hijri

hijri ya islaami panchaang ko (arabi: اaaلaaتaaقaaوaaيaaم اaaلaaهaaجaaرaaي; at-takveem-hijri; faarasi: تaaقaaوaaیaaم هaaجaaرaaی قaaمaaرaaی ‎'takaveem-A-hijri-ye-kmari) jise hijri kaaladarshak bhi kehte hain, ek chandra kaaladarshak hai, jo na sirf muslim deshon mein prayog hota hai balki ise poore vishv ke muslim bhi islaamik dhaarmik parvon ko manaane ka sahi samay jaanane ke liye prayog karte hain. yeh chandra-kaaladarshak hai, jismein varsh mein baarah maas, evam 354 ya 355 diwas hote hain. kyonki yeh saur kaaladarshak se 11 diwas chhota hai isliye islaami dhaarmik tithiyaaain, jo ki is kaaladarshak ke anusaar sthir tithiyon par hoteen hain, parantu har varsh pichhle saur kaaladarshak se 11 din peechhe ho jaati hain. ise hijra ya hijri bhi kehte hain, kyonki iska pehla varsh vah varsh hai jismein ki hajrat muhammad ki makka shahar se madeena ki or hijऱaat (pravaas) hui thi. har varsh ke saath varsh sankhya ke baad mein H jo hijr ko sandarbhit karta hai ya AH (laitin: anno hejiri (hijr ke varsh mein) lagaaya jaata hai.[1]hijr se pehle ke kuchh varsh (BH) ka prayog islaamik itihaas se sambandhit ghatnaaon ke sandarbh me kiya jaata hai, jaise muhammd saahib ka janm liye 53 BH.

vartamaan hijree varsh hai 1430 AH.

islaami calendar

  1. muharam
  2. safr
  3. rabi al-avval
  4. rabi al-thaani
  5. jamaad al-avval
  6. jamaad al-thaani
  7. rajjab
  8. shaaabaan
  9. ramajaan
  10. shavvaal
  11. ju al-kaada
  12. ju al-hajja

anukram

itihaas

islaam poorv kaaladarshak

arab ki sanskruti parampara ke anusaar, ithiyopiya ke "aksoom saamraajya" ka yeman ka Governor "abraha" jo ke kraistav dharm se tha us ne E 570 mein makke par chadhaai ki aur kaaba gruh ko dhaana chaaha. is kaam ke liye vah apne sainya ke kai haathi lekar aaya. laikin naakaam hogaya aur use buri haar ke saath vaapas jaana pada. is varsh ko arabi log "aamm al feel" (haathiyon ka varsh) kahte hain. is arabon ke vijh ko harshollaas ke saath manaate the, aur is saal ke aadhaar par arab naya kelandar banaaliye, jis ki shurooaat "aamm al feel" saal se hoti hai. is maamale ka zikr kur'aan mein se soora "al-feel" mein hai.

maheene

islaami maheene ya maas naam hain:[2]

  1. muharam مaaحaaرaaّaaم (poorn naam: muharam ul-haraam)
  2. safr صaaفaaر (poorn naam: safar ul-mujffar)
  3. rabi al-avval (rabi unannur) Eid A meelaad - رaaبaaيaaع اaaلaaأaaوaaل
  4. rabi al-thaani (ya rabi al-thaani, rabi al-aakhir) (Rabī' II) رaaبaaيaaع اaaلaaآaaخaaر أaaو رaaبaaيaaع اaaلaaثaaاaaنaaي
  5. jamaad al-ula ya jamaadi ul avval (jumaada I) جaaمaaاaaدaaى اaaلaaاaaوaaلaaى
  6. jamaad al-thaani ya jamaadi ul thaani ya jamaadi ul aakhir (ya jumaada al-aakheer) (jumaada II) جaaمaaاaaدaaى اaaلaaآaaخaaر أaaو جaaمaaاaaدaaى اaaلaaثaaاaaنaaي
  7. rajjab ya rajab رaaجaaب (poorn naam: rajjab al-murajjab)
  8. shaaabaan شaaعaaبaaاaaن (poorn naam: shaaabaan al-muaajm) ya saadhaaran naam shaabaan
  9. ramajaan ya ramadaan رaaمaaضaaاaaن (poorn naam: ramadaan al-mubaarak)
  10. shavvaal شaaوaaّaaاaaل (poorn naam: shavvaal ul-mukararm)
  11. jual-kaada ya jul kaada - ذaaو اaaلaaقaaعaaدaaة
  12. jual-hajja ya jul hajja - ذaaو اaaلaaحaaجaaة

in sabhi maheenon mein, ramajaan ka maheena, sabse aadaraneeya maana jaata hai. muslim logon ko is maheene mein poorn saadagi se rahana hota hai din ke samay.

or sabse afjl rabi al-avval k maheena maana jaata hai. isme pyaare nabi sallllaahu alyhi vsllm ki paidaaish hui.

