higs bosaun

ek simulet ki gayi ghatna jo higs bosaan ki utpatti ko darsha rahi hai.

higs bosaun (Higgs boson) ek mool kan hai jiski pratham parikalpana 1964 mein di gayi[1][2] aur iska praayogik satyaapan 14 March 2013 ko kiya gaya.[3] is aavishkaar ko ek 'yaadagaar'[4] kaha gaya kyonki isse higs kshetr ki pushti ho gayi.[5][6] kan bhautiki ke maanak model dvaara iske astitv ka anumaan lagaaya gaya hai. vartamaan samay tak is prakaar ke kisi bhi kan ke vidyamaan hone ki gyaan naheen hai. higs bosaun ko kano ke dravyamaan ya bhaar ke liye jimmedaar maana jaata hai. praay: ise antim moolabhoot kan maana jaata hai.[7]

anukram

naamakaran aur puraskaar

bhautik vijnyaaaniyon dvaara prayukt

is moolabhoot kan ka naam mukhyat: higs bosaun naamak kan aur higs kshetr naamak kshetr se juda hua hai.[8] kuchh samay ke liye is kan ko teen vaigyaaniko ke naam ko sanyukt karke banaaya gaya tha jo is kan se sambandhit pratham peeaarael (bhautiki patra prakaashan patrika) patra ke lekhak (Anderson sahit) hain, udaaharan ke liye broot-aangaleya-higs kan, Anderson-higs kan ya aangaleya-broot-higs-guraalanik-kibbale prakriya athva "Anderson-higs" prakriya,[9] "higs-kibbale" prakriya (abdus salaam dvaara pradat)[8] aur "ebeeijeeechaechake'teeech" (ABEGHHK'tH) prakriya [Anderson, broot, guraalanik, haigan, higs, kibbale aur ti hoof ke naam par] (Peter higs dvaara prayukt)[10]

upanaam

higs kan ko vaigyaanik samudaaya ke baahar aur media dvaara aksar "ishvareeya kan" se sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. yeh upanaam farmeelaib ke poorv nirdeshak, Nobel puraskaar vijeta Leon ledaramaan ki 1993 mein higs kan aur kan bhautiki par prakaashit pustak se vyutpann hua[11] jo unhonne suparakandakating super kolaaidar ke nirmaan ko ameriki sarkaar dvaara roke jaane ke prasang mein likha tha,[12] jiska lagbhag nirmaan ho chuka tha.[13][14] aur vah laarj haidraan kolaaidar ka pratiyogi tha evam anumaanit proton oorja 2 × 20 TeV thi.[12][15][16] aur ise 1993 mein band kar diya gaya; yeh pustak is par kataaksh karte hue likhi gayi thi.[17] is shabd ka media dvaara upayog vyaapak jaagrukta aur roochi mein yogadaan ke liye ho sakta hai,[18] lekin kain vaigyaaniko ko ye naam anuchit lagta hai,[19][20][21] kyonki ye ek sanasaneekhej atishyokti hai aur paathakon ko gumaraah karti hai,[22] is kan ka ishvar se kuchh lena dena naheen hai,[22] yeh maulik bhautiki mein kain khule savaal chhod deta hai aur brahmaand ki param utpatti ki vyaakhya naheen karta. higs, jo ek naastik hain, ne ise "ishvareeya kan kehne par ise "sharmanaak" paaya aur naakhushi jaahir karte hue ek 2008 ke saakshaatkaar mein kaha ki, "yeh iska durupayog hai" aur kaha ki, "....isse bahut log naaraaj ho sakatein hain"[22][23][24]

