deus deus theos theos jiu ziu divaain divine *deivos *deiwos
gaaya gaus Bose bos buos buos koo kuh kaau cow *gvou *gwou

shaakhaaeain

hind Europeeya parivaar ki kai shaakhaaeain hain. har shaakha ki upashaakha aur usamein sammilit mukhya praacheen aur aadhunik bhaashaaeain aur unke mukhya desh (braiket mein) neeche diye hue hain.

albaaniyaai

anatoliyaai

arameniyaai

baaltik

keltik

jarmanik

greek

(athva yoonaani)

hind Irani

itailik

slaav

tokhaari

vargeekaran

hind Europeeya shaakhaaon ko mukhyat: do vargon mein rakha jaata hai : kentum varg aur saatam varg.

saatam varg

is varg ki praacheen bhaashaaon mein aadi-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ke vyanjan : kya, gya aur ghya, sparsh-sangharshi ya sangharshi vyanjanon mein badal gaye, jaise : ch, j, s aur sh. saath hi saath, aadi-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ke vyanjan : kv, gv aur ghv, inmein vilay ho gaye : k, g aur gh. inmein baaltik, slaav, hind Irani, arameniyaai aur albaaniyaai shaakhaaain aati hain. sanskrut isi varg mein aati hai.

kentum varg

is varg ki praacheen bhaashaaon mein aadi-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ke vyanjan : kv, gv aur ghv vaise hi parirkshit rahe. aadi-hind-Europeeya bhaasha ke vyanjan : kya, gya aur ghya, inmein vilay ho gaye : k, g aur gh. inmein itailik, yoonaani, keltik aur jarmanik shaakhaaain aati hain.

aarya log

"kuragan-kabr-teele" ki avadhaarana ke anusaar lagbhag 1500 E.poo. tak aarya kabeelon ka Europe aur Asia mein failaav

sanskrut shabd aarya ka matlab hota tha kuleen aur sabhya. isaliye puraane itihaarakaaron, jaise maiks myular ne aadim- aur aadhunik hind-Europeeya bhaasha bolne waali jaatiyon ka naam "aarya" rakh diya. ye naam Europeeya logon ko bahut pasand aaya aur jald hi sabhi Europeeya vaasiyon ne apne apne deshon ko pracheen aaryon ki janmabhoomi bataana shuroo kar diya (ye baat aajatak jaari hai). vishesh kar hitlar prachaarit kiya ki praacheen aaryon ki janmabhoomi Germany hi hai aur aarya ka arth shuddh peedhi ka manushya hai, jiski tvacha gori, kd lamba, aaainkhe neeli aur baal sunahare hain. hitlar ke anusaar jarman log hi sarvochch aur sarvashaktimaan nasl ke hain aur vishesh taur par yahoodi log ghatiya nasl ke aur anaarya hain (aur jeene ke laayak bhi naheen). british logon ne prachaarit kiya ki lagbhag 1700 E.poo. mein hind-aarya janajaatiyon ne Europe se aakar sindhu-ghaati mein aakraman kiya aur Bhaarat ki deshi sindhu ghaati sabhyata ko ujaad diya aur uske nivaasiyon ka narasanhaar kiya aur baad mein bache-khuche logon ko das bana liya -- jinko rigved mein das aur dasyu kaha gaya hai (is tarah vo apne upaniveshavaad ko sahi thaharaana chaahate the).

hitlar ke yahoodi narasanhaar ke baad ab "aarya" shabd ka matlab bhaashaai arth mein lagaaya jaata hai, na ki nasl ke liye. par abhi bhi itihaasakaar aur bhaashaavid aaryon ki janmabhoomi ki khoj kar rahe hain. ek vichaaradhaara ke mutaabik aaryon ki janmabhoomi madhya Asia mein thi, shaayad dakshini roos ya kaispiyn saagar ke aas-paas. vaheen se unke kabeele duniya ke kai deshon mein pahuainche. hind-aarya kabeelon ka bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein pravaas dheere-dheere aur shaantipoorvak hua tha aur british itihaasakaaron ki "khoon-kharaabe" waali baaton ka koi pramaan naheen hai. us vakt (1800 E.poo.) tak sindhu-ghaati sabhyata ya to bhookampon se ya sindhu-sarasvati nadiyon ki dhaara mein badlaav aur sookhe ki vajah se khud hi tabaah ho gayi thi. ye vichaaradhaara aajkal duniya ke adhiktam bhaashaavid aur itihaasakaar maanate hain. madhya Asia ke "kuragan kabr-teele" praacheen aaryon dvaara banaaye gaye maane jaate hain. ek doosari vichaaradhaara ke anusaar praacheen aaryon ki janmabhoomi Bhaarat hi hai aur yaheen se aarya kabeele Europe aur baaki Asia mein pravaas kiye. is baat ko kai bhaarateeya aur hindutv-vaadi maanate hain (aur ye bhi ki sindhu-saravati sabhyata aaryon ki sabhyata thi aur baaki hind-Europeeya bhaashaaeain sanskrut se viksit hui hain), par baaki duniya mein is drushtikon ki koi kadr naheen hai. adhiktar bhaashaavidon ke anusaar "aadim-hind-Europeeya" bhaasha ke punarnirmit shabd yahi ishaara karte hain ki praacheen aarya janmasthaan ek vishaal, sheetoshn ghaas ka chaaraagaah tha. vaise bhi bhaarateeya jalavaayu aur pashu-pakshiyon ke shabdon ke liye yoonaani, laitin, jarman aur anya hind-Europeeya bhaashaaon mein milte julate shabd naheen milte, jaise mor, murga, baagh, haathi, aam, kela, peepal, bargad, neem, garm-mausam, gainda, bhains, chaaval, ityaadi. saath-hi-saath, sindhu ghaati sabhyata mein bade shahar, machhli ka upabhog, 2000 E.poo. se pehle ghode ki poori anupasthiti aur baad mein bhi ghodon ke bahut hi kam avashesh, unke devataaon ke chitron ka vaidik devataaon se bhinn hona, unka baagh aur bail ko aadar jabki rigved mein babbar-sher aur gaaya adhik ullekhit hain, unke adhikaansh shaharon mein (kaaleebangan, aadi ko chhodkar) vaidik yagya-agni-vedi ka abhaav, ityaadi yahi ishaara karte hain ki iske nivaasi aarya to naheen the. jo bhi ho, ye savaal aaj bhi teekhi nok-jhonk ka kendra bana hua hai.

anya bhaasha varg

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

Listen to this article (2 parts) · (info)
Spoken Wikipedia
This is an audio file which was created from an article revision dated 2006-03-02, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
ye ek aavaaj-lekh hai, jo is lekh ka 2006-03-02 dinaank ko bana aavaaj pratiroop hai . ise aap sun sakte hain .


ullekh