saptaah ke diwas

islaami saptaah, yahoodi saptaah ke samaan hi hota hai, jo ki madhya yugeeya isaai saptaah samaan hota hai. iska pratham diwas bhi ravivaar ke din hi hota hai. islaami evam yahoodi diwas sooryaast ke samay aarambh hote hain, jabki isaai evam graheeya diwas ardharaatri mein aarambh hote hain.[3] muslim saaptaahik namaaj hetu masjidon mein chhathe diwas ki dopahar ko ekatrit hote hain, jo ki isaai evam graheeya shukravaas ko hota hai. ("yaum jo sanskrut mool "yaam" se nikla hai,يaaوaaم" arthaat diwas)

arabi naam hindi naam urdoo naam faarasi naam faarasi mein
yaum al-ahad يaaوaaم اaaلaaأaaحaaد ravivaar itavaar اaaتaaوaaاaaر yek-shaanabeh اaaیaaک شaaنaaبaaہ
yaum al-ithanaayan يaaوaaم اaaلaaإaaثaaنaaيaaن somvaar peer پaaيaaر do-shaanabeh دaaوaaشaaنaaبaaه
yaum ath-thulaatha' يaaوaaم اaaلaaثaaُaaّaaلaaَaaاaaثaaاaaء mangalvaar mangal مaaنaaگaaل seh-shaanabeh سaaه شaaنaaبaaه
yaum al-arabiya يaaوaaم اaaلaaأaaَaaرaaْaaبaaِaaعaaاaaء buddhavaar buddh بaaدaaھ chaahar-shaanabeh چaaهaaاaaرaaشaaنaaبaaه
yaum al-khamees يaaوaaم اaaلaaخaaَaaمaaِaaيaaس bruhaspativaar jummaharat جaaمaaعaaرaaاaaت panj-shaanabeh پaaنaaجaaشaaنaaبaaه
yaum al-jumuaa`a يaaوaaم اaaلaaجaaُaaمaaُaaعaaَaaة shukravaar jumma جaaمaaعaaہ jomaeh, ya adineh جaaمaaعaaه ya آaaدaaيaaنaaه
yaum as-sabt يaaوaaم اaaلaaسaaَaaّaaبaaْaaت shanivaar hafta ہaaفaaتaaہ shaanabeh شaaنaaبaaه

varshon ki sainkhya

saaraneekrut islaami kaaladarshak

mukhya tithiyaaain

islaami kaaladarshak ki kuchh mahatvapoorn tithiyaaain hain:

  • 1 muharam (islaami naya varsh)
  • 10 muharam (aashoora) moosa bani israail ko lekar firaun se chhutakaara paakar "red si" paar karte hain. aur bhi; husain ibn Ali aur un ke saathi karbala ke yuddh mein shaheed hote hain.
  • 12 rabeeul avval -- meelaad A nabi
  • 17 rabeeul avval -- shiya samooh "isna ashari" is din Eid A meelaad manaate hain.
  • 13 rajab -- Ali ibne abi taalib ka janm din
  • 27 rajab -- isra aur meraaj (shab-A-meraaj)
  • 22 rajab -- muslim ke thode samoohon me "kundon ki niyaaj", "safre ke faatiha" ke naam par mannatein aur unke poore hone par faatiha khvaani karte hain. aur yeh faatiha khvaani hajrat imaam jaafr-A-saadik ke naam se judi hai.
  • 1 ramajaan -- upavaas rakhane ki shurooaat ka pehla diwas
  • 21 ramajaan -- Ali ibn abi taalib ke dehaant ka din.
  • 27 ramajaan -- kur'aan ke avataran ka din. aur lailatul kdr
  • 1 shavvaal -- Eid-al-fitr ya Eid ul-fitr ya Eid ul-fitr ya idul fitr ya idul fitr
  • 8-10 jul-hajja -- makka teerth yaatra ya haj
  • 10 jul hajja -- Eid-al-ajha ya Eid ul-adha ya idul adha ya bakreed

vartamaan sambandh

gregoriyn sooryamaan kelandar aur islaami ya anya chandramaan kelandar ke beech 11 dinon ka vyatyaas hota hai. is prakaar agar hisaab lagaayein to neeche bataai gayi soochi ka vyaavyaas nazar aata hai. har 33 ya 34 islaami saal 32 ya 33 gregoriyn saal ek baar ek hi tarah dekhne ko milte hain.:

islaami saal, gregoriyn saal ke andar
islaami grego vyatyaas
1060 1650 590
1093 1682 589
1127 1715 588
1161 1748 587
1194 1780 586
1228 1813 585
1261 1845 584
1295 1878 583
1329 1911 582
1362 1943 581
1396 1976 580
1429 2008 579
1463 2041 578
1496 2073 577
1530 2106 576
1564 2139 575

prayog

dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Watt, W. Montgomery. “aHidjra”. [[en:Encyclopaedia of Islam|]] Online. sampaadak: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  2. B. van Dalen; R.S. Humphreys; A.K.S Lambton, et al. “aTarikh”. [[en:Encyclopaedia of Islam|]] Online. sampaadak: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  3. Trawicky (2000) p. 232

baahari kadiyaaain