pehchaan evam puraskaar

  • bhautiki ka Nobel puraskaar (1979) – vaainabarg evam salaam.[25]
  • bhautiki ka Nobel puraskaar (1999) – 'ti hooft evam vetamaan[26]
  • bhautiki ka Nobel puraskaar (2008) – naamboo (saajha)[27]
  • saiddhaantik bhautiki ke liye sakuraai puraskaar (2010) – haigan, aangaleya, guraalanik, higs, broot aur kibbale[28] (1964 patra ke liye jismein yeh varnit hai.)
  • voof puraskaar (2004) – aangaleya, broot aur higs
  • bhautiki ka Nobel puraskaar (2013) - Peter higs aur fraansova aangaleya, "aparamaanvik kanon mein dravyamaan ke mool ki saiddhaantik vyaakhya karne ke liye, jiski kuchh hi samay poorv sarn ke etalas aur seeemaes prayog ne praayogik pushti kar di.[29]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Chasing the Higgs Boson". the New York times. 5 March 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/05/science/chasing-the-higgs-boson-how-2-teams-of-rivals-at-CERN-searched-for-physics-most-elusive-particle.html?_r=0. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  2. "Particle confirmed as a Higgs boson". enabeesi news. 14 March 2013. http://www.nbcnews.com/science/particle-confirmed-higgs-boson-1C8866809?franchiseSlug=sciencemain. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  3. "New results indicate that new particle is a Higgs boson [naye parinaamon iska sanket hain ki naya kan higs bosaun hai.]" (angreji mein). sarn. http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2013/03/new-results-indicate-new-particle-higgs-boson. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  4. "Higgs hysteria [higs histeeriya]" (angreji mein). saanins news. 20 July 2012. https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/deleted-scenes/higgs-hysteria. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  5. Peter oriysi (23 October 2012). "Higgs boson FAQ [higs bosaun par poochhe jaane vaale prashn]" (angreji mein). yooti etalas samooh. https://wikis.utexas.edu/display/utatlas/Higgs+boson+FAQ. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  6. maitt straasalar (12 October 2012). "The Higgs FAQ 2.0" (angreji mein). http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/the-higgs-particle/the-higgs-faq-2-0/. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  7. "Higgs Missing Report". Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. http://www-cdf.fnal.gov/physics/new/hdg/Plain_English.html. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  8. a aa Close, Frank (2011). The Infinity Puzzle: Quantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-19-959350-7.
  9. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.65.132513
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  10. Editorial (2012-03-21). "Mass appeal: As physicists close in on the Higgs boson, they should resist calls to change its name". Nature 483, 374 (7390): 374. Bibcode 2012Natur.483..374.. doi:10.1038/483374a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v483/n7390/full/483374a.html. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  11. Leon M. Lederman and Dick Teresi (1993). The God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer, What is the Question. Houghton Mifflin Company.
  12. a aa ASCHENBACH, JOY (1993-12-05). "No Resurrection in Sight for Moribund Super Collider : Science: Global financial partnerships could be the only way to salvage such a project. But some feel that Congress delivered a fatal blow". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1993-12-05/news/mn-64100_1_superconducting-super-collider. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013. "'We have to keep the momentum and optimism and start thinking about international collaboration,' said Leon M. Lederman, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist who was the architect of the super collider plan"
  13. "A Supercompetition For Illinois". Chicago Tribune. 1986-10-31. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1986-10-31/news/8603220012_1_illinois-electron-volts-high-energy. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013. "The SSC, proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1983, is a mind-bending project ... this gigantic laboratory ... this titanic project"
  14. Diaz, Jesus (2012-12-15). "This Is [The World's Largest Super Collider That Never Was"]. Gizmodo. http://gizmodo.com/5968784/this-is-worlds-largest-super-collider-that-never-was. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013. "...this titanic complex..."
  15. Abbott, Charles (June 1987). "Illinois Issues journal, June 1987". p. 18. http://www.lib.niu.edu/1987/ii8706tc.html. "Lederman, who considers himself an unofficial propagandist for the super collider, said the SSC could reverse the physics brain drain in which bright young physicists have left America to work in Europe and elsewhere." (direct link to article: [1]
  16. Kevles, Dan. "Good-bye to the SSC: On the Life and Death of the Superconducting Super Collider". California Institute of Technology: "Engineering & Science" 58 no. 2 (Winter 1995): 16–25. http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/568/1/ES58.2.1995.pdf. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013. "Lederman, one of the principal spokesmen for the SSC, was an accomplished high-energy experimentalist who had made Nobel Prize-winning contributions to the development of the Standard Model during the 1960s (although the prize itself did not come until 1988). He was a fixture at congressional hearings on the collider, an unbridled advocate of its merits []".
  17. Calder, Nigel (2005). Magic Universe:A Grand Tour of Modern Science. pp. 369–370. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780191622359. http://books.google.com/?id=E4NfZ9FDcc8C&pg=PA370&lpg=PA370#v=onepage&q=title%20of%20a%20book&f=false. "The possibility that the next big machine would create the Higgs became a carrot to dangle in front of funding agencies and politicians. A prominent American physicist, Leon lederman [sic], advertised the Higgs as The God Particle in the title of a book published in 1993 ...Lederman was involved in a campaign to persuade the US government to continue funding the Superconducting Super Collider... the ink was not dry on Lederman's book before the US Congress decided to write off the billions of dollars already spent"
  18. Alister McGrath, Higgs boson: the particle of faith, The Daily Telegraph, Published 15 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  19. Sample, Ian (29 May 2009). "Anything but the God particle". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/may/29/why-call-it-the-god-particle-higgs-boson-cern-lhc. abhigman tithi: 24 June 2009.
  20. "The Higgs boson: Why scientists hate that you call it the 'God particle'". National Post. 14 December 2011. http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/12/14/the-higgs-boson-why-scientists-hate-that-you-call-it-the-god-particle/.
  21. Sample, Ian (3 March 2009). "Father of the God particle: Portrait of Peter Higgs unveiled". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/mar/02/god-particle-peter-higgs-portrait-lhc. abhigman tithi: 24 June 2009.
  22. a aa i Chivers, Tom (2011-12-13). "How the 'God particle' got its name". The Telegraph (London). http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100123765/how-the-god-particle-got-its-name/. abhigman tithi: 2012-12-03.
  23. Key scientist sure "God particle" will be found soon Reuters news story. 7 April 2008.
  24. "Interview: the man behind the 'God particle'", New Scientist 13 September 2008, pp. 44–5 (original interview in the Guardian: Father of the 'God Particle', June 30, 2008)
  25. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979 – official Nobel Prize website.
  26. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999 – official Nobel Prize website.
  27. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 – aadhikaarik Nobel puraskaar vebasaait.
  28. American Physical Society – "J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics". http://www.aps.org/units/dpf/awards/sakurai.cfm.
  29. [2] – aadhikaarik Nobel puraskaar vebasaait.

baahari kadiyaaain